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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 18845 matches for " Access to Care "
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Availability and accessibility of diabetes clinics on Trinidad: An analysis using proximity tools in a GIS environment  [PDF]
Patricia Boda
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.511A2006

Non-communicable diseases (NCDs), account for a growing number of deaths worldwide. The English-speaking Caribbean has the highest per capita burden of NCDs in the region of the Americas [1]. This paper presents an overview of availability and accessibility based on clinic hours and physician fulltime equivalents (FTE) on the island of Trinidad devoted to diabetes and wound care. The project integrates a Geographic Information System (GIS) with epidemiologic and bio-statistical data to provide a necessary spatial analysis not otherwise possible. It examines the island’s ability to effectively deliver treatment to residents with diabetes by providing a geographic perspective to data published on the internet by the Trinidad-Tobago Ministry of Health and the Central Statistical Office. Results indicate a significant regional variability in both numbers of physicians and office hours devoted to diabetes treatment.

Healthcare access and the patterns of maternal health care utilization among poor and non-poor women living in urban areas in Portugal  [PDF]
Isabel Craveiro, Paulo Ferrinho, Bruno de Sousa, Luzia Gon?alves
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.512265

Introduction: Studies on attitudes and practices are increasingly used but not specifically related to the motivations for the use of reproductive health care among women of fertile age, living in urban areas and in different social contexts. Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the associations between the variables of social status (degree of poverty in the studied groups) and the variables of fecundity (representations, tensions, practices and control of fertility) and, in addition, to compare access to health care in the different studied groups, assessing the association between use of maternal health care and poverty in urban areas. Design: A case-control study was conducted in the Municipality of Lisbon, Portugal, with a total sample of 1513 women of fertile age: 499 cases of women considered very poor were selected from the database of beneficiaries of RSI (Social Welfare Payment for Inclusion); 1014 controls (two controls for each selected case), divided as 507 poor women selected from the other beneficiaries of Santa Casa da Misericórdia in Lisbon and 507 non-poor women selected from four Health Centers from the Municipality of Lisbon, Portugal. A total of 1054 women answered the questionnaire: 304 cases (response rate of 61%) and 750 (response rate of 74%) controls. The statistical analysis involved descriptive analysis and multinomial logistic regression. Results: The analysis confirms the association between poverty and patterns and representations of fecun

dity regarding pregnancy planning. The results of this study thus show the existence of different distributions on several variables and the gradients of poverty. Regarding access to health care, the major impact of poverty on women

State Scholarship and Loan Forgiveness Programs in the United States: Forgotten Driver of Access to Health Care in Underserved Areas  [PDF]
Karen W. Geletko, Robert G. Brooks, Andrew Hunt, Leslie M. Beitsch
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.615234
Abstract: State-supported programs providing loans and scholarships in exchange for service in under-served areas provide an important source of financial support for medical students while encouraging them to select careers in primary care. The purpose of this research was to seek a better understanding of these often unheralded but important state sources of support, and learn if they have continued to grow in the twenty-first century. Administrative data were obtained on state-supported programs operating in 2008 that provided financial support to students, resident or practicing physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, certified nurse midwives, dentists, and licensed mental healthcare providers in exchange for service in an underserved area. The authors identified numbers, types of state-supported programs, program workforce strength, and features of state programs. In 2008, 75 state programs, operating in 37 states, collectively had 5113 program participants under contract. Loan repayment programs (n = 42, 56%) were the most common type of state-supported programs. Practitioners signed initial contracts in 2008 totaled 1173, with more non-physicians (n = 681, 58%) signing initial contracts than physicians (n = 492, 42%). Additionally, 2803 practitioners were serving in programs in 2008. Field placement was also slightly greater among non-physicians in 2008 (n = 1433, 51%) than physicians (n = 1370, 49%). State support-for-service programs remains an important source of financial assistance for those willing to make service commitments in underserved areas. Moreover, these programs continue to increase in size, even amidst the economic malaise, and provide an obligated primary care workforce in underserved areas.
Access to Expert Stroke Care with Telemedicine: REACH MUSC
Abby Swanson Kazley,Edward Jauch,Robert J. Adams
Frontiers in Neurology , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fneur.2012.00044
Abstract: Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability, and recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) can significantly reduce the long-term impact of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) if given within 3 h of symptom onset. South Carolina is located in the “stroke belt” and has a high rate of stroke and stroke mortality. Many small rural SC hospitals do not maintain the expertise needed to treat AIS patients with rtPA. MUSC is an academic medical center using REACH MUSC telemedicine to deliver stroke care to 15 hospitals in the state, increasing the likelihood of timely treatment with rtPA. The purpose of this study is to determine the increase in access to rtPA through the use of telemedicine for AIS in the general population and in specific segments of the population based on age, gender, race, ethnicity, education, urban/rural residence, poverty, and stroke mortality. We used a retrospective cross-sectional design examining Census data from 2000 and geographic information systems analysis to identify South Carolina residents that live within 30 or 60 min of a primary stroke center (PSC) or a REACH MUSC site. We include all South Carolina citizens in our analysis and specifically examine the population’s age, gender, race, ethnicity, education, urban/rural residence, poverty, and stroke mortality. Our sample includes 4,012,012 South Carolinians. The main measure is access to expert stroke care at a PSC or a REACH MUSC hospital within 30 or 60 min. We find that without REACH MUSC, only 38% of the population has potential access to expert stroke care in SC within 60 min given that most PSCs will maintain expert stroke coverage. REACH MUSC allows 76% of the population to be within 60 min of expert stroke care, and 43% of the population to be within 30 min drive time of expert stroke care. These increases in access are especially significant for groups that have faced disparities in care and high rates of AIS. The use of telemedicine can greatly increase access to care for residents throughout South Carolina.
Equity of access to long-term care among the Korean elderly  [PDF]
Ju Moon Park
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.510221

