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Pattern, Types and Predictors of Contraception among Female In-School and Out-of-School Adolescents in Onitsha, Anambra State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Prosper Adogu, Ifeoma Udigwe, Gerald Udigwe, Achunam Nwabueze, Chika Onwasigwe
Advances in Sexual Medicine (ASM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/asm.2014.43007

Introduction: The consequences of unsafe sex are suffered mostly by adolescent girls in Nigeria despite efforts to improve accessibility to the reproductive and sexual health of this group. This study elucidates the pattern of contraceptive use, the key socio-demographic factors, sexual beliefs and practices associated with its use amongst adolescent girls in Nnewi, Nigeria. Methods: It was a descriptive cross-sectional comparative study of in-school and out-of-school female adolescents. Data were collected using questionnaires and Focus Group Discussion (FGD), then analyzed by selecting socio-demographic and other variables to assess their interaction with contraceptive use and result compared between the two groups. Data were presented in tables and charts and multivariate and chi-square analyses were performed. Result: Higher proportion of sexually active out-of-school girls than their in-school counterparts had ever used contraception—used it in their first and last sexual exposures, while condom was the commonest contraceptive employed by both groups. Age (older adolescents; F = 0.041), belief in condom use (P = 0.05), willingness to get condom for partner (P = 0.001) and regular sexual practice (P = 0.003) were the most important predictors of contraceptive use among the sexually active adolescents. Generally, the out-of-school girls are more likely to use contraceptives than their in-school counterparts. Some misconceptions about pregnancy prevention and unscientific contraceptive methods were mentioned by the subjects during the FGD. Recommendation: Access to reproductive health services needs to be improved especially among the in-school female adolescents. There is need to incorporate the right contraceptive information in the school curriculum, and the out-of-school adolescents should receive periodic dissemination of appropriate Behavior Change Communication (BCC) on the relevance of contraception.


Factors Influencing Sexual Behavior among Female Adolescents in Onitsha, Nigeria  [PDF]
Ifeoma Bridget Udigwe, Prosper Obunikem Adogu, Achunam Simeon Nwabueze, Echendu Dolly Adinma, Chika Florence Ubajaka, Chika Onwasigwe
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2014.416139
Abstract: Background: The sexual health indices of the adolescents are very poor. This study ascertained the factors influencing the sexual behaviour among female adolescents in Onitsha, Anambra state, Nigeria. Method: This was a cross sectional design in which a total of 800 female adolescents were selected from secondary schools in the area using multistage sampling method; and also selected from a major market (for those who were not at school) in the same geographical area using cluster sampling technique. Data were collected from the respondents about socio-demographic profile, reproductive and sexual health knowledge, attitude, behavior, sources of sexual health information. Result: The highest proportion of students who had ever had sex was found among the 16 - 17 years age group while the modal age group was 18 - 19 years for non students. Also “not living with both parents” and poor family background, were markedly associated with increased likelihood to engage in sexual activity. Poverty level was particularly high among the non-student adolescents. Furthermore, wrong knowledge of fertile period, low risk perception of HIV and premarital, and use of condoms among the respondents were all significantly associated with increased chance to engage in sex. The student adolescents got sexuality information mainly from the teachers; as opposed to their non-student counterparts who had youth organization and friends as main sources. Conclusion: Family values, poverty alleviation, change of attitude through appropriate health and sexuality education especially targeting the non-student adolescents are highly recommended. Sexual negotiation skill, accessible formal education for all should be encouraged to create the right sexual behavior among the adolescent girls.
Perception of Sexually Transmitted Infection-Preventive Measures among Senior Secondary School Students in Nnewi-North Local Government Area, Anambra State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Simeon Achunam Nwabueze, Emmanuel Chukwunonye Azuike, Chijioke Amara Ezenyeaku, Clifford Chidiebere Aniagboso, Ebele Dabeluchukwu Azuike, Ifeoma Chisom Iloghalu, Charles Chukwudalu Ebulue, Uzoamaka Ugochinyere Epundu, Obinna Francis Nwone
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2014.49080
Abstract: Background: Sexually transmitted infections-preventive measures are effective methods employed in the prevention of sexually transmitted infections [STIs]. Sexually transmitted infections are among the most common infections in the world and therefore a major public health problem as they cause devastating long term consequences if untreated, especially in adolescents. Sexually transmitted infection-preventive measures, if correctly and consistently used, have been proven to be efficacious. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out among SS2 and SS3 students in Nnewi North Local Government Area of Anambra state, Nigeria. A structured, self administered questionnaire was administered to consenting senior secondary students to gather relevant information about socio-demogaraphic characteristics, knowledge about STIs, sexual behaviours. Three hundred and thirty four students participated in the study. Multi stage sampling technique was used. SPSS version 20 was used to analyze the data. Results were represented in tables and graphs. Results: Three hundred and thirty four students participated in the study, of which females and males are 167 each. 89% understood the meaning of STI. The majority of the respondents got the knowledge from TV/radio (34.4%), teachers (28.1%) and mother (27.0%). The majority of respondents knew that HIV/AIDS (89.8%), syphilis (58.1%) and Gonorrhoea (56.9%) were STIs. Good numbers of respondents knew the symptoms of STIs and risk factors of STI with unprotected sex and multiple sexual partners (57.5%) and (42.2%) respectively, as the highest risk factors. About 75.7% of respondents knew that HIV/AIDS cannot be cured. The Majority knew that avoiding sexual intercourse, being faithful to one partner and use of condom are preventive measures respectively. The majority of respondents (71%) felt they cannot be infected with an STI. 92.8% believed that STIs can be prevented. Age range for first sexual intercourse was 13 - 18 years for females and 8 - 19 years for males. Of the 86 that have had sexual intercourse, 48.8% had experienced one or more of the symptoms of STIs and the majority (80.9%) went to a hospital for treatment. Males (31.4%) are more likely to have multiple sexual partners than females (4.7%). Conclusion: The majority of the students had an objective knowledge on STIs transmission and prevention. Their overall attitude was positive but their practices were not satisfactory, especially for the males. Females were more careful and health conscious than their male counterpart.
