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Family Planning Awareness, Perceptions and Practice among Community Members in the Kintampo Districts of Ghana  [PDF]
Obed Ernest A. Nettey, Yeetey A. Enuameh, Emmanuel Mahama, Abubakari Sulemana, George Adjei, Stephaney Gyaase, Samuel Afari-Asiedu, Robert Adda, Abena Konadu Yawson, Gifty Fosuaa Nuamah, Edward Apraku Anane, Livesy Abokyi, Charles Zandoh, Martha Abdulai, Ellen Abrafi Boamah, Kwame Adjei, Seeba Amenga-Etego, Francis Dzabeng, Charlotte Tawiah-Agyeman, Frank Baiden, Kwaku Poku Asante, Seth Owusu-Agyei
Advances in Reproductive Sciences (ARSci) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/arsci.2015.31001
Abstract: Family planning is known to prevent maternal deaths, but some social norms, limited supplies and inconsistent use makes this difficult to achieve in most low- and middle-income countries. In spite of the high fertility levels in most sub-Saharan African countries and the potential economic benefits of family planning, its patronage remains very low in the sub-region. This study was with the objective of identifying the levels of awareness, utilization, access to and perceptions about family planning and contraception. A cross-sectional study design was used for the study, with data collected from multiple sources using both quantitative and qualitative approaches. Relevant findings included a marked disconnect between family planning/contraceptive knowledge and use. The pills and injectables were the most frequently used, but females in the study population poorly patronised emergency contraception. Supplies of most family planning methods were found to be health facility based, requiring clients to have to necessarily go there for services. Some respondents harboured perceptions that family planning was the responsibility of females alone and that it fuelled promiscuity among female users. Recommendations made include ensuring that health facilities had adequate staff and expertise to provide facility-based family planning services and also to disabuse the minds of community members of the negative perceptions towards family planning.
Investigating Ghana’s Revealed Comparative Advantage in Agro-Processed Products  [PDF]
Abena D. Oduro, Emmanuel Larbi Offei
Modern Economy (ME) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/me.2014.54037

Export diversification through agro-processing has been a policy objective of successive governments. In the most recent policy document the processing of horticultural products including fruits has been emphasised. Using four indices of revealed comparative advantage, nine agroprocessed product groups have been identified in which Ghana has a comparative advantage. However, the share of agro-processed products in which Ghana has a comparative advantage declined over the period 2004 to 2011. We recommend that policies should be designed to encourage expansion of exports in the nine identified product groups as well as to reverse the decline in the share of agro-processed products in which Ghana has a comparative advantage.

Determination of Potential Landfill Site in Tarkwa Area Using Multi-Criteria GIS, Geophysical and Geotechnical Evaluation  [PDF]
Asare Asante-Annor, Samuel Asare Konadu, Ebenezer Ansah
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2018.610001
Abstract: A 24-acre land at Aboso serves as the site where municipal solid waste from Tarkwa and its environs are openly dumped. Evaluation of the suitability of this existing landfill site for the construction of an engineered landfill was determined. Reconnaissance survey, structural mapping, determination of depth to groundwater, geotechnical site investigation as well as socio-economic indicators showed that the existing landfill site is not suitable for an engineered landfill construction. A multi-criteria GIS model was used to select an alternative suitable area for the construction of an engineered landfill. The multicriteria GIS modelling identified fourteen (14) suitable areas for the siting of landfill in the Tarkwa area. A site located in Domeabra was chosen due to its proximity to the neighbouring communities of Tarkwa, Nsuta and Aboso. The suitability of the proposed site in Domeabra was assessed using geotechnical and geophysical methods. The geotechnical methods included the testing of soil properties such as moisture content, particle size distribution, Atterberg limit, bulk density, specific gravity, and compactibility. The soils at Domeabra site are predominantly gravel and sand, well graded with gradual increase in clay content with depth and good moisture content (less than 30%). The gravel and sandy soils have good to excellent shear strength and work ability. The soils in Domeabra have suitable dry density (1.3 - 2.1 Mg/m3), bulk density (1.7 - 2.5 Mg/m3) and specific gravity (2.2 - 2.9) for landfill construction. The geophysical method involved the use of seismic refraction tomography. The geophysical survey showed that the site is made up of four layers namely the top soil (0.5 - 2 m), weathered material (5 - 15 m), saturated material (10 - 15 m) and fresh rock. The water table occurs at a depth of 12 to 15 m. The proposed area in Domeabra based on the geophysical and geotechnical investigations is suitable for the construction of engineered landfill.
