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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 964 matches for " Abubakar Umar "
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Existence and Linear Stability of Equilibrium Points in the Robe’s Restricted Three-Body Problem with Oblateness
Jagadish Singh,Abubakar Umar Sandah
Advances in Mathematical Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/679063
Abstract: This paper investigates the positions and linear stability of an infinitesimal body around the equilibrium points in the framework of the Robe’s circular restricted three-body problem, with assumptions that the hydrostatic equilibrium figure of the first primary is an oblate spheroid and the second primary is an oblate body as well. It is found that equilibrium point exists near the centre of the first primary. Further, there can be one more equilibrium point on the line joining the centers of both primaries. Points on the circle within the first primary are also equilibrium points under certain conditions and the existence of two out-of-plane points is also observed. The linear stability of this configuration is examined and it is found that points near the center of the first primary are conditionally stable, while the circular and out of plane equilibrium points are unstable. 1. Introduction Robe [1] considered a new kind of restricted three-body problem in which, one of the primaries of mass is a rigid spherical shell, filled with homogenous, incompressible fluid of density ; the second one is a point mass located outside the shell and moving around the mass in a Keplerian orbit; the infinitesimal mass is a small sphere of density , moving inside the shell and is subject to the attraction of and the buoyancy force due to the fluid of the first primary. Further, he discussed the linear stability of an equilibrium point obtained in two cases. In the first case, the orbit of around is circular and in the second case, the orbit is elliptic, but the shell is empty (there is no fluid inside it) or densities of and are equal. Since then various studies (e.g., [2–4]) under different assumptions have been carried out. In his study, Robe [1] assumed that the pressure field of the fluid has a spherical symmetry around the center of the shell and he took into account only one out of the three components of the pressure field which is due to the own gravitational field of the fluid . He did not consider the other two components arising from the attraction of and the centrifugal force. Taking care of all these three components of the pressure field, A. R. Plastino and A. Plastino [5] reanalyzed the Robe’s. But in their study, they assumed the hydrostatic equilibrium figure of the first primary as Roche’s ellipsoid (see Figure 1). They found that when the density parameter is taken as zero, every point inside the fluid is an equilibrium point; otherwise the center of the ellipsoid is the only equilibrium point and it is linearly stable. Figure 1: The Robe’s CRTBP
Assessment of Factors Influencing Beneficiary Participation in Fadama II Project in Niger State, Nigeria
HU Muhammad, BF Umar, BZ Abubakar, AS Abdullahi
Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The paper investigated factors influencing beneficiary participation in Fadama II project in Niger State. Three LGAs out of eleven LGAs that benefited in Fadama II project were randomly selected for the study. To this end, one Fadama Community Association (FCA) and five Fadama User Groups (FUGs) were randomly selected from each LGA that benefited. Five beneficiaries were also randomly sampled from each FUG. Seventy five (75) beneficiaries were randomly sampled for the study. Descriptive statistics and logit regression model were used to analyze the data collected. However, large proportion of the beneficiaries participated in problem identification (69.3%) and project implementation (80%) in the stages of project development. Women participation in Fadama II project was identified to be low (28.0%). Meanwhile, educational level and membership of cooperative society significantly influenced participation (P < 0.01). Household size was a positive factor that significantly influenced participation (P < 0.05) in Fadama II project in the study area.
Anaerobic digestion of cow dung for biogas production
Baba Shehu Umar Ibn Abubakar,Nasir Ismail
Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The effectiveness of cow dung for biogas production was investigated, using a laboratory scale 10L bioreactor working in batch and semi-continuous mode at 53oC. Anaerobic digestion seemed feasible with an organic loading of up to 1.7 kg volatile solids (VS)/L d and an HRT of 10 days during the semi-continuous operation. The averaged cumulative biogas yield and methane content observed was 0.15 L/kg VS added and 47 % respectively. The TS, VS and COD removals amounted to 49%, 47% and 48.5%, respectively. The results of the VS/TS ratio showed very small variation, which denote adequate mixing performance. However there was some evidence of ammonia inhibition probably due to the uncontrolled pH employed. The data obtained establish that cow dung is an effective feedstock for biogas production achieving high cumulative biogas yield with stable performance. The future work will be carried out to study the effect of varying organic loading rate on anaerobic digestion of cow dung in a semi-continuous mode.
Yakasai IA, Umar U, Ibrahim SA, Abubakar IS
Academic Research International , 2012,
Abstract: Antenatal clinics perform routine serological tests for syphilis as a screening procedure. Syphilis is still a serious but treatable disease with maternal and fetal complications. There are two categories of serological tests for syphilis, the cardiolopin; venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) test and the specific tests treponema Pallidum haemagglutination (TPHA) test. Pregnancy is a recognised cause of false-positive VDRL test result. The aim of the study was todetermine the seroprevalence and cost-effectiveness of antenatal syphilis screening at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH), Kano, Nigeria. The method includes a retrospective analysis of venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) test results among pregnant women in AKTH during a 4 year period (January 2007-December 2010) was undertaken. The resulst include: a) fourteen –thousand, eight hundred and seventy-one pregnant women were screened for syphilis, using VDRL test; 95women were positive. Only eighty- two (82) folders were retrieved and analyzed given a seroprevalence rate of 0.55%.The peak age specific incidence was in the 20-24 years age group, b) the median gestational age at booking was 22 weeks, c) the cost of VDRL testper patient in AKTH is $2.5. To detect the 95 seropositive cases the sum of $38,106 was spent. It was concluded that the seroprevalence rate of syphilis in this study was low (0.55%). Initial screening using VDRL alone is neither justified nor cost effective. Selective screening base on risk factors and confirmatory test with FTA-AB is recommended.
