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Introduction: The consequences of unsafe sex are suffered mostly by adolescent girls in Nigeria despite efforts to improve accessibility to the reproductive and sexual health of this group. This study elucidates the pattern of contraceptive use, the key socio-demographic factors, sexual beliefs and practices associated with its use amongst adolescent girls in Nnewi, Nigeria. Methods: It was a descriptive cross-sectional comparative study of in-school and out-of-school female adolescents. Data were collected using questionnaires and Focus Group Discussion (FGD), then analyzed by selecting socio-demographic and other variables to assess their interaction with contraceptive use and result compared between the two groups. Data were presented in tables and charts and multivariate and chi-square analyses were performed. Result: Higher proportion of sexually active out-of-school girls than their in-school counterparts had ever used contraception—used it in their first and last sexual exposures, while condom was the commonest contraceptive employed by both groups. Age (older adolescents; F = 0.041), belief in condom use (P = 0.05), willingness to get condom for partner (P = 0.001) and regular sexual practice (P = 0.003) were the most important predictors of contraceptive use among the sexually active adolescents. Generally, the out-of-school girls are more likely to use contraceptives than their in-school counterparts. Some misconceptions about pregnancy prevention and unscientific contraceptive methods were mentioned by the subjects during the FGD. Recommendation: Access to reproductive health services needs to be improved especially among the in-school female adolescents. There is need to incorporate the right contraceptive information in the school curriculum, and the out-of-school adolescents should receive periodic dissemination of appropriate Behavior Change Communication (BCC) on the relevance of contraception.