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Growth, Nutrient Uptake Efficiency and Yield of Upland Rice as Influenced by Two Compost Types in Tropical Rainforest-Derived Savannah Transition Zone  [PDF]
Oyeyemi Adigun Dada, Adeniyi Olumuyiwa Togun, James Alabi Adediran, Francis E. Nwilene
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/as.2014.55040

Cultivating traditional upland rice cultivars on nutrient depleted soil causes poor and low yield. Little attention is paid to performance of inter-specific NERICA cultivars grown on nutrient deficient soil augmented with different types of compost. Therefore, field trials were conducted during 2010 and 2011 planting seasons in Ibadan to evaluate growth, dry matter, nutrient uptake efficiency and grain yield of upland rice grown on nutrient deficient soil augmented with different types of compost. There were nine treatments comprising of three upland rice cultivars: NERICA I, NERICA II and Ofada, two compost types applied at the rate of 8 t·ha-1: poultry dropping + maize stover (PDMC) and cattle dung + maize stover (CDMC) and control. The treatments were laid out in randomized complete block design and replicated three times. CDMC enhanced growth, nutrient use efficiency, dry matter and grain yield of upland rice cultivars. Performance of Ofada was better than NERICA cultivars. N (24.55 g), P (12.45 g) and K (35.41 g) uptake concentration and grain yield (5.45 t/ha) were highest in Ofada plots augmented with CDMC. Residual effect of compost on growth, yield and nutrient uptake efficiency of upland rice on nutrient deficient soil was marginal.

Nutrient input on rocket growth and soil microbial activity in alley cropping of pigeon pea
Pimentel, Márcio Sampaio;Togun, Adeniyi Olumuyiwa;De-Polli, Helvécio;Rouws, Janaína Ribeiro Costa;Guerra, José Guilherme Marinho;
Revista Ciência Agron?mica , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1806-66902012000100014
Abstract: the effects of organic fertilization combining cattle manure and pigeon pea shoots on the culture of rocket, planted with one or two plants per hole, including soil microbial biomass carbon, soil respiration, the metabolic quotient, soil fumigation labile carbon, and the dry matter content and total n, k, p, ca and mg contents in the leaves and roots of rocket were investigated. the experimental design was randomized blocks in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment: 0 and 160 kg ha-1 n from cattle manure, 0 and 160 kg ha-1 n from pigeon pea shoots, and one or two plants per hole, with three replicates. the most significant and positive correlations were obtained between leaf k × soil respiration, microbial biomass × leaf n and root ca × metabolic quotient. the use of 160 kg ha-1 n from cattle manure along with 160 kg ha-1 n from pigeon pea shoots with two plants per hole resulted in a lower relative loss of c-co2; the same result was found for the treatment of two plants per hole fertilized with 160 kg ha-1 n from cattle manure. increased leaf and root n contents were observed in the treatment that combined two plants in each plot, fertilized with 160 kg ha-1 n from pigeon pea shoots, whereas the highest dry matter content was obtained by using one plant per hole, specifically: combining one plant per hole without fertilization; one plant per hole fertilized with 160 kg ha-1 n from pigeon pea shoots; and one plant per hole fertilized with 160 kg ha-1 n from cattle manure and pigeon pea shoots.
An assessment of the levels of phthalate esters and metals in the Muledane open dump, Thohoyandou, Limpopo Province, South Africa
Adeleke Adeniyi, Matthew Dayomi, Pitso Siebe, Olumuyiwa Okedeyi
Chemistry Central Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1752-153x-2-9
Abstract: Open dump values for the phthalate esters and metals to be generally higher in comparison to control samples for DMP, DEP, DBP and DEHP – the mean values calculated were 0.31 ± 0.12, 0.21 ± 0.05, 0.30 ± 0.07, and 0.03 ± 0.01 mg/kg, respectively, for the open dump soil samples. Nonetheless, the mean open dump values for lead, cadmium, manganese, zinc, iron and calcium were 0.07 ± 0.04, 0.003 ± 0.001, 5.02 ± 1.92, 0.31 ± 0.02, 11.62 ± 9.48 and 0.12 ± 0.13 mg/kg, respectively. The results were compared statistically.Our results revealed that the discarding of wastes into the open dump is a potential source of soil contamination in the immediate vicinity and beyond, via dispersal. Increased levels of phthalate esters and metals in the soil pose a risk to public health, plants and animals. Sustained monitoring of these contaminants is recommended, in addition to upgrading the facility to a landfill.The dumping of waste on soils has been found to increase their phthalate esters and metals concentrations [1-8]. Soil contaminants may be divided into two groups: organic contaminants, which contain carbon, and inorganic contaminants, which do not contain carbon [9]. The organic contaminants of greatest concern are industrial in origin, and include agricultural pesticides and non-pesticide compounds like phthalate esters; whereas most important inorganic contaminants are metals, originating from industrial processes [2,8,10-13].The disposal of waste poses major environmental and public health problems in cities across the world [5,14-16]. This has become a source of concern for rural and urban planners [17-21]. With increasing populations, urbanization and spatial growth in South Africa, most open dumps are now close to residential areas. The Muledane open dump in Thohoyandou is now in the heart of Muledane housing estate. Its location presents serious threats to, amongst other things, the quality of ground and surface water via contaminant leaching and runoffs [4,5,12,14,22].