Floristic Composition and Diversity of Freshwater Swamp Forests in the Niger Basin of Nigeria  [PDF]
Nwabueze I. Igu, Robert Marchant
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2018.84035
Abstract: Freshwater swamp forests are wetland ecosystems with poorly understood ecology. With increasing degradation across the Niger basin (where it is the most extensive across West Africa), it is deemed important to understand its distribution, patterns and composition. This is aimed at both increasing botanical inventories in the ecosystem and also elucidate vital steps that could guide its effective conservation. This study assessed the floristic composition and diversity across 16 one hectare forest plots and sought to show how varied the sites were in terms of diversity, stem density and basal area. The survey showed that the area had 116 species within 82 genera and 36 families. The number of species found in each of the disturbed sites was generally higher than the intact forest sites, which was not diverse but comprised many trees with higher basal area. While the stem density which ranged from 94 - 409 stems·ha-1 is comparable with that of other tropical forests, species richness was low (ranging from 8.65 - 0.52). Diversity ranged from 3.38 - 0.98 and was higher in disturbed sites than in intact locations. Species richness was generally low and implies that loss of species in the ecosystem could threaten species’ existence and conservation in the ecosystem. Disturbed locations had more species than the intact zones and as such show the importance of targeted conservation not only in the undisturbed locations but also in the disturbed locations with a higher species value and potential for species stability of the ecosystem.
A Comparison of Higher-Order Active Band-Pass R-Filter Response with Equivalent Band-Pass RC-Filter Response at Varying Q-Factors  [PDF]
Alexander Nwabueze Amah, Iorkyaa Ahemen, Bernard Atsuwe
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2014.510025
Abstract: In this paper a comparison of a sixth-order active band pass R-filter output response with the output response of a sixth-order band pass RC-filter at different quality factors (Q = 2, 5, 7, 8 and 10) was carried out at a fixed frequency of 10 KHz. The architecture used in the design is the multiple feedbacks for both filter networks. The simulated response characteristics show that both filters (R- and RC-filters) have their mid-band gains increasing with Q, while their bandwidths monotonically decreased with Q-values. The bandwidths are in the range of 22.23 dB to 62.97 dB and 55.49 dB to 50.81 dB (Q = 2 to 10) for R- and RC-filters respectively. At higher Q-values, R-filter showed better selectivity with a smaller bandwidth (400 Hz) at the edge of the pass band, when compared to 450 Hz for the RC-filter. The roll-off rate around 58.9 dB/decade for the R-filter appears to be that of a third-order filter response, while the RC-filter has its response in the range 106 to 132 dB/decade which is in the neighbourhood of an ideal sixth-order response (roll-off of 120 db/decade). A shift in the center frequency with Q was observed for the RC-filter only.
