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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4404 matches for " Abu Jafar Mahmood "
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Kinetics of Degradation of Eosin Y by One of the Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs)—Fenton’s Process  [PDF]
Ashraf Hossain, A. B. M. Sadique Rayhan, Md. Jahir Raihan, Aklima Nargis, Iqbal M. I. Ismail, Ahsan Habib, Abu Jafar Mahmood
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2016.712074
Abstract: Kinetics of homogeneous degradation of Eosin Y (EY), also known as Acid red 87 (CI 45380), are studied, mostly using Fenton’s process, at 30 by monitoring its absorbance at 517 nm (λmax of EY). This process is one of the advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Mixture of H2O2 and Fe(II) ion in acetate buffer medium (pH 2.74 - 4.56) generates hydroxyl free radicals (?OH) which attack the dye molecules, resulting in degradation of the dye molecules. Results show that the initial rate of EY degradation decreases with the increasing of solution pH because of removal of kinetically important Fe (iron) species through formation of ferric hydroxide. On the other hand, the rate increases with increasing the?concentrations of H2O2, Fe(II) and EY at low solution pH. The initial rate increases with increasing of concentration of H2O2 and, subsequently remains unaffected with further increase of its concentration at a constant Fe(II) concentration because of the enhanced scavenging environment created by H2O2 at its higher concentration. The initial rate also increases with increasing of concentration of Fe(II) at a constant H2O2 concentration and remains unaffected with its further increase. EY concentration also enhances the initial rate at low pH. However, the initial rate is significantly enhanced by UV light. This is because of formation of additional hydroxyl radicals through excitation of the dye molecules by UV light. During the period of experiment, EY in aqueous solution alone hardly suffered any degradation. Degradation mechanism of EY by the Fenton and photo-Fenton’s processes is also discussed. Statistical analysis was used to validate the experimental results. Low values of the standard deviation for both the initial rate and % degradation indicated the consistency of the experimental data.
Synthesis and characterization of ZnO-TiO2 nanocomposites and their application as photocatalysts
Md Ahsan Habib, Md Tusan Shahadat, Newaz Mohammed Bahadur, Iqbal M I Ismail and Abu Jafar Mahmood
International Nano Letters , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/2228-5326-3-5
Abstract: Nanocomposite ZnO-TiO2 powders of varying ZnO/TiO2 molar ratios have been prepared from their salt/compound by heating at 600°C and 900°C and characterized using scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction techniques. The nanosized powders can decolorize/degrade brilliant golden yellow (BGY), an azo dye extensively used in textile industries, in water under solar irradiation. The effects of various parameters such as photocatalyst loading, molar ratio of ZnO/TiO2, pH of the solution, initial dye concentration, and irradiation time on the photodecolorization have been investigated. ZnO-TiO2 nanocomposite (6 g/L) in the molar ratio of 1:1 or 3:1, prepared at 900°C, can efficiently decolorize about 98% of 20 mg/L BGY at pH of about 7 by 2-h illumination in sunlight. The initial dye decolorization follows pseudo-first-order kinetics. Finally, trial experiments were done using real textile wastewater to find out the effectiveness of the photocatalysts to a more complex system.
A New Interactive Method to Solve Multiobjective Linear Programming Problems  [PDF]
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2009.24031
Abstract: Multiobjective Programming (MOP) has become famous among many researchers due to more practical and realistic applications. A lot of methods have been proposed especially during the past four decades. In this paper, we develop a new algorithm based on a new approach to solve MOP by starting from a utopian point, which is usually infeasible, and moving towards the feasible region via stepwise movements and a simple continuous interaction with decision maker. We consider the case where all objective functions and constraints are linear. The implementation of the pro-posed algorithm is demonstrated by two numerical examples.
Antituberculosis Drug-Induced Liver Injury: An Ignored Fact, Assessment of Frequency, Patterns, Severity and Risk Factors  [PDF]
Iftikhar Haider Naqvi, Khalid Mahmood, Abu Talib, Aamer Mahmood
Open Journal of Gastroenterology (OJGas) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojgas.2015.512027
Abstract: Background/Aims: Antituberculosis drug-induced liver injury (TB DILI) is a frequent medical problem in Pakistan. Critical understanding of various aspects of TB DILI is not only important to manage liver injury but may also prevent unnecessary discontinuation of antituberculosis treatment. The study is aimed to determine the frequency, types, severity and patterns of TB DILI. Study further evaluates various risk factors of TB DILI. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective cohort study of two seventy-eight patients with the diagnosis of tuberculosis, where patients were followed during tuberculosis treatment. TB DILI was defined in accordance to international DILI expert working group. Results: Out of two seventy eight-patients, ninety-five (34.14%) had TB DILI. The most common pattern of TB DILI was hepatocellular (63.15%) followed by mixed (23.15%) and Cholestatic (13.68%). Most of the patients had mild DILI (43.15%) followed by moderate (30.52%), severe (20.01%) and very severe (5.26%). Age > 35 years, concomitant hepatotoxic drugs, extrapulmonary TB and malnutrition are important risk factors for TB DILI. Conclusion: All patterns of TB DILI with varying severity were present. Age > 35 years, malnutrition, extrapulmonary TB and concomitant use of hepatotoxic drugs were risk factors for TB DILI.