The aim of the current study is to examine the extent to which equity in the utilization of longterm care services has been achieved in the Republic of Korea (hereafter Korea), based on the Aday—Andersen Access Framework that takes into consideration a series of variables hypothesized as predictive of utilization. The current study used cross-sectional survey data collected and conducted by the Korea Labor Institute (KLI) between August 1 to December 22, 2006. The sample for this study was 5544 persons who are older than 60 years. The study was extracted from a larger nationally representative cross-sectional survey of 10,255 individuals. The stratified cluster sampling technique was used to draw the survey respondents. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data from the sample. Descriptive and logistic regression analysis was performed examining the relationship between the dependent variable and the independent variables and the relative importance of factors. The results indicate that a universal health insurance system has not yielded a fully equitable distribution of services. The limitation of benefit coverage as well as disparities in consumer cost-sharing and associated patterns of utilization across plans high out-of-pocket payment can be a barrier to health care utilization, which results in inequity and differential long-term care utilization between sub-groups of older adults. Health policy reforms in Korea must continue to concentrate on expanding insurance coverage, reducing the inequities reflected in disparities in consumer cost-sharing and associated patterns of utilization across plans, and establishing a financially separate insurance system for poor older adults. The behavioral responses of physicians to the method of reimbursement, and the subsequent impact on overall rates of utilization and expenditures need to be more fully understood. In addition, further research is needed to identify the nonfinancial barriers that persist for certain demographic subgroups, i.e., those 70 and older, men, lacking social network members, those who have four or more family members, and those who have no schooling.

Family caregivers of demented elderly people and access to medical care: Who gets worn out, why and what for?  [PDF]
Cyril Hazif-Thomas, Marie-Hélène Tritschler-LeMa?tre, Philippe Thomas
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2013.32023

Demented persons in the process of slowly becoming dependent have to rely on the assistance of others. These others are health professionals (formal care), on the one hand and family carers (informal care) on the other hand. The latter, whether or not they have chosen to play a role which is hardly defined officially, have to face many difficult situations such as complicated access to care due to lack of equal opportunities under the health system, unable to support them efficiently. Taking care of a demented patient is a life challenge often leading to burn out, having impact on physical and mental health. Caregivers may thus even have no time or opportunity to take care of their own health. So, is it not high time for the decision-makers to think it over and take care of the carers by setting up programs and giving them the opportunity to learn, to work as a team with the professionals so as to protect themselves and their dignity as well as that of their patients. The difficulties/problems carers of demented patients may encounter should be a major issue for public health care because their role is a vital one and because the consequences which may have on their own health can be negative.

