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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 141561 matches for " Abraham K. Ishihara "
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Temporal Prediction of Aircraft Loss-of-Control: A Dynamic Optimization Approach  [PDF]
Chaitanya Poolla, Abraham K. Ishihara
Intelligent Control and Automation (ICA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ica.2015.64023
Abstract: Loss of Control (LOC) is the primary factor responsible for the majority of fatal air accidents during past decade. LOC is characterized by the pilot’s inability to control the aircraft and is typically associated with unpredictable behavior, potentially leading to loss of the aircraft and life. In this work, the minimum time dynamic optimization problem to LOC is treated using Pontryagin’s Maximum Principle (PMP). The resulting two point boundary value problem is solved using stochastic shooting point methods via a differential evolution scheme (DE). The minimum time until LOC metric is computed for corresponding spatial control limits. Simulations are performed using a linearized longitudinal aircraft model to illustrate the concept.
Bioinspired phospholipid polymer biomaterials for making high performance artificial organs
K Ishihara
Science and Technology of Advanced Materials , 2000,
Abstract: Novel polymer biomaterials, which can be used in contact with blood, are prepared with strong inspiration from the surface structure of biomembrane. That is, the polymers with a phospholipid polar group in the side chain, 2-methacrylooyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) polymers were synthesized. The MPC polymers can inhibit surface-induced clot formation effectively, when they are in contact with blood even in the absence of an anticoagulant. This phenomenon was due to the reduction of plasma protein and suppression of denaturation of adsorbed proteins, that is the MPC polymers interact with blood components very mildly. As the molecular structure of the MPC polymer was easily designed by changing the monomer units and their composition, it could be applied to surface modification of artificial organs and biomedical devices for improving blood and tissue compatibility. Thus, the MPC polymers are useful polymer biomaterials for manufacturing high performance artificial organs and biomedical devices to provide safe medical treatments.
Cylindrical Domain Walls and Gravitational Waves -- Einstein Rosen wave emission from momentarily static initial configuration --
K. Nakamura,H. Ishihara
Physics , 1997,
Abstract: A self-gravitating cylindrical domain wall is considered as an example of non-spherical wall to clarify the interaction between a domain wall and gravitational waves. We consider the time evolution from a momentarily static initial configuration within an infinitesimal time interval using the metric junction formalism. We found that the wall with a large initial radius radiates large amplitude of the gravitational waves and undergoes its large back reaction.
Modelling the Kinetics of Jatropha Oil Transesterification  [PDF]
Aldo A. Okullo, Abraham K. Temu
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2015.74013
Abstract: Kinetics of a chemical reaction provides an important means of determining the extent of the reaction and in reactor designs. Transesterification of jatropha oil with methanol and sodium hydroxide as a catalyst was conducted in a well mixed reactor at different agitation speeds between 600 and 800 rpm and temperature range between 35°C and 65°C. The effect of variation of temperature and mixing intensity on rate constants were studied. The initial mass transfer controlled stage was considered negligible using the above impeller speeds and second order mechanism was considered for the chemically controlled kinetic stage. Samples were collected from the reaction mixture at specified time intervals and quenched in a mixture of tetrahydrofuran (THF) and sulphuric acid. The mixture was centrifuged at 2000 rpm for 15 minutes and the methyl ester was separated from the glycerol. The ester was washed with warm water (50°C), dried and analysed using gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector (GC/FID) to determine free and total glycerine and methyl ester. A mathematical model was fitted using second order rate law. High temperature and high mixing intensity increased reaction rates. The model fitted well with a high correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.999.
