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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 11792 matches for " Adam Miklósi "
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Identification of Behaviour in Freely Moving Dogs (Canis familiaris) Using Inertial Sensors
Linda Gerencsér, Gábor Vásárhelyi, Máté Nagy, Tamas Vicsek, Adam Miklósi
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077814
Abstract: Monitoring and describing the physical movements and body postures of animals is one of the most fundamental tasks of ethology. The more precise the observations are the more sophisticated the interpretations can be about the biology of a certain individual or species. Animal-borne data loggers have recently contributed much to the collection of motion-data from individuals, however, the problem of translating these measurements to distinct behavioural categories to create an ethogram is not overcome yet. The objective of the present study was to develop a “behaviour tracker”: a system composed of a multiple sensor data-logger device (with a tri-axial accelerometer and a tri-axial gyroscope) and a supervised learning algorithm as means of automated identification of the behaviour of freely moving dogs. We collected parallel sensor measurements and video recordings of each of our subjects (Belgian Malinois, N=12; Labrador Retrievers, N=12) that were guided through a predetermined series of standard activities. Seven behavioural categories (lay, sit, stand, walk, trot, gallop, canter) were pre-defined and each video recording was tagged accordingly. Evaluation of the measurements was performed by support vector machine (SVM) classification. During the analysis we used different combinations of independent measurements for training and validation (belonging to the same or different individuals or using different training data size) to determine the robustness of the application. We reached an overall accuracy of above 90% perfect identification of all the defined seven categories of behaviour when both training and validation data belonged to the same individual, and over 80% perfect recognition rate using a generalized training data set of multiple subjects. Our results indicate that the present method provides a good model for an easily applicable, fast, automatic behaviour classification system that can be trained with arbitrary motion patterns and potentially be applied to a wide range of species and situations.
Socializing Habits of Young Hungarian People in Transylvania—Media-Psychological Analysis  [PDF]
Kinga Bakk-Miklósi
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2019.1011095
Abstract: The aim of the research was to monitor as closely as possible the active media consumption behaviors of pupils living in Mureş, Cluj, Braşov and Harghita counties, in Romania. The age range of the pupils was between the ages of 11 and 18 years old. In the school year of 2017-2018, 206 individuals participated in the study by filling out an online electronic questionnaire. Prior to this study, there was an assessment in 2012, on similar topics, and the survey conducted then and now can be compared in order to see the changes and shifts that occurred in five years, considering that the current study was conducted on a larger sample, on a larger population. This assessment was conducted from the perspective of practical media education, focusing on topics such as the possibilities inherent in using Facebook; the purpose and the language of chat and messenger; befriending on social media: the question of friendship on the web—is it actual or virtual friendship? etc. The questionnaire was adapted to the age, individual characteristics of the pupils, their media consumption habits, perceived preferences, interest, perceived and revealed risk factors. The data obtained is very valuable from my perspective as a media psychology teacher. It is very important to emphasize on the fact that our society, on the micro-level and on the wider scale, is facing multitudes of challenges regarding media consumption. These challenges require a more precise, refined and advanced theoretical and practical approach (raising awareness, prevention strategies) in media education.
Comparative Social Cognition: From wolf and dog to humans
Enik? Kubinyi,Zsófia Virányi,ádám Miklósi
Comparative Cognition & Behavior Reviews , 2007,
Abstract: Dogs’ special domestication processes, their natural socialization to humans, and the possibility of tracing evolutionary changes by comparing dogs’ behavior to that of wolves, make dogs altogether unique for studying the evolution of complex social behavior. Here the authors report some much needed comparisons between the behavior of dogs and wolves. The authors reveal some dog-specific behaviors, especially with regard to their interactions with humans, by comparing dogs and wolves hand-reared identically. This approach ensures that behavioral differences between dogs and wolves will be due to species-specific (genetic) differences, and not to differences in experience. The results indicate that social attraction, presumably synchronizing behavior, and communicative abilities of dogs changed markedly during the process of domestication. The authors suggest that this model of dog behavior has the potential to provide new insights into the evolution of human socio-cognitive behavior.
