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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 174 matches for " Abdulmojeed Yakubu "
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FIXING MULTICOLLINEARITY INSTABILITY IN THE PREDICTION OF BODY WEIGHT FROM MORPHOMETRIC TRAITS OF WHITE FULANI COWS
Abdulmojeed YAKUBU
Journal of Central European Agriculture , 2011,
Abstract: Body weight and nine morphostructural characters (withers height, rump height, heart girth, body length, head width, cannon circumference, shoulder width, rump width and rump length) of 83 White Fulani cows aged 1.5-2.4 years old were used to study the problem of multicollinearity instability in the estimation of body weight from morphological indices. Pairwise phenotypic correlations indicated a high and positive significant relationship between body weight and body dimensions (r = 0.61- 0.94; P<0.01). Among the linear type traits, the highest correlation was observed between withers height and rump height (r =0.98) while the lowest value was recorded for rump height and shoulder width (r =0.51). Severe collinearity problems were evident in 5 of the zoometrical variables as portrayed by variance inflation factors (VIFs) higher than 10.00 (VIF = 33.096, 31.421, 24.612, 22.726 and 13.327 for rump height, withers height, rump length, heart girth and body length respectively). Collinearity problems were further confirmed from the computations of the eigenvalues of the correlation matrix, condition indexes and variance proportions. Heart girth was retained among the collinear variables, and singly accounted for 87.9%, 92.3% and 94.1% of the variation in body weight in the subsequent stepwise regression, quadratic and cubic models, respectively.
Multivariate analysis of morphostructural characteristics in Nigerian indigenous sheep
Abdulmojeed Yakubu,Isa Alkali Ibrahim
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2011.e17
Abstract: The population variability of three breeds of Nigerian sheep was investigated using multivariate discriminant analyses. The sampled populations comprised mature 331 Yankasa, 296 Uda and 166 Balami sheep kept by traditional farmers in northern Nigerian. A total of ten morphological traits (withers height, rump height, body length, face length, rump length, tail length, chest circumference, head width, shoulder width and rump width) were collected on each animal. The body measures of Balami sheep were significantly higher (P<0.05) than the others with the exception of tail length. Uda sheep also had comparative advantage over their Yankasa counterparts in all the morphological traits analysed. The stepwise discriminant analysis revealed that head width chronologically followed by tail length, chest circumference and body length were more discriminating in separating the three populations. The Mahalanobis distance between Yankasa and Balami sheep was highest (4.83) while the least differentiation was observed between Uda and Yankasa sheep (1.79). Nearest neighbour discriminant analysis showed that most Balami sheep (61.45%) were classified into their source genetic group. While 41.22% of Uda sheep were misclassified as Yankasa sheep, 35.35% of Yankasa were wrongly assigned as Uda sheep, showing the level of genetic exchange that has taken place between the two breeds overtime. The present information could be complemented with genetic analyses geared towards designing appropriate breeding and selection strategies.
Assessment of Genetic Relationship and Application of Computational Algorithm to Assess Functionality of Non-Synonymous Substitutions in DQA2 Gene of Cattle, Sheep and Goats  [PDF]
Steven B. Ugbo, Abdulmojeed Yakubu, Jude N. Omeje, Bwaseh S. Bibinu, Ibrahim S. Musa, Joseph O. Egahi, N. I. Dim
Open Journal of Genetics (OJGen) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojgen.2015.54011
Abstract: The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a fundamental part of the immune system in nearly all vertebrates. DQA2 is a member of the MHC complex and an important candidate gene involved in susceptibility/resistance to various diseases. Therefore, the present study aimed at investigating computationally molecular genetic variation of DQA2 gene of cattle, sheep and goats especially on its evolution and differentiation within and among species as well as the attendant effects of the polymorphism on the function of DQA2 gene. A total of thirty three DQA2 nucleotide sequences comprising cattle (10), sheep (12) and goats (11) were retrieved from the GenBank. Forty seven amino acid substitutions of the wild type alleles located in the putative peptide coding region of caprine DQA2 alleles were obtained from the alignment of deduced amino acid sequences of goats. Out of these, eleven amino acid substitutions (H14L, H14R, L34M, E35L, G56S, G56R, 161V, A62E, D69Q, T72N and T72G) were returned neutral; an indication that they did not impair protein function. The Expected Accuracy (EA) ranged from 53% - 87%. For sheep, sixteen amino acid substitutions (A11P, A11T, A11G, A11M, L14S, L14T, V27L, V27S, G35S, S46T, D55E, L57T, L57A, L57G, K65Q and V68I) appeared beneficial while the rest forty seven appeared harmful (EA ranged from 53% - 93%). Twenty four amino acid substitutions did not impair the function of protein while seventy seven substitutions appeared to have a negative effect on the function of protein of cattle (EA ranged from 53% - 94%). The phylogeny based on nucleotide and amino acid sequences of DQA2 gene revealed the close relatedness of the caprine, ovine and bovine species. The present knowledge would be relevant for performing further genotype-phenotype research as well as pharmacogenetics studies in order to show association between caprine, ovine and bovine DQA2 allelic variation and the clinical progression of infectious diseases especially in a developing country such as Nigeria.
