The nutritional, microbiological and
sensory characteristics of improved kunu-zaki produced from malted cereals enriched
with malted soymilk at different substitution levels (0%-30%)
were investigated. Enrichment with soymilk and malting increased the protein,
amino acid, ash and moisture content of the improved kunu-zaki. Malting
resulted in a decrease in carbohydrate and fat content. The protein content of
the malted samples ranged between 2.79% and 3.82% while that of unmalted was
2.36%. There was decrease in the concentration of phytic acid and trypsin
inhibitor after malting but the concentration increased as soymilk was added.
Microbiological analyses showed that microbial load of samples increased with
the addition of soymilk. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in
the sensory attributes, acceptability decrease with increase in soymilk
addition because of the beany flavor.

Abstract:
Background: The spectrum of salivary gland lesions is wide and the relative incidence of neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions is variable in different studies. Despite the relatively common nature of salivary gland disorders, there is dearth of literature on these lesions, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. We therefore embarked on this study to analyze the differential diagnosis of salivary gland lesions seen and managed at our institution. Methods: A retrospective review of salivary gland disorders that presented at our facility from January 2012 to December 2016 was done. Information on patients’ demographic details, type and location of salivary gland lesion, histologic diagnosis and treatment were retrieved and analyzed with SPSS version 20. Result: A total of 65 patients were treated for salivary gland lesions of various types during the study period. The age of the patients ranged from 3 months to 68 years [mean 33.8 ± 12.3]. Neoplastic lesions [n = 39, 60.0%] were the commonest followed by sialolithiasis [n = 14, 21.5%] while mucous retention/extravasation cysts accounted for 13.9% of the cases. Pleomorphic adenoma was the predominant tumor in this series [87.2%] and the commonest site was the parotid gland [58.8%]. On the contrary submandibular gland appeared to be the commonest site for sialolithiasis [57.1%]. The majority of mucous retention/extravasation cysts occurred in the sublingual gland [55.5%]. Conclusion: Neoplastic lesions remain the commonest salivary gland disorder and pleomorphic adenoma was the most prevalent. Sialolithiasis and mucous cysts are salivary gland lesions with equally wide disease spectrum.

Abstract:
The disposal of waste of all kinds in auto-repair workshop areas in Nigeria is becoming alarming. The study looks into the contribution of different sections in auto-repair workshop to heavy metal pollution in soil .Thirty –two soil samples were collected at an auto-repair workshop in Osogbo, Ikirun, Iragbiji and Iree in Osun State for their cobalt, iron , lead and cadmium level at different sections namely: auto-mechanic unit, auto welding unit, auto electrician unit and auto painting unit using atomic absorption spectrophotometer.The highest cobalt concentration was obtained in Iree at the auto welding unit, (17.25± 1.10mg/kg), iron had its highest level in Ikirun at the auto-mechanic unit (43937± 35mg/kg) , lead had its highest concentration in Iree at the auto welding unit (2460±16 mg/kg) and cadmium with the highest in Iree at the auto welding unit as well (2.02 ±1.01 mg/kg).Sites studied had higher levels of heavy metals compared to control areas. The general trend of dispersion of metal contamination within the soil profile is iron>> lead>> cobalt>cadmium. Statistical analysis reveals correlation between lead/iron (r = 0.636) at p<0.01. This work reveals the individual contribution of various allied artisans to soil pollution in automobile workshop. The research serves as an important contribution to the database on the baseline qualities of Nigerian soil.

Abstract:
Standard bin packing is the problem of partitioning a set of items with positive sizes no larger than 1 into a minimum number of subsets (called bins) each having a total size of at most 1. In bin packing games, an item has a positive weight, and given a valid packing or partition of the items, each item has a cost or a payoff associated with it. We study a class of bin packing games where the payoff of an item is the ratio between its weight and the total weight of items packed with it, that is, the cost sharing is based linearly on the weights of items. We study several types of pure Nash equilibria: standard Nash equilibria, strong equilibria, strictly Pareto optimal equilibria, and weakly Pareto optimal equilibria. We show that any game of this class admits all these types of equilibria. We study the (asymptotic) prices of anarchy and stability (PoA and PoS) of the problem with respect to these four types of equilibria, for the two cases of general weights and of unit weights. We show that while the case of general weights is strongly related to the well-known First Fit algorithm, and all the four PoA values are equal to 1.7, this is not true for unit weights. In particular, we show that all of them are strictly below 1.7, the strong PoA is equal to approximately 1.691 (another well-known number in bin packing) while the strictly Pareto optimal PoA is much lower. We show that all the PoS values are equal to 1, except for those of strong equilibria, which is equal to 1.7 for general weights, and to approximately 1.611824 for unit weights. This last value is not known to be the (asymptotic) approximation ratio of any well-known algorithm for bin packing. Finally, we study convergence to equilibria.