Effects of selection for cooperation and attention in dogs
Márta Gácsi, Paul McGreevy, Edina Kara, ádám Miklósi
Behavioral and Brain Functions , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1744-9081-5-31
Abstract: In Study 1, we observed the performance of three groups of dogs in utilizing the human pointing gesture in a two-way object choice test. We compared breeds selected to work while visually separated from human partners (N = 30, 21 breeds, clustered as independent worker group), with those selected to work in close cooperation and continuous visual contact with human partners (N = 30, 22 breeds, clustered as cooperative worker group), and with a group of mongrels (N = 30).Secondly, it has been reported that, in dogs, selective breeding to produce an abnormal shortening of the skull is associated with a more pronounced area centralis (location of greatest visual acuity). In Study 2, breeds with high cephalic index and more frontally placed eyes (brachycephalic breeds, N = 25, 14 breeds) were compared with breeds with low cephalic index and laterally placed eyes (dolichocephalic breeds, N = 25, 14 breeds).In Study 1, cooperative workers were significantly more successful in utilizing the human pointing gesture than both the independent workers and the mongrels.In study 2, we found that brachycephalic dogs performed significantly better than dolichocephalic breeds.After controlling for environmental factors, we have provided evidence that at least two independent phenotypic traits with certain genetic variability affect the ability of dogs to rely on human visual cues. This finding should caution researchers against making simple generalizations about the effects of domestication and on dog-wolf differences in the utilization of human visual signals.It has been suggested that the study of the domestic dog might help to explain the evolution of human communicative skills, because the dog has been selected for living in a human environment and engaging in communicative interactions with humans for more than 10,000 years [1,2]. More specifically, it was assumed that the functional similarities in the socio-cognitive behaviour of dogs and humans emerged as a consequence of c
What Are You or Who Are You? The Emergence of Social Interaction between Dog and an Unidentified Moving Object (UMO)
Anna Gergely, Eszter Petró, József Topál, ádám Miklósi
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0072727
Abstract: Robots offer new possibilities for investigating animal social behaviour. This method enhances controllability and reproducibility of experimental techniques, and it allows also the experimental separation of the effects of bodily appearance (embodiment) and behaviour. In the present study we examined dogs’ interactive behaviour in a problem solving task (in which the dog has no access to the food) with three different social partners, two of which were robots and the third a human behaving in a robot-like manner. The Mechanical UMO (Unidentified Moving Object) and the Mechanical Human differed only in their embodiment, but showed similar behaviour toward the dog. In contrast, the Social UMO was interactive, showed contingent responsiveness and goal-directed behaviour and moved along varied routes. The dogs showed shorter looking and touching duration, but increased gaze alternation toward the Mechanical Human than to the Mechanical UMO. This suggests that dogs’ interactive behaviour may have been affected by previous experience with typical humans. We found that dogs also looked longer and showed more gaze alternations between the food and the Social UMO compared to the Mechanical UMO. These results suggest that dogs form expectations about an unfamiliar moving object within a short period of time and they recognise some social aspects of UMOs’ behaviour. This is the first evidence that interactive behaviour of a robot is important for evoking dogs’ social responsiveness.
Human Analogue Safe Haven Effect of the Owner: Behavioural and Heart Rate Response to Stressful Social Stimuli in Dogs
Márta Gácsi, Katalin Maros, Sofie Sernkvist, Tamás Faragó, ádám Miklósi
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0058475
Abstract: The secure base and safe haven effects of the attachment figure are central features of the human attachment theory. Recently, conclusive evidence for human analogue attachment behaviours in dogs has been provided, however, the owner’s security-providing role in danger has not been directly supported. We investigated the relationship between the behavioural and cardiac response in dogs (N = 30) while being approached by a threatening stranger in separation vs. in the presence of the owner, presented in a balanced order. Non-invasive telemetric measures of heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) data during the threatening approaches was compared to periods before and after the encounters. Dogs that showed distress vocalisation during separation (N = 18) and that growled or barked at the stranger during the threatening approach (N = 17) were defined as behaviourally reactive in the given situation. While characteristic stress vocalisations were emitted during separations, the absence of the owner did not have an effect on dogs’ mean HR, but significantly increased the HRV. The threatening approach increased dogs’ mean HR, with a parallel decrease in the HRV, particularly in dogs that were behaviourally reactive to the encounter. Importantly, the HR increase was significantly less pronounced when dogs faced the stranger in the presence of the owner. Moreover, the test order, whether the dog encountered the stranger first with or without its owner, also proved important: HR increase associated with the encounter in separation seemed to be attenuated in dogs that faced the stranger first in the presence of their owner. We provided evidence for human analogue safe haven effect of the owner in a potentially dangerous situation. Similarly to parents of infants, owners can provide a buffer against stress in dogs, which can even reduce the effect of a subsequent encounter with the same threatening stimuli later when the owner is not present.
Dogs' Expectation about Signalers' Body Size by Virtue of Their Growls
Tamás Faragó,Péter Pongrácz,ádám Miklósi,Ludwig Huber,Zsófia Virányi,Friederike Range
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015175
Abstract: Several studies suggest that dogs, as well as primates, utilize a mental representation of the signaler after hearing its vocalization and can match this representation with other features provided by the visual modality. Recently it was found that a dogs' growl is context specific and contains information about the caller's body size. Whether dogs can use the encoded information is as yet unclear. In this experiment, we tested whether dogs can assess the size of another dog if they hear an agonistic growl paired with simultaneous video projection of two dog pictures. One of them matched the size of the growling dog, while the other one was either 30% larger or smaller. In control groups, noise, cat pictures or projections of geometric shapes (triangles) were used. The results showed that dogs look sooner and longer at the dog picture matching the size of the caller. No such preference was found with any of the control stimuli, suggesting that dogs have a mental representation of the caller when hearing its vocalization.