Use of Factor Scores for Predicting Body Weight from Some Morphometric Measurements of Two Fish Species in Nigeria
Abdulmojeed Yakubu,Samuel A. Okunsebor,Alex A. Kigbu,Akeem O. Sotolu
Journal of Agricultural Science , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/jas.v4n8p60
Abstract: The interpretation of several traits contributing to body weight prediction is difficult due to the high degree of correlation among them. Based on this, we examined the relationships between body weight and six morphometric traits (standard length, total length, head length, body depth, dorsal length and caudal length) of two fish species, Oreochromis niloticus and Lates niloticus sampled in Doma Dam, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. The statistical approach adopted was the multivariate principal component factor analysis technique. Two principal components were obtained in Oreochromis niloticus while three components were extracted for Lates niloticus. Their respective factor scores fitted separately in a multiple linear regression model as explanatory variables accounted for 76.6% and 84.5% of the variation in the body weight of the two fish species.
Morphological and microsatellite DNA diversity of Nigerian indigenous sheep
Agaviezor Brilliant O,Peters Sunday O,Adefenwa Mufliat A,Yakubu Abdulmojeed
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/2049-1891-3-38
Abstract: Background Sheep is important in the socio-economic lives of people around the world. It is estimated that more than half of our once common livestock breeds are now endangered. Since genetic characterization of Nigerian sheep is still lacking, we analyzed ten morphological traits on 402 animals and 15 microsatellite DNA markers in 384 animals of the 4 Nigerian sheep breeds to better understand genetic diversity for breeding management and germplasm conservation. Results Morphological traits of Uda and Balami were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than Yankasa, which were both higher than West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep. Stepwise discriminant analysis showed tail length, rump height, chest girth, ear length and chest depth as the most discriminating variables for classification. Mahalanobis distances show the least differentiation between Uda and Balami and the largest between WAD and Balami sheep. While 93.3% of WAD sheep were correctly assigned to their source genetic group, 63.9% of Yankasa, 61.2% of Balami and 45.2% of Uda were classified correctly by nearest neighbour discriminant analysis. The overall high Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) of all microsatellite markers ranged from 0.751 to 0.927 supporting their use in genetic characterization. Expected heterozygosity was high for all loci (0.783 to 0.93). Mean heterozygote deficiency across all populations (0.171 to 0.534) possibly indicate significant inbreeding (P < 0.05). Mean values for FST, FIT and FIS statistics across all loci were 0.088, 0.394 and 0.336 respectively. Yankasa and Balami are the most closely related breeds (DA = 0.184) while WAD and Balami are the farthest apart breeds (DA = 0.665), which is coincident with distance based on morphological analysis and population structure assessed by STRUCTURE. Conclusions These results suggest that within-breed genetic variation in Nigerian sheep is higher than between-breeds and may be a valuable tool for genetic improvement and conservation. The higher genetic variability in Yankasa suggests the presence of unique ancestral alleles reflecting the presence of certain functional genes which may result in better adaptability in more agro-ecological zones of Nigeria. These genetic characteristics are potentially useful in planning improvement and conservation strategies in Nigerian indigenous sheep.