Pre-biotic Effects of Sobo Drink on Colonization Resistance to Experimental Infection with Staphylococcus aureus 8588 in Rats
Anthony Olufemi Ajayi,Olumuyiwa Sunday Falade,Steve Adeniyi Adewusi
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2005,
Abstract: This study investigated the effects of the continuous consumption of Sobo on colonization resistance to experimental infection in rats. Four matched groups of male and female adult Wister rats were orally administered H. sabdariffa calyx infusion at 37.6 and 100.0 mg mL-1 concentrations while the four control groups received distilled water once daily for 15 days. All rats were challenged on day 16 with 3.0-3.5X105 viable S. aureus 8588 CFU in 0.5 mL phosphate buffer and sacrificed on day 21. Faecal samples were collected six times (days 0-21) for dry mass index, coliform and S. aureus load. Blood was analysed for S. aureus antibody and lymphocyte count. Data were subject to statistical analyses. Faecal coliform counts were significantly depressed in Sobo administered groups with increased S. aureus shedding. Lymphocyte counts were however not significantly different and S. aureus antibody was not detected in the serum of rats. Sobo seems to possess pre-biotic properties and its continuous consumption may contribute to the elevation of colonization resistance to infection in the gastrointestinal tract.
Nitrogen inputs by precipitation in the Nigerian Savanna
IF Adeniyi
West African Journal of Applied Ecology , 2006,
Abstract: Inorganic nitrogen input via direct bulk precipitation was measured, and the relation between the different nitrogen species and rainfall characteristics determined over three rainy seasons at Shagunu, a remote, sparsely populated, non-industrialized site in the northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria. Nitrogen concentration per event rain varied very widely (NH4+– N = 0 – 3738 ìg dm-3, NO3-–N = 0 – 5389 ìg dm-3) with amount-weighted mean values of 269 ìg dm-3 NH4+–N and 76 ìg dm-3 NO3-–N, and a positively skewed frequency distribution for each species. The mean annual total nitrogen deposition of 3.3 kg ha-1 (range = 2.85–3.47 kg ha-1) comprised of 79% NH4+–N and 21% NO3-–N. This is about 12% of the estimated total nitrogen input into the Nigerian grazing savanna and 25% of the estimated nitrogen loss from it through annual bush burning. Compared with the available records for West Africa the mean average input is rather low; it is similar with figures for the remote parts of the world with little or no anthropogenic contribution. All probable accounts pointed to a low nitrogen background, relatively low annual precipitation (due to a peculiar topographic effect on the study site) and the fact that rain water nitrogen was predominantly of terrestrial origin. Monographs for the estimation of NO3-–N concentrations from the amount of event rainfall through the rainy season were provided. Multiple regression equations for the estimation of nitrogen inputs in West Africa from rainfall amount, latitudinal position, and distance away from the sea were also provided.
Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Effects of Methanolic Extracts of Leaf and Seed of Tetracarpidium conophorum on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Wistar Rats  [PDF]
Nankang G. Lepzem, Rachel Adetoro Togun
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2017.108031
Abstract: Methanolic extracts of Tetracarpidium conophorum (TCME) leaf, seed or leaf + seed extract demonstrated high capacity for reversing hyperglycemia and oxidative stress comparable with the standard anti-diabetic drug, metformin, in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The leaf + seed extracts showed the best activity among the extracts and also ameliorated oxidative stress-induced damage of pancreas and liver tissue to normal state.