Explaining Dog Wolf Differences in Utilizing Human Pointing Gestures: Selection for Synergistic Shifts in the Development of Some Social Skills
Márta Gácsi, Borbála Gyo?ri, Zsófia Virányi, Enik? Kubinyi, Friederike Range, Beatrix Belényi, ádám Miklósi
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006584
Abstract: Background The comparison of human related communication skills of socialized canids may help to understand the evolution and the epigenesis of gesture comprehension in humans. To reconcile previously contradicting views on the origin of dogs' outstanding performance in utilizing human gestures, we suggest that dog-wolf differences should be studied in a more complex way. Methodology/Principal Findings We present data both on the performance and the behaviour of dogs and wolves of different ages in a two-way object choice test. Characteristic behavioural differences showed that for wolves it took longer to establish eye contact with the pointing experimenter, they struggled more with the handler, and pups also bit her more before focusing on the human's signal. The performance of similarly hand-reared 8-week-old dogs and wolves did not differ in utilizing the simpler proximal momentary pointing. However, when tested with the distal momentary pointing, 4-month-old pet dogs outperformed the same aged hand reared wolves. Thus early and intensive socialisation does not diminish differences between young dogs and wolves in behaviour and performance. Socialised adult wolves performed similarly well as dogs in this task without pretraining. The success of adult wolves was accompanied with increased willingness to cooperate. Conclusion/Significance Thus, we provide evidence for the first time that socialised adult wolves are as successful in relying on distal momentary pointing as adult pet dogs. However, the delayed emergence of utilising human distal momentary pointing in wolves shows that these wild canines react to a lesser degree to intensive socialisation in contrast to dogs, which are able to control agonistic behaviours and inhibition of actions in a food related task early in development. We suggest a “synergistic” hypothesis, claiming that positive feedback processes (both evolutionary and epigenetic) have increased the readiness of dogs to attend to humans, providing the basis for dog-human communication.
Complex Events Initiated by Individual Spikes in the Human Cerebral Cortex
Gábor Molnár,Szabolcs Oláh,Gergely Komlósi,Miklós Füle,János Szabadics,Csaba Varga,Pál Barzó,Gábor Tamás
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0060222
Abstract: Synaptic interactions between neurons of the human cerebral cortex were not directly studied to date. We recorded the first dataset, to our knowledge, on the synaptic effect of identified human pyramidal cells on various types of postsynaptic neurons and reveal complex events triggered by individual action potentials in the human neocortical network. Brain slices were prepared from nonpathological samples of cortex that had to be removed for the surgical treatment of brain areas beneath association cortices of 58 patients aged 18 to 73 y. Simultaneous triple and quadruple whole-cell patch clamp recordings were performed testing mono- and polysynaptic potentials in target neurons following a single action potential fired by layer 2/3 pyramidal cells, and the temporal structure of events and underlying mechanisms were analyzed. In addition to monosynaptic postsynaptic potentials, individual action potentials in presynaptic pyramidal cells initiated long-lasting (37 ± 17 ms) sequences of events in the network lasting an order of magnitude longer than detected previously in other species. These event series were composed of specifically alternating glutamatergic and GABAergic postsynaptic potentials and required selective spike-to-spike coupling from pyramidal cells to GABAergic interneurons producing concomitant inhibitory as well as excitatory feed-forward action of GABA. Single action potentials of human neurons are sufficient to recruit Hebbian-like neuronal assemblies that are proposed to participate in cognitive processes.
Polymorphism in the Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH) Gene Is Associated with Activity-Impulsivity in German Shepherd Dogs
Enik? Kubinyi,Judit Vas,Krisztina Hejjas,Zsolt Ronai,Ildikó Brúder,Borbála Turcsán,Maria Sasvari-Szekely,ádám Miklósi
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0030271
Abstract: We investigated the association between repeat polymorphism in intron 4 of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene and two personality traits, activity-impulsivity and inattention, in German Shepherd Dogs. The behaviour of 104 dogs was characterized by two instruments: (1) the previously validated Dog-Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale (Dog-ADHD RS) filled in by the dog owners and (2) the newly developed Activity-impulsivity Behavioural Scale (AIBS) containing four subtests, scored by the experimenters. Internal consistency, inter-observer reliability, test-retest reliability and convergent validity were demonstrated for AIBS.
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