Levels of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and some Heavy Metals in Tissues of Tympanotonus fuscatus periwinkles from Warri river of Niger Delta Area of Nigeria
AA Nwabueze, EO Nwabueze, CN Okonkwo
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management , 2010,
Abstract: The levels of petroleum hydrocarbons and some heavy metals in the tissues of Tympanotomus fuscatus periwinkle from Warri River of Niger Delta area were investigated. Six hundred samples of periwinkles collected fortnightly for a period of six months from three stations (Jala. Ubeji and Suoroagbene-control) along Warri River were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry for the determination of heavy metals. The mean levels of total hydrocarbon varied from 0.0045mg/g to 0.093 mg/g and mean lead (Pb) levels varied from 0.0023 ppm to 0.046 ppm. Mercury (Hg) and Cadmium (Cd) were below the instrument detection limit of <0.001 ppm in all three stations. The levels of total hydrocarbon at Jala and Ubeji were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than at Suoroagbene, the control station. The level of lead at Suoroagbene was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than at Jala and Ubeji. The higher levels of total hydrocarbon and lead in tissues of periwinkles from Jala and Ubeji were attributed to more industrial activities and close proximity of the stations to the major road where emission from automobiles abound more than Suoroagbene, which is purely a residential area. This study demonstrated the evidence of bioaccumulations of total hydrocarbons and lead but levels were below the recommended tolerable levels and also lower than levels reported previously in periwinkle tissues by some authors in same river. This implies that periwinkles from Warri River are safer now than before as a food source for consumers who delight in this delicacy. However, constant monitoring of water bodies receiving effluents is emphasized in order to forestall cumulative effects of pollutants which may lead to sub-lethal consequences in the aquatic fauna and clinical poisoning to man.
The Problems of Fresh Fish Marketing in Oshimili South Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria
Nwabueze, A. A.,Nwabueze, E. O.
International Journal of Economic Development Research and Investment , 2011,
Abstract: The problems of fresh fish marketing in Oshimili South Local Government Area of Delta State were examined. Primary Data were collected within a 12 months period via interview instruments - questionnaire and observations. 144 copies of questionnaire were randomly distributed to 2 wholesalers and 10 retailers from 3 identified markets with evidence of fish marketing activities in the four major towns in the study area. Reports from 126 respondents who returned their questionnaire show that cultured fish ponds are the most regular and reliable source of fresh fish in the area, though rivers/stream provided more fishes but supply was irregular and not reliable. Fresh fish was observed to be significantly more abundant in the dry season than in the rainy season. Results also show that seasonality, scarcity, means of preservation, poor means of transportation and the use of badly-shaped containers are the main problems of fresh fish marketing in the Local Government Area. The paper recommends the creation of enabling environment to encourage more people to go into aquaculture in order to beat the problem of seasonality in fish supply. Also, fish smokers should use cheaper alternative fuel for smoking unsold fish.
Tradomodern Media Imperatives for Checking Modern Slavery in Africa: A Critical Appraisal
C Nwabueze, C Ugwonno
African Research Review , 2010,
Abstract: Slavery exists in modern forms in the contemporary society. Such activities as human trafficking for prostitution or forced labour are rampant in the society today. Communication is crucial to the creation of awareness against any form of vice in the society, including modern slavery. This paper examines the critical role of trado-modern communication media in achieving communication objectives targeted at modern slavery in contemporary society. It adopts the analytical approach in discussing how the interface between traditional and modern communication channels could be harnessed to check the alarming trend of modern slavery in contemporary society. It recommends among others, that change agents and anti-slavery crusaders should acquaint themselves with the workings/operations of the trado-modern media with a view of successfully adopting this multi-media approach in achieving set objectives.
Effect of supplementation of African breadfruit (Treculia africana) hulls with organic wastes on growth characteristics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae
TU Nwabueze, U Otunwa
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2006,
Abstract: African breadfruit (Treculia africana) hulls were supplemented at different levels with other organic food processing wastes (orange, plantain, cassava and soybean). Optimum supplementation of 40:60 (breadfruit hulls to each waste) was obtained. Proximate and mineral composition of the unsupplemented and the supplemented waste were determined. A synthetic medium with chemical nutrients was prepared. The growth performance and other fermenting parameters were monitored on test strain (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) incubated at predetermined pH (3.8) and temperature (27°C) conditions. Supplementation increased crude protein (4.38 – 8.31 g/100 g) and mineral content (Na, K and P) in the waste, and sugar concentration (4.44 – 4.56 g/l), sugar conversion efficiency (28.39 –31.56%), biomass yield (11.0 – 30.1 g/l) and single cell protein (28.98- 34.26 g/100g) in the hydrolysate. Supplementation of the African breadfruit hulls with organic wastes was an improvement over the unsupplemented breadfruit medium and could promote use in the animal feed industry
Complex Formation Between Iron(III) and Isonicotinohydroxamic Acid and Its Microbial Studies
AO Aliyu, JN Nwabueze
Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: Complex of Fe(III) with isonicotinohydroxamic acid (INHA) has been investigated by using spectrophotometric method. Fe(III) in aqueous solution revealed the sole formation of the 1:3 complexes at equilibrium. The spectra and magnetic studies of the isolated complex indicated octahedral coordination. The bonding mode proposed for the Fe(III) hydroxamate complex is N-bonding mode.The complex is biologically active against Staphyloccus.aureus, Escherichia-coli, Salmonella-typhyllium, Klebsiella ,α-heamolytic Streptocococcus, Pseudomonias, Corrynebacterium and Neisseria. KEYWORDS: Hydroxamic acid, Fe(III) complex, N-bonding mode, microorganism and octahedral coordination.
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