Climate change and food security: The role of biotechnology
W Quaye, RM Yawson, ES Ayeh, I Yawson
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2012,
Abstract: Several climate change related factors including temperature increases, changes in rainfall patterns and outbreak of pests and diseases negatively affect agricultural productivity and food security. Climate change effects significantly increase production risk and rural vulnerability, particularly in regions that already suffer from chronic soil and water resource scarcity or high exposure to climatic extremes, such as droughts and flooding. The effects of climate change on agriculture may depend not only on changing climate conditions, but also on the agricultural sector’s ability to adapt through changes in technology and demand for food. Significant proportions of the growing populations in developing countries derive their livelihoods from agriculture and are, therefore, vulnerable to climate change effects. The task of eradicating extreme poverty and hunger by 2015, as per Millennium Development Goals, will require both regional and global research efforts and concrete actions among which biotechnology adoption plays a key role. Advances in biotechnology can lead to cutting-edge technologies in agriculture. However, sub-Saharan Africa faces an uphill task with regard to the adoption and use of agricultural biotechnology. The potential to improve the livelihoods of resource-poor farmers is a strong incentive to meet the challenge. This paper reviews research work on climate change in relation to increasing food insecurity situation in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), and the significance of plant biotechnology in reversing the disturbing food insecurity trends on the continent. To move plant biotechnology forward, the paper recommends that African countries institutionalize effective bio-safety regulatory frameworks, and commit resources to capacity building and provision of infrastructure for biotechnology development. Funding of Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) related research into tropical and sub-tropical staple foods, suitable for the needs of small-scale farmers in SSA countries, is strongly recommended. There is also the need for researchers to engage in effective education and communication with the general public so as to enhance adoption of biotechnological products in Africa.
Acceptance of biotechnology and social-cultural implications in Ghana
W Quaye, I Yawson, RM Yawson, IE Williams
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2009,
Abstract: Despite major scientific progress in the application of biotechnology in agriculture, public attitudes towards biotechnology in general and genetically modified food (GM food) products in particular remain mixed in Africa. Examining responses on acceptance of GM food through a stakeholder survey in Ghana, it was established that half of the 100 people sample interviewed were not in favor of GM foods. To this group acceptance of GM foods would make farmers loose focus on the traditional ways of cultivation, putting the whole nation at the mercy of profit driven foreign companies who produce GM foods. In order to have clear and unbiased attitudes towards agricultural biotechnology in Africa, there is the need to substitute dominant ideologies in the way biotechnology research and dissemination are conducted in developed countries with tailor-made methodologies in developing countries. This paper emphasizes the social dynamic force of food focusing on the need for social shaping of biotechnologies to reflect local and regional needs. Respondents’ perceptions of GM foods suggest that food is seen as not just a commodity to be consumed but food has both cultural and national identities. Generally, people are identified by their consumption and nutrition lifestyles and therefore take pride in what they eat. A proposal is made to set biotechnology research agenda in the context of social choices; social scientific coalition of biotechnology with endogenous development pathways’ as opposed to ‘exogenous biotechnology research’. Also there is the need for adequate capacity building of the existing regulatory institutions to handle ethical and moral issues associated with biotechnology research since survey findings showed lacked of public confidence in them.
Two-Stage Dilute Acid Hydrolysis of Dairy Manure for Nutrient Release, Solids Reduction and Reducing Sugar Production  [PDF]
S. K. Yawson, P.H. Liao, K.V. Lo
Natural Resources (NR) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2011.24028
Abstract: The microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process (MW/H2O2-AOP) aided with dilute sulfuric acid was applied in a two-stage treatment of dairy manure for nutrient release, solids reduction, and reducing sugar production. A much higher hydrogen peroxide dosage (1.2 g H2O2/g TS) was used in Stage 2 than that in Stage 1 (0.38 g H2O2/g TS). Most of the reducing sugar was produced in Stage 1, and only a small amount produced in Stage 2. The highest reducing sugar yield of 15.5% was obtained at 160℃, 0 mL H2O2/, and 20 min of heating time. With a high hydrogen peroxide dosage and a higher operating temperature of 160℃ in Stage 2, the nutrient release conversion rate was much higher in Stage 2 than Stage 1. All of total phosphorus was converted to orthophosphate, and a very high ammonia concentration was obtained in the treated solution. The results indicated that the MW/H2O2/-AOP operated under the reducing process (without hydrogen peroxide) provided the best yield of reducing sugar; however, when operated under an oxidative process (with hydrogen peroxide), it favoured nutrient release and solids disintegration. The concentration of total chemical oxidation demand (TCOD) in the treated solution decreased with an increase of temperature, hydrogen peroxide dosage and heating time. Soluble chemical oxidation demand (SCOD) concentration decreased with a very high hydrogen peroxide dosage. Volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration decreased with an increase of hydrogen peroxide dosage. Ammonia and orthophosphate concentrations increased with an increase of temperature and hydrogen peroxide dosage.