Computational Molecular Analysis of the Sequences of BMP15 Gene of Ruminants and Non-Ruminants  [PDF]
Bwaseh S. Bibinu, Abdulmojeed Yakubu, Steven B. Ugbo, Ndu I. Dim
Open Journal of Genetics (OJGen) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojgen.2016.62005
Abstract: Bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) is a member of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) super family that is expressed by oocytes and plays key roles in granulosa cell development and fertility in animal. This study investigated the molecular genetic variation of BMP15 gene of some selected mammalian species with a view to providing relevant genetic information for breeding and selection programmes in the studied species using computational methods. A total of thirty seven (37) BMP15 nucleotide sequences comprising goats (18), sheep (6), cattle (6), swine (4) and chicken (3) were retrieved from the GenBank. Sequence alignment, translation and comparison of the BMP15 gene of the various species were done with ClustalW. High degree of polymorphism of BMP15 gene was observed among the studied species. The significant value (P < 0.01) for relative proportions of non-synonymous substitutions per non-synonymous site (dN) and the number of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site (dS) symbolized that non-synonymous sites evolved faster than the synonymous sites and positive selection effect over shadowed purifying selection. Functional analysis of missense mutations using PROVEAN showed that twelve amino acid substitutions (L10S, W13A, E20L, V28S, P31R, P31G, P40Q, L42W, Q46N, A52V, R58C and G64T) in goats, nine in sheep (H21R, S32R, I33A, A39W, Q46W, E51A, G54S, R61D and E72A), six in cattle (Q30M, T41W, E50R, I62R, H65E, and E72S), seven in swine (I7L, T9I, V33I, L35H, C40P, R46P and Q61R) and five in chickens (A20H, L27H, W43L, A47P and G50Y) appeared beneficial. The phylogenetic trees from nucleotide and amino acid sequences revealed the close relatedness of members of the bovidae family (goat, sheep and cattle). The present information could guide future efforts involving selection of markers of fecundity to improve genetically livestock species in Nigeria.
Application of multivariate principal component analysis to morphological characterization of indigenous goats in Southern Nigeria
Moses Okpeku, , Abdulmojeed Yakubu, Sunday Olusola Peters, , Michael Ohiokhuaobo Ozoje, Christian Obiora Ndubuisi Ikeobi, Olufunmilayo Ayoka Adebambo, Ikhide Godwin Imumorin
Acta agriculturae Slovenica , 2011, DOI: 10.2478/v10014-011-0026-4
Abstract: Phenotypic variation present in a population arises due to genotypic and environmental effects, and the magnitude of phenotypic variability differs under different environmental conditions, therefore, the purpose of this study was to objectively describe the linear type traits of extensively managed mature indigenous goats of Southern Nigeria and to predict body weight from their orthogonal shape characters using principal component analysis. Body weight and four body measurements namely, height at withers, neck length, body length and heart girth were measured in 265 randomly selected West African Dwarf (WAD) and Red Sokoto (RS) goats of both sexes. RS goats had significantly (P < 0.05) higher morphological traits compared to their WAD counterparts. Sexual dimorphism was observed in all the traits with higher values recorded for males. Phenotypic correlations among body weight and biometric traits were positive and highly significant (r = 0.76-0.91 versus 0.82-0.97 and 0.66-0.94 versus 0.83-0.91 for WAD and RS female and male goats, respectively). In the varimax rotated principal component factor analysis, two factors were extracted for each sex of the two breeds, although with varying degrees of factor loadings. The principal component based regression models, which are preferable for selecting animals for optimal balance, accounted for 89.00 and 96.00% as well as 81.00 and 91.00% of the variation in body weight of female and male WAD and RS goats, respectively. The information obtained could be useful in designing appropriate management, selection and breeding programmes for utilization of goat genetic resources.
Differential IFN-Gamma (IFN-γ), Interleukin 10 (IL-10) and Cardiac Troponin I (cTnI) Responses in Natural Bovine Trypanosomosis in Nigeria  [PDF]
Michael I. Takeet, Benjamin O. Fagbemi, Sunday O. Peters, Matthew Wheto, Abdulmojeed Yakubu, Marcos DeDonato, Ikhide G. Imumorin
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2016.67014
Abstract: Trypanosomosis is major drawback to profitable livestock production in sub-Sahara African, including Nigeria. Knowledge of the cytokines production in the phase of natural infection may help to better diagnose, treat and prevent bovine trypanosomosis. The purpose of the this study was to determine the levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and cardiac troponin–I (cTnI) in the sera of cattle naturally infected with T. brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax and correlate these levels with parasitaemia and PCV of the infected animals. Five milliliter of blood samples were collected via the jugular vein from 411 randomly selected cattle into EDTA and non-citrated bottle. PCV was determined manually using HCT. Trypansomes were detected and characterized by microscopy and PCR, respectively. Serum levels of IFN-γ, IL-10 and cTnI were determined using commercial ELISA kit. Data were summarized using descriptive statistic and significance of differences determined by ANOVA. Of the 62 samples positive for trypanosomes by microscopy, 50 samples were confirmed to species level by PCR. The sera levels of IFN-γ, IL-10 and cTnI of infected cattle were higher than non-infected cattle. The differences were not significant (p < 0.05) from the non-infected cattle except IL-10. There was no correlation between assayed parameters, the PCV and parasitemia. This is the first report that determines the sera levels of IFN-γ, IL-10 and cTnI in cattle with natural trypanosomosis. Further investigation is required to understand the specific effect of trypanosomes on myocardiac integrity and interaction between the two cytokines in natural trypanosomosis in cattle.