The challenge of combatting non-communicable diseases in Trinidad: Access to hospital care  [PDF]
Patricia J. Boda
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.511A2003
Abstract: Chronic illnesses, or non-communicable diseases (NCDs), account for a growing number of deaths worldwide. The English-speaking Caribbean has the highest per capita burden of NCDs in the region of the Americas [1]. This paper presents an overview of hospital availability on the island of Trinidad in the West Indies and examines rates of NCDs as reported in hospital discharge summaries. The project integrates a Geographic Information System (GIS) with epidemiologic and bio-statistical data to provide essential spatial analysis not otherwise possible. It examines the island’s ability to effectively deliver treatment to residents with NCDs by providing a geographic perspective to public data published on the internet by the Trinidad-Tobago Ministry of Health and the Central Statistical Office. The study reveals a significant variability in several dimensions of access to health care.
Access to Child Health Care, Medical Treatment of Sick Children and Childhood Mortality Relationships in Kenya  [PDF]
Boniface Omuga K’Oyugi
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.611142
Abstract: Child health care factors such as medical treatment of sick children have direct and indirect effect on childhood mortality. Through international cooperation, a number of countries including Kenya have gathered information on provision of child health services at facility level from periodic Service Provision Assessment (SPA) surveys. Kenya has also gathered information on medical treatment of sick children at household level from periodic Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). However, establishing how health care information in the SPA surveys relates to childhood mortality and also how these factors relate to medical treatment of sick children in the DHS has been constrained by differences in sample designs of the surveys. This study deployed a fstrategy of constructing community level variables derived from the SPA survey data and incorporated them into DHS data which served as the main data source. The SPA and DHS sampling designs for Kenya allow computation of stable estimates of regional demographic and health service indicators at provincial level. This study analyzed information gathered from 690 health facilities in 2010 SPA and 6079 births born less than 60 months from 2008/09 DHS. The study found that access to child health services, waiting time before service in facility and time to the nearest referral facility were significant facilitating factors for medical treatment of sick children. The study also established that waiting time before service in facility was the only access to health care factor which had a significant effect on childhood mortality when HIV prevalence was excluded in the analysis. However, the significance of waiting time before service diminished with inclusion of HIV prevalence. Further research is required to refine definition and measurement for child health care variable on female autonomy.
The effect of self-employment on health, access to care, and health behavior  [PDF]
Jangho Yoon, Stephanie L. Bernell
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.512289

The focus of this paper is to investigate the role self-employment conceptualized as a lifestyle factor on health, access to health care, and health behaviors. We analyze rich data on 13,435 working adults in the US, who are either selfemployed or salaried workers. Outcomes include physical and mental health perception, validated indexes of physical and mental health, and medical conditions; access-to-care measures such as a barrier to obtaining necessary health care; and health behaviors such as smoking, physical activity and body mass index. Instrumental variables methods are used to correct for selection into self-employment. We find that self-employment is positively associated with perceived physical health, and is negatively associated with having diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol and arthritis. No mental health outcome is significantly associated with self-employment. There is no significant difference between self-employed and wage-earning individuals with regard to access to care. Self-employed individuals are less likely to smoke, and are more likely to participate in physical activity and have normal-weight. We conclude that despite lack of health insurance, self-employed persons in the US are as healthy as wage-earners, do not experience a greater barrier to access to care, and are more likely to engage in healthy behavior.

Dimensions of Access to Antihypertensive Medications in Ceilandia, Distrito Federal, Brazil  [PDF]
Fabiana Xavier Cartaxo Salgado, Dayani Galato, Gislane Ferreira de Melo, Marileusa Dosolina Chiarello, Aline Gomes de Oliveira, Letícia Farias Gerlack, Micheline Marie Milward de Azevedo Meiners, Marg? Gomes de Oliveira Karnikowski
Health (Health) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/health.2015.711165
Abstract: Access can be understood as the sum of a number of elements of the interface between patients and the health care system. This study took a comprehensive approach to the dimensions of access to medications, employing indicators to evaluate the dimensions of access to antihypertensive medications in Ceilandia, DF, Brazil. This was a cross-sectional epidemiological study, administering questionnaires during home visits. The survey covered epidemiological and socioeconomic profiles, behavioral habits and the dimensions of access to antihypertensive medications comprising physical, financial, and geographic availability and accept ability according to the hypertensive population of Ceilandia. The total sample comprised 400 individuals and the hypertensive subset numbered 140 (35%). Indicators of physical availability of medications revealed that users found it difficult to acquire their drugs on almost one third of occasions and in some cases were unable to access any of these products. The greatest barriers to access were reported by users of pharmacies belonging to the Brazilian National Health Service (SUS) and on the “People’s Pharmacies” network. More than one third of the hypertensive sample spent their own money on medications they could not find at these pharmacies. The majority of the hypertensive subsets were overweight/obese, a minority engaged in physical activity and 40% were smokers/ex-smokers. More women reduced their salt intake. Men had higher incomes, educational level, and socioeconomic status. Failure to keep the public health care system supplied has prejudiced access to essential medications for hypertension treatment, transferring the costs onto users. This population has lifestyle habits that increase the risk of exacerbation of hypertension. These results reveal a need for effective public policies to ensure access to antihypertensive medications and involve users of the health care system in changing their habits and behaviors in order to achieve adequate and lasting control of systemic arterial hypertension.
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