Infections in Cirrhotics: Types, Microbiological Spectrum and Risk Factors—5-Year Cohort Study  [PDF]
Iftikhar Haider Naqvi, Khalid Mahmood, Abu Talib, Mohammad Ubaid, Aamer Mahmood
Open Journal of Gastroenterology (OJGas) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojgas.2014.43017
Abstract: Cirrhosis is an immunocompromised state that leads to various infections, with an estimated 30% mortality. Pakistan already has a high morbidity and mortality related to complications of cirrhosis. Where the data on infection among cirrhotics is scanty, this study aimed to determine the frequency, microbiological spectrum and various risk factors of infections in cirrhosis of liver. This is a prospective cohort study conducted at a tertiary care hospital. The microbiological spectrum and frequency of infections was determined in cirrhotics. Various risk factors for infection among cirrhotics were evaluated like upper gastrointestinal bleed, use of proton pump inhibitors, malnutrition and severity of cirrhosis. Out of eleven hundred and forty-one patients with cirrhosis of liver, four hundred and ninety (42.94%) patients had infections. All kinds of infections like peritoneal, respiratory, urinary tract and skin were present in cirrhosis of liver where ascitic fluid infections (AFI) were the commonest i.e. 44.89%. The risk factors for bacterial infections among patients with cirrhosis of liver were upper gastrointestinal bleeding (odd ratio = 4.57, p = 0.0001), use of proton pump inhibitors (odd ratio = 2.57, p = 0.0001), degree of malnutrition (odd ratio = 10.34, p = 0.0001) and severity of cirrhosis (odd ratio = 12.99, p = 0.000). All types of infections occurred with varying frequency in cirrhosis of liver. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding, severity of cirrhosis, use of high dose proton pump inhibitors and severe malnutrition are important risk factors for infections among cirrhotics.
The Factors Associated with Suicide Ideation in Iranian Soldiers
Jafar Anisi,Mohammad Majdian,S. Mahmood Mirzamani
Iranian Journal of Psychiatry , 2010,
Abstract: "n Objective: The study focuses on psychosocial variables related to suicide ideation in young soldiers . "n Method:1329 Soldiers were randomly selected from the Infantry Forces in different egions. All the soldiers were requested to complete the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSSI) as well as General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Data were analyzed using correlation tests. "nResults:The results revealed that psychological factors, negative family ackground, environmental and task-related problems, and sociodemographic problems were significantly associated with suicide ideation. "nDiscussion:Overall, suicide ideation could be prevented if soldiers with sychosocial problems were identified and the Army officials applied appropriate methods to solve these psychological problems.
The Synthesis of Nano TiO2 and Its Use for Removal of Lead Ions from Aqueous Solution  [PDF]
Afshin Shokati Poursani, Abdolreza Nilchi, Amirhessam Hassani, Seyed Mahmood Shariat, Jafar Nouri
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2016.84037
Abstract: In this study, nano-TiO2 particles were synthesized by sol-gel method. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). The results showed that the average size of TiO2 nanoparticles and their specific surface area were 21.1 nanometer and 55.35 m2/gr, respectively. The effects of several variables such as adsorbent weight, pH and contact time on lead ions adsorption were studied in batch experiments and finally the optimum conditions for lead ions adsorption by synthesized nano-TiO2 were obtained. The results showed that the synthesized nano TiO2 had a good capacity to adsorb lead ion. The kinetic data were described by pseudo-first and second-order models. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models were used for the analysis of equilibrium data, and results showed that the Langmuir model was suitable for describing the equilibrium data of lead ion adsorption by nano TiO2. Using the Langmuir isotherm, the maximum sorption capacity of Pb2+ was estimated to be 7.41 (mg/g) at 25°C.
