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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 325541 matches for " Abdallah S Daar "
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Clinical translation of neuro-regenerative medicine in India: A study on barriers and enabling strategies  [PDF]
Mark J. Messih, Claudia Emerson, Halla Thorsteinsdóttir, Michael G. Fehlings, Abdallah S. Daar
Open Journal of Regenerative Medicine (OJRM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojrm.2013.22004

We present the findings of a study of barriers and enabling strategies to clinical translation of Neuro-Regenerative Medicine (Neuro-RM) technologies in India. Twenty-three people were included in this qualitative study, including researchers, clinicians, firm representatives and policy makers working in Neuro-RM. The study has identified barriers that may arise at each stage of translation and how these are being addressed. Understanding of the molecular and cellular basis of Neuro-RM is being supported through government investment in existing neuroscience centres and the creation of new centres with regenerative medicine expertise. Clinical trials benefit from the support of clinicians who partner with researchers in study design and data collection. Government agencies have developed guidelines to inform best practices in preclinical and clinical studies. Addressing the barriers to Neuro-RM translation identified in this study can be achieved through continued support for capacity building and priority setting in preclinical studies, international efforts to achieve clinical trial protocol standardization, and multidisciplinary collaborations between clinicians, researchers, government and industry.

The CNCDs and the NTDs: Blurring the Lines Dividing Noncommunicable and Communicable Chronic Diseases
Peter J. Hotez ,Abdallah S. Daar
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000312
Building trust in biotechnology crops in light of the Arab Spring: a case study of Bt maize in Egypt
Ezezika Obidimma C,Daar Abdallah S
Agriculture & Food Security , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/2048-7010-1-s1-s4
Abstract: Background The case of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize in Egypt presents a unique perspective on the role of trust in agricultural biotechnology (agbiotech) public-private partnerships (PPPs). This is especially relevant given the recent pro-democracy uprisings that spread throughout the Arab world that have significantly impacted the current political climate and status of both the public and private sector, and especially public-private collaborative initiatives. This case study aims to shed light on various trust-building practices adopted, and trust-related challenges faced, in the Bt maize project in Egypt. Methods We reviewed published materials on Bt maize in Egypt and collected data through direct observations and semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with stakeholders of the Bt maize project in Egypt. Data from the interviews were analyzed based on emergent themes to create a comprehensive narrative on how trust is understood and built among the partners and with the community. Results We have distilled five key lessons from this case study. First, it is important to have transparent interactions and clearly defined project priorities, roles and responsibilities among core partners. Second, partners need to engage farmers by using proven-effective, hands-on approaches as a means for farmers to build trust in the technology. Third, positive interactions with the technology are important; increased yields and secure income attributable to the seed will facilitate trust. Fourth, there is a need for improved communication strategies and appropriate media response to obviate unwarranted public perceptions of the project. Finally, the political context cannot be ignored; there is a need to establish trust in both the public and private sector as a means to secure the future of agbiotech PPPs in Egypt. Conclusions Most important to the case of Egypt is the effect of the current political climate on project success. There is reason to believe that the current political situation will dictate the ability of public institutions and private corporations to engage in trusting partnerships.
Overcoming barriers to trust in agricultural biotechnology projects: a case study of Bt cowpea in Nigeria
Ezezika Obidimma C,Daar Abdallah S
Agriculture & Food Security , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/2048-7010-1-s1-s5
Abstract: Background Nigeria, Africa’s most populous country, has been the world’s largest cowpea importer since 2004. The country is currently in the early phases of confined field trials for two genetically modified crops: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cowpea and nutritionally enhanced cassava (“BioCassava Plus”). Using the bio-safety guidelines process as a backdrop, we evaluate the role of trust in the operation of the Cowpea Productivity Improvement Project, which is an international agricultural biotechnology public-private partnership (PPP) aimed at providing pest-resistant cowpea varieties to Nigerian farmers. Methods We reviewed the published literature and collected data through direct observations and semi-structured, face-to-face interviews. Data were analyzed based on emergent themes to create a comprehensive narrative on how trust is understood and built among the partners and with the community. Results Our findings highlight the importance of respecting mandates and eliminating conflicts of interest; holding community engagement initiatives early on; having on-going internal discussion and planning; and serving a locally-defined need. These four lessons could prove helpful to other agricultural biotechnology initiatives in which partners may face similar trust-related challenges. Conclusions Overcoming challenges to building trust requires concerted effort throughout all stages of project implementation. Currently, plans are being made to backcross the cowpea strain into a local variety in Nigeria. The development and adoption of the Bt cowpea seed hinges on the adoption of a National Biosafety Law in Nigeria. For countries that have decided to adopt biotech crops, the Nigerian cowpea experiment can be used as a model for other West African nations, and is actually applied as such in Ghana and Burkina Faso, interested in developing a Bt cowpea.