Abstract:
In the recent paper \cite{BDT10} we introduced a new problem that we call Bin Packing/Covering with Delivery, or BP/CD for short. Mainly we mean under this expression that we look for not only a good, but a "good and fast" packing or covering. In that paper we mainly dealt with only one possible online BP/CD model, and proposed a new method that we call the Evolution of Algorithms. In case of such methods a neighborhood structure is defined among algorithms, and using a metaheuristic (for example simulated annealing) in some sense the best algorithm is chosen to solve the problem. Now we turn to investigate the offline case. We define several ways to treat such a BP/CD problem, although we investigate only one of them here. For the analysis, a novel view on "offline optimum" is introduced, which appears to be relevant concerning all problems where a final solution is ordering-dependent. We prove that if the item sizes are not allowed to be arbitrarily close to zero, then an optimal offline solution can be found in polynomial time. On the other hand, for unrestricted problem instances, no polynomial-time algorithm can achieve an approximation ratio better than 6/7 if $P\ne NP$.

Abstract:
We consider different online algorithms for a generalized scheduling problem for parallel machines, described in details in the first section. This problem is the generalization of the classical parallel machine scheduling problem, when the make-span is minimized; in that case each job contains only one task. On the other hand, the problem in consideration is still a special version of the workflow scheduling problem. We present several heuristic algorithms and compare them by computer tests.

Abstract:
Bin packing with cardinality constraints is a bin packing problem where an upper bound k \geq 2 on the number of items packed into each bin is given, in addition to the standard constraint on the total size of items packed into a bin. We study the online scenario where items are presented one by one. We analyze it with respect to the absolute competitive ratio and prove tight bounds of 2 for any k \geq 4. We show that First Fit also has an absolute competitive ratio of 2 for k=4, but not for larger values of k, and we present a complete analysis of its asymptotic competitive ratio for all values of k \geq 5. Additionally, we study the case of small $k$ with respect to the asymptotic competitive ratio and the absolute competitive ratio.

Abstract:
We study a variant of online bin packing, called colorful bin packing. In this problem, items that are presented one by one are to be packed into bins of size 1. Each item i has a size s_i \in [0,1] and a color c_i \in C, where C is a set of colors (that is not necessarily known in advance). The total size of items packed into a bin cannot exceed its size, thus an item i can always be packed into a new bin, but an item cannot be packed into a non-empty bin if the previous item packed into that bin has the same color, or if the occupied space in it is larger than 1-s_i. This problem generalizes standard online bin packing and online black and white bin packing (where |C|=2). We prove that colorful bin packing is harder than black and white bin packing in the sense that an online algorithm for zero size items that packs the input into the smallest possible number of bins cannot exist for C \geq 3, while it is known that such an algorithm exists for |C|=2. We show that natural generalizations of classic algorithms for bin packing fail to work for the case |C| \geq 3 and moreover, algorithms that perform well for black and white bin packing do not perform well either, already for the case |C|=3. Our main results are a new algorithm for colorful bin packing that we design and analyze, whose absolute competitive ratio is 4, and a new lower bound of 2 on the asymptotic competitive ratio of any algorithm, that is valid even for black and white bin packing.

Abstract:
The study critically analyzed the dynamic and simultaneous inter-relationship between inflation and its determinants in Nigeria between 1970 and 2007. The time series variables properties were examined using the Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) unit root test and the result reveals that inflation rate, growth rate of real output and money supply and real share of Fiscal deficit are stationary at levels while other incorporated variables in the empirical analysis; real share of Import, Exchange rate and Interest rate are stationary at first difference. The long-run and short-run mechanism of interaction between inflation and its determinants were examined usig the Augmented Engle-Granger (AEG) cointegration test and Error Correction Mechanism (ECM) model, respectively.