Five Centimeter Concrete Nail Aspiration in a 2-Year-Old Nigerian Child: A Call for More Parental/Care-Givers’ Education: A Case Report  [PDF]
Aliyu J. Daniel, Abubakar Umar, Solomon J. Hassan, Yikawe S. Stephen, Ray Bayo, Solomon Ukwuani
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2015.47052
Introduction: Foreign body (FB) aspiration is a common cause of respiratory emergency in early childhood. Parents and care-givers are usually unaware of initial time of FB aspiration, and the varied symptoms may be confusing to them. Therefore, education on ways of avoiding the inci-dence is paramount, and prompt hospital presentation will reduce morbidity and mortality. Case Report: A 5 cm concrete nail, which was aspirated by a 2-year-old male Nigerian child of the Hausa ethnic group, was successfully removed by rigid bronchoscopy. We emphasize the need for more parental/care-givers’ education on foreign body aspiration among children. Conclusion: Infants commonly play with objects by inserting them in various orifices of their body. This, therefore, predisposes them to aspiration, which will go unnoticed at the time of aspiration. There is a need for repeated parental/care-givers’ education on dangers of allowing children to play alone. Parents/care-givers should be conversant with varied presentations of FB aspiration in children, as this will reduce the morbidity and mortality to the minimum.
Relationship between Post-Stroke Cognitive Impairment and Functional Activity of Stroke Survivors in Maiduguri, Borno State Nigeria  [PDF]
Abdulsalam Abdullah, Abubakar Umar, M. A. Abdulkadir, Muhammad Abdullahi Sa’id Bmr, Jimada Yahaya Danladi
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2019.91002
Abstract: Stroke survivors often experience serious cognitive impairment which may impact on their functional activity and the ability to lead an independent life. However, there is paucity of information on the relationship between post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) and functional activity of Nigerian stroke survivors. This study therefore examined the relationship between post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) and functional activity of stroke survivors attending physiotherapy clinics in Maiduguri, north-eastern Nigeria. A cross sectional study design was utilized and a purposive sampling technique was used to recruit participants for this study. One hundred stroke patients from Physiotherapy clinics in Maiduguri, north-eastern Nigeria participated in this study. Data forms were used to obtain information on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of the participants while Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Barthel Index (BI) scale were used to obtain information on cognitive impairment and functional activity of the participants respectively. Descriptive statistics of mean, standard deviation, frequency and percentages were used to summarise the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of the participants. Spearman’s Rank Order Correlation was used to investigate the relationship between PSCI and overall functional activity of the participants on one hand and between PSCI and components of functional activity of the participants. Out of the 100 stroke survivors that participated in the study, 55% were male while 45% were female. The mean age and post-stroke duration of the participants were 55.16±10.01 years and 9.90±10.07 months respectively. The results showed that a positive and significant relationship existed between PSCI and overall functional activity of the participants (r = 0.55,?p?= 0.00). Similarly, there was a significant and positive correlation between PSCI and the components of functional activity except with the bowel control component of functional activity. The correlations were varied with the highest
The indirect cost due to pulmonary Tuberculosis in patients receiving treatment in Bauchi State—Nigeria
Nisser Umar, Richard Fordham, Ibrahim Abubakar, Max Bachmann
Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1478-7547-10-6
Abstract: A cross sectional study where 242 TB patients were sampled from 27 out of 67 facilities providing TB services in a north-eastern state of Nigeria. Sampling was stratified based on facility type, patients’ HIV status and gender.The income lost among the hospitalized group was estimated at $156/patient and about $114 in the non-hospitalized patients group. Age, gender, facility of diagnosis, level of education and occupation were significant (p-values <0.05) associated with total (both patients and their households) income lost. However, AFB sputum-smear result and HIV status had no significant effects on the income lost. Hospitalised patients spent an average time of 924.98 hours for diagnosis and treatment whereas the non-hospitalised spent an average of 141.29 hours. The estimated US dollar valued of these hours was US517.98 and US$79.13 for hospitalised and non-hospitalised patient groups respectively. Hospitalisation and the facility of diagnosis were statistically significant (p-value <0.05) predictors of the time patients and household spent on TB.Tuberculosis poses causes tremendous burden in terms of time and productivity lost to both patients and their households in Bauchi State Nigeria.It has been estimated that about one-third of the world’s population are currently infected with Mycobacterium Tuberculosis and about 3 million deaths are attributable to tuberculosis each year despite the availability of antibiotics that can cure this controllable affliction [1-3].The WHO estimated the global prevalence of active Tuberculosis at 217 per 100,000 people and incidence rate of 136 per 100,000 people in 2007 [4].Nigeria was ranked fourth in burden of Tuberculosis (TB) globally with incidence rate of 311 per 100,000 populations, prevalence of 521 per 100,000 population and 93 mortalities due to TB per 100,000 populations in 2007 [4] implying significant social and economic burden in the country [5,6].Several studies have assessed the patient and household out of p