Global Health Challenges: The Need for an Expanded Discourse on Bioethics
Solomon R Benatar ,Abdallah S Daar,Peter A Singer
PLOS Medicine , 2005, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0020143
Trait stacking for biotech crops: an essential consideration for agbiotech development projects for building trust
Obidimma C Ezezika, Nadira Saleh, Abdallah S Daar
Agriculture & Food Security , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/2048-7010-1-5
Abstract: Publicly addressing the concerns over stacked trait crops early on in biotech development initiatives provides great potential to generate mutually advantageous solutions for all partners and stakeholders, enhance opportunities to build trust, and increase the likelihood that the initiative will succeed. We make this proposition based on our experience with the Water Efficient Maize for Africa (WEMA) project, which is a public-private partnership (PPP) working to develop drought-tolerant, royalty-free African maize varieties for small-scale farmers in sub-Saharan Africa using a combination of conventional and marker-assisted breeding and transgenic technology.The term ‘trait stacking’ for genetically modified (GM) or biotech crops refers to the incorporation of multiple genetic modifications, or traits, in a single variety of a crop [1]. Crops with stacked traits are more effective at meeting the needs of farmers and consumers than the traditional, mono-trait seed varieties because they allow for a product to be modified for multiple traits concurrently such as tolerance to herbicides, resistance to insects and improved nutritional content [2].The first stacked crop to be fully commercialized was a cotton seed that was produced using patented genes owned and developed by Monsanto, a multinational agricultural biotechnology company. These incorporated genes provide protection against certain pests and enable the use of the herbicide glyphosate [1]. The case of this cotton seed has been followed by the commercialization of other crops with stacked traits such as the Agrisure? 3000GT which protects against corn borer and corn rootworm while providing tolerance to in-season applications of certain herbicides [3]. A total of 42.2 million hectares of stacked biotech crops were planted in 2011, compared to 32.2 million hectares in 2010.The WEMA project engages a number of stakeholders from both the public and private sector, including the African Agricultural Technology Fo
Shared Principles of Ethics for Infant and Young Child Nutrition in the Developing World
Jerome Singh, Abdallah S Daar, Peter A Singer
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-321
Abstract: To begin to bridge this gap in trust, we developed a set of shared principles based on the following ideals: Integrity; Solidarity; Justice; Equality; Partnership, cooperation, coordination, and communication; Responsible Activity; Sustainability; Transparency; Private enterprise and scale-up; and Fair trading and consumer choice. We hope these principles can serve as a platform on which various parties in the in the infant and young child nutrition arena, can begin a process of authentic trust-building that will ultimately result in coordinated efforts amongst parties.A set of shared principles of ethics for infant and young child nutrition in the developing world could catalyze the scale-up of low cost, high quality, complementary foods for infants and young children, and eventually contribute to the eradication of infant and child malnutrition in the developing world.Despite potentially very large demand for high-quality, low-cost commercially produced fortified complementary foods (i.e., food given in addition to breast milk) for infants aged 6-24 months, the commercial sector has been slow to develop such products for the developing world [1]. If industry rises to this challenge by producing affordable, nutritious products and creating demand through appropriate marketing campaigns, such an approach could result in improved feeding and nutritional status and a corresponding decrease in death and disability in the developing world. The lack of private sector participation in this area is closely linked to the issue of trust, the lack of which is a key barrier along the critical path to optimal infant and young child nutrition in the developing world.In June 2008, the Pacific Health Summit was held in Seattle, Washington. The topic focussed on global nutrition challenges. Delegates comprised approximately 150 individuals from a range of nutrition-related constituencies. We noted that there was consensus amongst delegates that the erosion of trust among various st
Harnessing genomics to improve health in the Eastern Mediterranean Region – an executive course in genomics policy
Tara Acharya, Mohammed Rab, Peter A Singer, Abdallah S Daar
Health Research Policy and Systems , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1478-4505-3-1