Spectrum of Diseases, Disease Related Mortality and Overall Financial Burden of Hospitalized Patients in Medical Wards of Tertiary Care Public Hospital  [PDF]
Iftikhar Haider Naqvi, Khalid Mahmood, Abu Talib, Syed Muhammad Kashif, Ali Sajjad
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2017.74028
Abstract: Background: Detailed assessment of pattern of diseases and trend of mortalities tends to aid in formulating pivotal aspects of in-hospital policies, standards of care and so consequently promoting efficient work system. This also reserves limited resources keeping within the limit of financial grasp. The study aims to reimburse the colossal paucity of data covering epidemiological burden of diseases, impact on mortality as well as financial burden in socioeconomically challenged public health system. Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional hospital based study conducted in department of Medicine, Civil Hospital Karachi, from February 2016 to July 2016 using questionnaire based data collection system. Results: Eight thousand and fifty three (8053) cases with almost equal gender proportion were analyzed. Chronic liver disease (CLD) was the most rampant disease, followed by cerebrovascular accident (CVA), tuberculosis and diabetes. Overall 51% cases were attributed to infectious diseases. Overall the average percentage mortality was found to be 20% of all cases. Mean duration of stay was 7.56 ± 7 days. Estimated average total in-hospital expenditure per patient on each visit or stay was 159.15 ± 41.2 $USD (16670.96 ± 4315.7 PKR). Average total diagnostic and medications costs per visit or stay were 89.74 ± 31.2 $USD (9400.26 ± 3268.2 PKR) and 48.68 ± 18.0 $USD (5099.23 ± 1885.5 PKR) respectively. Conclusion: Chronic liver disease, cerebrovascular accident and diabetes were most frequent reasons of hospital admission and mortality. Recognition of most common and fatal diseases with their expenditure is going to lead to formulation of targeted policies both of which would be effective and efficient.
Geophysical Investigation Using Time Domain Electromagnetic Method (TDEM) at Wadi Deir Al-Kahaf Area/Jordan for Groundwater Artificial Recharge Purposes  [PDF]
Hani Al-Amoush, Eid Al-Tarazi, Jafar Abu Rajab, Younis Al-Dwyeek, Mohammed Al-Atrash, Ahmed Shudiefat
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2015.73012
Abstract: In this study, Ten Time Domain Electromagnetic (TDEM) measuring points have been conducted at four pre-selected sites along Wadi Deir Al-Kahaf in order to investigate the potential of the near subsurface deposits and aquifer for groundwater artificial recharge applications. The surveyed results suggest well resolved geological layers such as alluvial mudflat, basalt layers and their saturation states. In addition a hydrogeophysical cross section along the studied sites was constructed which permits to locate the lateral variations in rock properties due to water saturation and or facies changes. The saturated thickness of the Upper Aquifer System in the study area was found to be changed from 5 m near TEM 1 to about 120 m near TEM 4 in thickness. The Abed Basalt Aquifer (AOB) has an average saturation thickness of about ~60 m, and forming the main aquifer (~100 m thickness) near surface to the north of the study area. TEM-3 and TEM-4 sites were found to be potential sites for groundwater artificial recharge based on the constructed hydro-geophysical model. This study recommends implementing detailed geophysical investigations particularly in the most northern parts of the study area.
Comparison of the Photobleaching and Photostability Traits of Alexa Fluor 568- and Fluorescein Isothiocyanate- conjugated Antibody
Jafar Mahmoudian,Reza Hadavi,Mahmood Jeddi-Tehrani,Ahmad Reza Mahmoudi
Cell Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Objective: Synthetic fluorescent dyes that are conjugated to antibodies are useful tools toprobe molecules. Based on dye chemical structures, their photobleaching and photostabilityindices are quite diverse. It is generally believed that among different fluorescent dyes,Alexa Fluor family has greater photostability than traditional dyes like fluorescein isothiocyanate(FITC) and Cy5. Alexa Fluor 568 is a member of Alexa Fluor family presumed tohave superior photostability and photobleahing profiles than FITC.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we conjugated Alexa Fluor 568 andFITC dyes to a mouse anti-human nestin monoclonal antibody (ANM) to acquire their photobleachingprofiles and photostability indices. Then, the fluorophore/antibody ratios werecalculated using a spectrophotometer. The photobleaching profiles and photostability indicesof conjugated antibodies were subsequently studied by immunocytochemistry (ICC).Samples were continuously illuminated and digital images acquired under a fluorescentmicroscope. Data were processed by ImageJ software.Results: Alexa Fluor 568 has a brighter fluorescence and higher photostability thanFITC.Conclusion: Alexa Fluor 568 is a capable dye to use in photostaining techniques and ithas a longer photostability when compared to FITC.
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