Feed Quality and Its Effect on the Performance of the Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit (A Case Study of Nigerian Based Oil Company)
Abubakar Garba ISAH,Mohammed ALHASSAN,Mohammed UMAR GARBA
Leonardo Electronic Journal of Practices and Technologies , 2006,
Abstract: This paper presents results of the study of feed quality and its effect on the performance of the fluid catalytic cracking unit using Port-Harcourt Refinery Company (PHRC) as a case study. The important feed qualities used are the hydrocarbon content and a hydrotreated feed. Data on the feed properties used in PHRC were collected and a product mass balance was carried out on the fluid catalytic cracking unit. Conversion and gasoline yield of the unit were found to be 73.43 vol% and 52.07 vol% respectively. On comparison with cracking of aromatic feed, from literature, with 61.3 vol% conversion and 45.64 vol% gasoline yields, the feed is said to be paraffinic because of its higher conversion and gasoline yield. On comparison with that collected for hydrotreated feed, 80.62 vol% conversion and 63.9 vol% gasoline yield, it is concluded that feed hydrotreating increases conversion and gasoline yield by a significant amount.
The provider cost of treating tuberculosis in Bauchi State, Nigeria
Nisser Ali Umar,Richard Fordham,Abubakar Ibrahim,Max Bachmann
Journal of Public Health in Africa , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/jphia.2011.e19
Abstract: The study was aimed at assessing the economic cost shouldered by government, as providers, in the provision of free tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and treatment services in Bauchi State, northern Nigeria. A cost analysis study was designed and questionnaires administered by the principal investigators to officers in charge of 27 randomly sampled government TB services providers across the State of Bauchi. Seventeen of these centers were primary care centers, 9 secondary care providers and one was a tertiary care provider. Data was also collected from personnel and projects records in the State Ministry of Health, of Works as well as the Ministry of Budget and Planning. The cost of buildings, staff and equipment replacement, laboratory, radiology and drugs in facilities were assessed and costs attributable tuberculosis inpatient, outpatient and directly observed therapy (DOT) services were estimated from the total cost based on the proportion of TB cases in the total patient pool accessing those services. The average proportion of TB patients in facilities was 3.4% in overall, 3.3% among inpatients and 3.1% in the outpatient population. The average cost spent to treat a patient with TB was estimated at US $227.14. The cost of inpatient care averaged $16.95/patient; DOT and outpatient services was $133.34/patient, while the overhead cost per patient was $30.89. The overall cost and all computed cost elements, except for DOT services, were highest in the tertiary center and least expensive in the infectious diseases hospital partly due to the higher administrative and other overhead recurrent spending in the tertiary health facility while the lower overhead cost observed in the infectious diseases hospital could be due to the economy of scale as a result of the relative higher number of TB cases seen in the facility operating with relatively same level of resources as other facilities in the state.
A Descriptive Retrospective Study of the Pattern of Malignant Diseases in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria (1999-2004)
Sani Abubakar Malami,Umar Hamidu Pindiga,Bawa Ahmed Abimiku,Ismaila Arzika Mungadi
Journal of Medical Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: This study aims to provide baseline data on the frequency, types and characteristics of cancers in an undeserved part of the country for the purposes of research, records and planning. A descriptive, retrospective study of all pathologically-diagnosed cancers in the records of the Histopathology Department of the UDUTH hospital Sokoto, between January 1999 and December 2004. The 913 patients with histologically and/or cytologically diagnosed malignant disease. 17.3% were children below the age of fifteen years. The mean age of patients was 50.6`14.2 and 42.5`16.8 for male and females, respectively. The most common cancers were cancer of the breast (128 cases). Considered separately, bladder cancer was the most common cancers in males (15.7%) followed by prostate 41 cases (9.9%), non-Hodgkin=s lymphoma 27 cases (6.5%) and skin 19 cases (4.6%). For females, the cases were topped by breast cancer (25.3%), followed by cervix uteri (14.1%) and ovary (5.6%). Almost half of the breast cancers were diagnosed in women in the 30-49 years age group, while cervical cancer tended to affect women a decade later. Rates of liver and colon/rectal cancers are low and Kaposi=s sarcoma is relatively rare in this series. This study has shown, that there are differences in the patterns and relative frequencies particularly of breast, bladder and cervical cancers in Sokoto compared to other regions of Nigeria and other African countries which warrant further clinico-pathological elucidation.
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