Molecular Diagnosis of Subclinical African Trypanosoma vivax Infection and Association with Physiological Indices and Serum Metabolites in Extensively Managed Goats in the Tropics  [PDF]
Timothy M. Sanni, Gbolabo O. Onasanya, Mufliat A. Adefenwa, Abdulmojeed Yakubu, Christian O. N. Ikeobi, Olufunmilayo A. Adebambo, Adewale O. Talabi, Michael O. Ozoje, Mathew Wheto, Michael I. Takeet, Sunday O. Peters, Marcos De Donato, Bolaji N. Thomas, Ikhide G. Imumorin
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2013.31007
Abstract:

Trypanosomosis remains a major challenge to livestock production in much of tropical Sub-Saharan Africa, while diagnosis and treatment still depend on inefficient parasitological techniques. Endemic infections depend on animal reservoirs with subclinical parasitemia. We report molecular diagnosis of subclinical Trypanosoma vivax (T. vivax) infection using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the first time in Nigerian goats and associate parasite presence with gross physiological traits and serum metabolites in extensively managed Nigerian goats. PCR was used to amplify a 400 bp DNA fragment of the parasite genome in 205 goats across three geographical zones of the country. Results showed a high subclinical infection rate (SCIR) of 71.7% in the total goats examined. Overall SCIRs of 71%, 75.9% and 55.6% were recorded in West African Dwarf, Red Sokoto and Sahel goats respectively, while geographical SCIRs were 71.2% (Southwest), 75% (Northwest) and 70% (Northeast). T. vivax presence had significant (P < 0.05) effect on respiratory rate and is associated with higher creatinine levels in sera. Logistic regression analyses with Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit showed that respiratory rate is the most important predictive trait for the presence of T. vivax infection (P < 0.05). Goats appear to be a viable reservoir for T. vivax infection of other livestock. Molecular diagnosis of subclinical trypanosomosis using PCR could be useful for large scale epidemiological studies, early diagnosis of subclinical infection and treatment of the disease in extensively managed tropical goats.

Prevalence of Organophosphorous Pesticide Residues in Pumpkin, Spinach and Sorrel Leaves Grown in Akwanga, Nasarawa State, Nigeria  [PDF]
E. G. Ibrahim, N. Yakubu, L. Nnamonu, J. M. Yakubu
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2018.95032
Abstract: Three green leafy vegetable samples of pumpkin leaves, spinach leaves, and sorrel leaves were collected from three different locations in a farm in Akwanga and were tested for the presence of organophosphorus (OP) compounds. The concentrations of all the pesticide residues in the vegetable samples were determined using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The organophosphorus pesticides detected include carbaryl (0.052 mg/kg) in pumpkin, this is below European maximum residues limit (EU MRL) of 0.1 mg/kg, Dimethoate was found in pumpkin (0.165 mg/kg), spinach (0.103 mg/kg) and sorrel (0.250 mg/kg) all above the EU MRL of 0.05 mg/kg. Dichlofenthion was detected in pumpkin (0.308 mg/kg), pirimiphos methyl was detected in pumpkin and spinach (0.428 mg/kg and 0.149 mg/kg respectively), all these were below the EU MRL of 0.5 mg/kg. Chlorpyrifos was found in spinach (0.230 mg/kg) and sorrel (0.192 mg/kg) only spinach was above the EU MRL of 0.2 mg/kg. The pesticide residue Bromophosethyl was detected in all vegetables, pumpkin leaves (0.501 mg/kg), sorrel (1.571 mg/kg) and spinach (7.981 mg/kg) all above the EU MRL of 0.5 mg/kg. The remaining pesticides detected were all below their EU MRL value; these are Ethion found in spinach (0.167 mg/kg), Methyl Parathion in spinach (0.103 mg/kg) and sorrel (0.335 mg/kg). The levels of some of the organophosphorus pesticide residues found in vegetables were above the maximum residue limits (MRLs) set by the European Union. This calls for laws to regulate the use and circulation of such chemicals. Based on the observation made in these studies, it is proposed that more extensive monitoring investigation covering all vegetables part in Akwanga Nasarawa state be carried out to find the exact position of pesticide residues.
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