Genetic diversity within Ghanaian cowpea germplasm based on SDS-page of seed proteins
EYR Oppong-Konadu, HK Akromah, Adu Dapaah, E Okai
African Crop Science Journal , 2005,
Enabling Sustainability: Hierarchical Need-Based Framework for Promoting Sustainable Data Infrastructure in Developing Countries
David O. Yawson,Frederick A. Armah,Alex N. M. Pappoe
Sustainability , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/su1040946
Abstract: The paper presents thoughts on Sustainable Data Infrastructure (SDI) development, and its user requirements bases. It brings Maslow's motivational theory to the fore, and proposes it as a rationalization mechanism for entities (mostly governmental) that aim at realizing SDI. Maslow's theory, though well-known, is somewhat new in geospatial circles; this is where the novelty of the paper resides. SDI has been shown to enable and aid development in diverse ways. However, stimulating developing countries to appreciate the utility of SDI, implement, and use SDI in achieving sustainable development has proven to be an imposing challenge. One of the key reasons for this could be the absence of a widely accepted psychological theory to drive needs assessment and intervention design for the purpose of SDI development. As a result, it is reasonable to explore Maslow’s theory of human motivation as a psychological theory for promoting SDI in developing countries. In this article, we review and adapt Maslow’s hierarchy of needs as a framework for the assessment of the needs of developing nations. The paper concludes with the implications of this framework for policy with the view to stimulating the implementation of SDI in developing nations.
Who is utilizing anti-retroviral therapy in Ghana: An analysis of ART service utilization
Dako-Gyeke Phyllis,Snow Rachel,Yawson Alfred E
International Journal for Equity in Health , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1475-9276-11-62
Abstract: Introduction The global scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV patients has led to concerns regarding inequities in utilization of ART services in resource-limited contexts. In this paper, we describe regional and sex differentials in the distribution of ART among adult HIV patients in Ghana. We highlight the need for interventions to address the gender-based and geographic inequities related to the utilization of ART services in Ghana. Methods We reviewed National AIDS/STIs Control Program’s ART service provision records from January 2003 through December 2010, extracting data on adults aged 15+ who initiated ART in Ghana over a period of eight years. Data on the number of patients on treatment, year of enrollment, sex, and region were obtained and compared. Results The number of HIV patients receiving ART in Ghana increased more than 200-fold from 197 in 2003, to over 45,000 in 2010. However, for each of six continuous years (2005-2010) males comprised approximately one-third of adults newly enrolled on ART. As ART coverage has expanded in Ghana, the proportion of males receiving ART declined from 41.7% in 2004 to 30.1% in 2008 and to 27.6% in 2010. Also, there is disproportionate regional ART utilization across the country. Some regions report ART enrollment lower than their percent share of number of HIV infected persons in the country. Conclusions Attention to the comparatively fewer males initiating ART, as well as disproportionate regional ART utilization is urgently needed. All forms of gender-based inequities in relation to HIV care must be addressed in order for Ghana to realize successful outcomes at the population level. Policy makers in Ghana and elsewhere need to understand how gender-based health inequities in relation to HIV care affect both men and women and begin to design appropriate interventions.
Building the Capacity of Farmer Based Organisation for Sustainable Rice Farming in Northern Ghana
Quaye Wilhemina,Yawson Ivy,Manful John Tawiah,Gayin Joseph
Journal of Agricultural Science , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/jas.v2n1p93
Abstract: This study assessed the perceptions of stakeholders concerning implementation activities of a Food Security and Rice Producers Organisation Project (FSRPOP) in Northern Ghana. The project aimed at building the capacities of farmer based organisations (FBOs) to assist rice farmers access credit, organise production inputs and improve market access. The study results showed that although access to input supply and production credit improved, enhancing farmers’ marketing capacity was not successful. The management capacity of the FBOs was weak in performing more complex administrative issues and market facilitating roles. Timely provision of production inputs, use of custom based processing and credit inventory system for maximum profit were some of the lessons learnt. Facilitation of farmer - medium scale buyer linkages and the development of lessons-based action plan for change with beneficiaries were recommended
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