Relationship between Insurance and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan African: A Panel Data Analysis  [PDF]
Taiwo Akinlo, Olumuyiwa Tolulope Apanisile
Modern Economy (ME) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/me.2014.52014

This study examined the relationship between insurance and economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa over the period 1986-2011. Pooled OLS, Fixed Effect Model and Generalized Method of Moment Panel Model were employed in the estimation. The estimations of the dynamic panel-data results show that insurance has positive and significance impact on economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa. This shows that premium contributes to economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa which means that a well-developed insurance sector is necessary for the economic development, as it provides long-term investments for economic growth and simultaneously strengthening risk-taking abilities. The results also show that human capita has positive significant impact on economic growth. Openness and interest rate have negative and statistical significant on economic growth.

Live Weight Related Changes in the Sperm Production Capacity of White Fulani (Bos indicus) Cattle I: Testicular Histomorphometry
V.A. Togun
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: The study investigated live weight related changes in testicular histomorphmery of White Fulani (WF) bulls of live weight range 171-320 kg under the traditional extensive system of management in Ibadan, Nigeria. Fifty-two WF bulls were randomly selected from local Fulani herds around Ibadan and placed in Giant Star grass paddocks with water available free choice for one week prior to slaughter. Morhpometric measurements were taken on the scrotum before and on the testes immediately after slaughter. Histometric measurements were taken on the testicular parenchyma tissue after histological processes. From their weight at slaughter, the bulls were grouped into four live weight groups of 171-200, 201-230, 231-260 and 261-320 kg for group I, II, III and IV, respectively. Mean values of group IV bulls were significantly (p<0.05) higher in all scrotal and testicular morphometric measurements than all other groups, which did not differ significantly (p>0.05) from one another. The gonadal index (relative weight of testes to live weight) did not differ (p>0.05) between groups except that group IV value was significantly (p<0.05) higher than all other groups. The relative proportion of paired epididymal weight to live weight did not differ between groups, while the relative proportion of tunica albuginea to the testes weight decreased insignificantly from group I to IV. The seminiferous tubule diameter did not significantly (p>0.05) differ between groups, while the stages in the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium also appeared stable between the different live weight groups. The volume proportion of the lumen in the semiferuos epithelium was significantly higher in group I bulls than group IV bulls while none of the testicular elements differed significantly (p>0.05) between groups in volume proportions. However, absolute weights of all the testicular elements were significantly higher in the group IV bulls than all the other groups, which did not differ significantly (p>0.05) from one another. It was concluded that the live weight range 171-320 kg corresponds to a physiologically stable state in White Fulani bulls extensively managed in Ibadan, a humid tropical environment in Nigeria.
Traffic Regulation at Critical Intersections: A Case Study of Odole Intersection, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Olumuyiwa Samson Aderinola, David Oladotun Owolabi
Open Journal of Civil Engineering (OJCE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojce.2016.62009
Abstract: Traffic congestion on major roads consequent upon existing bottlenecks at intersections is a major problem in Akure Metropolis. To change this trend, this research was carried out in order to design effective traffic control mechanisms at the “troubled spots” in the metropolis. Odole intersection was identified as one of the critical intersections during a reconnaissance survey and as such, selected for study. Data on geometric features were collected using Oedometer and Google Earth software. Peak and off-peak traffic volume data were collected between 7:30 and 8:30 am and between 12.00 noon and 1.00 pm respectively every other day using Cine camera. Furthermore, discharge headway and delay data were collected using stop watch. The geometric and traffic data collected were analysed using Microsoft Excel. An appraisal of Odole Intersection indicated that the major contributors to traffic are Motorcycles (70.88%) and Passenger Cars (28.72%). Other modes of transportation account for about 0.4% of vehicles traversing the intersection. The critical traffic volume at the intersection was over 4000 veh/hr and the average delay was 22 seconds. An Average delay of 22 seconds at the intersection was an indication that the operating level of service was C (i.e. fairly stable traffic condition with average delays attributable to traffic control by personnel). By juxtaposing the results of geometric and traffic data analyses with the pros and cons of various traffic control mechanisms, traffic control by signalisation was selected and designed to suit Odole intersection. In tandem with the results of this research, appropriate measures have been recommended to ameliorate traffic and commuting problems in the metropolis.
To serve and not to count the cost: The challenge and the charge
A Adeniyi
Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice , 2006,
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