IL-1 Receptor Type II Production Is Upregulated by IL-4 and IL-13, and Downregulated by IFN-γ in Mouse Gingival Epithelial Cells  [PDF]
Y. Kamiya, Y. Ishihara, H. Kamei, Y. Ozawa, H. Mizutani, K. Kubo, H. Maeda, T. Noguchi
Modern Research in Inflammation (MRI) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/mri.2014.32005

Background and Objective: Interleukin-1 (IL-1) binds to 2 distinct and separate receptors, types I and II (IL-1RI and IL-1RII, respectively). The binding of IL-1 to IL-1RI induces cellular signaling and biological effects, whereas binding to IL-1RII does not induce cellular signaling and indirectly inhibits IL-1 biological activities such as that of the decoy receptor. Recently, Suzukiet al.reported that soluble IL-1RII (sIL-1RII) was detected in gingival crevicular fluid from a periodontitis patient. However, it remains unclear which cells produce sIL-1RII detected in periodontal tissues. We examined the localization of IL-1RII producing cells in gingival tissues as well as related production control mechanisms. Material and Methods: IL-1RII mRNA expression in gingival epithelial cells (GE1) was performed by real-time PCR analysis, while the amount of sIL-1RII production in supernatant from GE1 cells was examined by dot-blot analysis. Involvement of the phosphorylation of STAT6 in the signaling pathway was determined by western blot analysis. Statistical analysis was performed with Student’st-test. Results: Culturing with IL-4 and IL-13 significantly increased IL-1RII mRNA to levels 10.5-and 8.89-fold, respectively, above that of the control (p< 0.01), while addition of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) significantly suppressed IL-1RII mRNA by 0.22-fold as compared to the control (p< 0.05). Soluble IL-1RII in the supernatant of cultured GE1 cells was increased by IL-4 and IL-13, and decreased by IFN-γ, while western blotting determines the suppression of IL-1RII production by IFN-γ. Without the addition of IL-4 or IL-13 with or without

Clinical efficacy and safety of HX575, a biosimilar recombinant human erythropoietin, in the management of anemia
Abraham I, MacDonald K
Biosimilars , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/BS.S28707
Abstract: ical efficacy and safety of HX575, a biosimilar recombinant human erythropoietin, in the management of anemia Review (1777) Total Article Views Authors: Abraham I, MacDonald K Published Date September 2012 Volume 2012:2 Pages 13 - 25 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/BS.S28707 Received: 26 April 2012 Accepted: 18 July 2012 Published: 06 September 2012 Ivo Abraham,1,2,3 Karen MacDonald2 1Department of Pharmacy Practice and Science, and Center for Health Outcomes and PharmoEconomic Research, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona; 2Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona; 3Matrix45, Tucson, Arizona, USA Abstract: Since the expiration of the patent for epoetin alfa in Europe in 2004, the European Medicines Agency has approved three biosimilar erythropoietins. Using the European Medicines Agency’s European Public Assessment Reports and scientific publications, we review the evidence regarding the clinical efficacy and safety of HX575 (Sandoz/Novartis) relative to the originator product Eprex/Erypo (Johnson & Johnson). Clinical efficacy is assessed as a function of therapeutic equivalence of a biosimilar and originator product, while safety is evaluated in terms of immunogenicity, venous thromboembolism, and mortality. Five studies that examined chronic renal failure and oncology populations are reviewed. In the renal setting, these studies include a randomized controlled trial on Hb maintenance in patients receiving long-term hemodialysis, a randomized safety trial in patients with chronic kidney disease not yet requiring renal replacement therapy, and a post-approval saftey commitment study. Studies in the cancer setting include a clinical validation study in patients with solid tumors receiving antineoplastic chemotherapy and a retrospective clinical audit of Binocrit in routine clinical practice. Based on available therapeutic equivalence and safety data, the clinical and safety outcomes of treatment with HX575 are likely to be similar to those of the originator product Eprex/Erypo. Both products can be considered interchangeable in the management of anemia in the approved indications, and patients transferred from the reference product to the biosimilar product are expected to show the same efficacy and safety outcomes. There is no evidence of the interchangeability of HX575 with other biosimilar or originator erythropoietins other than Eprex/Erypo. In keeping with European Medicines Agency guidance about traceability, it is recommended that clinicians document the product prescribed by its commercial name, especially when switching patients from an originator to a biosimilar or vice versa.