Abstract: The course brought together senior representatives from academia, biotechnology companies, regulatory bodies, media, voluntary, and legal organizations to engage in discussion. Topics covered included scientific advances in genomics, followed by innovations in business models, public sector perspectives, ethics, legal issues and national innovation systems.A set of recommendations, summarized below, was formulated for the Regional Office, the Member States and for individuals.? Advocacy for genomics and biotechnology for political leadership;? Networking between member states to share information, expertise, training, and regional cooperation in biotechnology; coordination of national surveys for assessment of health biotechnology innovation systems, science capacity, government policies, legislation and regulations, intellectual property policies, private sector activity;? Creation in each member country of an effective National Body on genomics, biotechnology and health to:- formulate national biotechnology strategies- raise biotechnology awareness- encourage teaching and training of biotechnology- devise integration of biotechnology within national health systems.The recommendations provide the basis for a road map for EMR to take steps to harness biotechnology for better and more equitable health. As a result of these recommendations, health ministers from the region, at the 50th Regional Committee Meeting held in October 2003, have urged Member States to establish national bodies of biotechnology to formulate a strategic vision for developing biotechnology in the service of the region's health. These efforts promise to raise the profile of genomics in EMR and increase regional cooperation in this exciting new field.In a recent study, University of Toronto researchers identified the "Top 10 Biotechnologies to Improve Health in Developing Countries" [1]. The study underscores the importance of harnessing new technologies to improve global health and development,
The three main monotheistic religions and gm food technology: an overview of perspectives
Emmanuel B Omobowale, Peter A Singer, Abdallah S Daar
BMC International Health and Human Rights , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1472-698x-9-18
Abstract: The article establishes that there is no overarching consensus within the three religions. Overall, however, it appears that mainstream theology in all three religions increasingly tends towards acceptance of GM technology per se, on performing GM research, and on consumption of GM foods. These more liberal approaches, however, are predicated on there being rigorous scientific, ethical and regulatory scrutiny of research and development of such products, and that these products are properly labeled.We conclude that there are several other interests competing with the influence exerted on consumers by religion. These include the media, environmental activists, scientists and the food industry, all of which function as sources of information and shapers of perception for consumers.In 1999, the Church of England issued a statement that "religious traditions, which are reservoirs of wisdom accumulated and sifted over the centuries, have a vital role to play in helping society to reach the right conclusions" about the genetic modification (GM) of food crops [1]. We know that public acceptance of GM food technology is a crucial issue in the field. Whilst public acceptance is rooted, in part, in religious views, to our knowledge the views of different religions and their potential influence on consumers' decisions have not been systematically examined in a single overview article. In view of the interest and controversy generated by GM food technology, we present a brief overview of relevant positions articulated by religious leaders representing different faith communities and secular commentators – academics, especially scholars who also double as experts on issues relating to these three religious traditions, scientists and adherents of these monotheistic religions – on GM food technology. Specifically, we focus on the world's three major monotheistic religions: Judaism, Islam and Christianity, whose adherents, who mostly live in developing countries, collectively const
Human-animal chimeras for vaccine development: an endangered species or opportunity for the developing world?
Anant Bhan, Peter A Singer, Abdallah S Daar
BMC International Health and Human Rights , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1472-698x-10-8
Abstract: Development of human-animal chimeras for vaccine development has been slowed down because of opposition by some philosophers, ethicists and policy makers in the west-they question the moral status of such animals, and also express discomfort about transgression of species barriers. Such opposition often uses a contemporary western world view as a reference point. Human-animal chimeras are often being created for diseases which cause significantly higher morbidity and mortality in the developing world as compared to the developed world. We argue in our commentary that given this high disease burden, we should look at socio-cultural perspectives on human-animal chimera like beings in the developing world. On examination, it's clear that such beings have been part of mythology and cultural descriptions in many countries in the developing world.To ensure that important research on diseases afflicting millions like malaria, HIV, Hepatitis-C and dengue continues to progress, we recommend supporting human-animal chimera research for vaccine development in developing countries (especially China and India which have growing technical expertise in the area). The negative perceptions in some parts of the west about human-animal chimeras can be used as an opportunity for nurturing important vaccine development research in the developing world.We need animal models that can be used to test vaccine candidates against neglected (and less neglected) tropical diseases such as malaria, dengue, HIV and Hepatitis C. These diseases cause morbidity and mortality in large numbers of people, with the developing world bearing the heaviest burden. Vaccine candidate testing in large non-human primates like chimpanzees is very costly, the number of animals available is usually small and there are concerns about inter-animal variability which affects data interpretation; and also most jurisdictions discourage research on large non-human primates due to ethical concerns. Translating laboratory f
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