El Ser del Otro: un sustento ético-político para la educación
Abraham Magendzo K
Polis : Revista de la Universidad Bolivariana , 2006,
Abstract: El artículo presenta cuatro ejes convergentes para una comprensión integral del Ser del Otro desde una postura ético-crítica. El primer eje lo trata desde la modernidad y la acción comunicativa. El segundo eje lo interroga desde la ciudadanía. El tercer eje se introduce de lleno al Ser del Otro desde la alteridad, presentando la postura ética de Emmanuel Levinas. Finalmente el último eje lo analiza desde la diversidad y la ética de la interculturalidad. Concluye con algunas reflexiones referidas al desafío para la educación de contribuir al rescate del Ser del Otro.
Application of Different Models for the Prediction of the Kinetics of Direct Reduction of Natural Iron Ores  [PDF]
Abraham J. B. Muwanguzi, Aliaksandr Alevanau, Joseph K. Byaruhanga
Geomaterials (GM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/gm.2017.74009
Abstract: Simulation of the direct reduction conditions was performed in a laboratory furnace. Lump samples from natural hematite iron ore were reduced by a gas mixture of H2 and CO (H2/CO =1.5) at temperatures of 700°C, 800°C and 900°C. The effect of reduction temperature on the reduction degree, reduction rate of samples and carbon deposition were investigated and discussed in this study. The thermo-gravimetric data obtained from the reduction experiments was run in a programme that calculates the solid conversion rate. Also, three models: 1) Grain Model (GM), 2) Volumetric Model (VM), and 3) the Random Pore Model (RPM), were used to estimate the reduction kinetics of natural iron ores. It was found that the RPM model result agreed best with the obtained experimental results. Furthermore, it gave better predictions of the natural iron oxide conversion and thereby the reduction kinetics.
Rational tangle surgery and Xer recombination on catenanes
Isabel K. Darcy,Kai Ishihara,Ram K. Medikonduri,Koya Shimokawa
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: The protein recombinase can change the knot type of circular DNA. The action of a recombinase converting one knot into another knot is normally mathematically modeled by band surgery. Band surgeries on a 2-bridge knot N((4mn-1)/(2m)) yielding a (2,2k)-torus link are characterized. We apply this and other rational tangle surgery results to analyze Xer recombination on DNA catenanes using the tangle model for protein-bound DNA.
Childhood sarcoidosis: A rare but fascinating disorder
Avinash K Shetty, Abraham Gedalia
Pediatric Rheumatology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1546-0096-6-16
Abstract: Sarcoidosis is a multisystem systemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology that most commonly affects young adults, who frequently present with hilar lymphadenopathy, pulmonary infiltration, and ocular and cutaneous lesions [1]. Although the lung is most frequently involved, the disease can affect any organ system of the body [2]. The disease is relatively rare in the pediatric population [3,4]. Infants and children younger than 5 years usually present with the triad of skin, joint, and eye involvement, without typical lung disease. However, older children have involvement of the lungs, lymph nodes, and eyes more frequently, as seen in adult [5,6].Despite a variety of hypotheses regarding causative agents, the cause of sarcoidosis is unknown [7]. The definitive diagnosis of sarcoidosis is made when compatible clinical findings are associated with histopathological evidence of noncaseating granulomata in affected organs and other granulomatous disorders are excluded [8]. The illness can be self-limited or chronic, and the disease characteristics vary among various populations [1]. The course and prognosis of sarcoidosis in children is different compared to adults, and may correlate with the mode of onset and the extent of the disease [1,9,10].In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, pathogenesis, etiology, and clinical features of sarcoidosis in children, and examine the current approaches to diagnosis and treatment of this enigmatic disease.The prevalence of sarcoidosis in the adult population ranges from 10 to 40 per 100,000 in the United States and Europe [1]. The true incidence and prevalence of childhood sarcoidosis is unknown because of the rarity of the disease and the small number of reported cases in childhood. A recent review reported that the approximate incidence of clinically recognized sarcoidosis in Danish children younger than 15 years was 0.22–0.27 per 100,000 children per year, corresponding to approximately 3 new cases in Denmark each year
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