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Purpose: To determine the
clinical characteristics and outcome of bacterial meningitis in adult patients
using CT, MRI and CSF culture. Methods: Patients admitted to the university
hospital with clinical diagnosis of meningitis were included in the present
study. All patients were subjected to clinical examination as well as CT, MRI
scanning and CSF-bacteriological culture. Results: The age distribution of the
patients shows that there is high frequency of symptoms found in the age group
between ages 40 - 45. CSF in the present study included WBS, RBC, glucose and
protein, which is associated with the adverse outcome. Meningitis can be
confirmed by many methods, in the present study three different methods were
used, which included CT scan, MRI and CSF analysis and bacterial culture. In CT
scan, among the predictors of meningitis, persons with TB (P = 0.037), patients
with HIV (P = 0.036) and stroke (P = 0.036) showed significant association.
Whereas MRI findings were significantly associated with TB meningitis (P = 0.015).
Meningitis was prevalent in the age group of <45. Conclusion: This study
highlights the importance of several modalities for diagnosing and predicting
the outcome of meningitis in adults.
A total of 64 male obese subjects were
randomized to observe the effect of 40 g of walnut in daily
breakfast on lipid profile and Body Mass Index (BMI), total Cholesterol (CHO), Triglyceride
(TG) High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL)
cholesterol in obese male subjects of various ethnics i.e. Baloch (B), Pathan (P), Hazara (H) and Punjabi (PU) residing in
Quetta region of Balochistan for this purpose four weeks controlled study was designed. A batch of 32 obese
male subjects 8 from each ethnic group as a control and another batch of 32 obese
males 8 from each ethnic group as treated were selected. Twelve hour fasting blood
samples a day after stoppage of walnut were taken from obese control and obese treated
subjects. Daily walnut consumption in obese male subjects evidently demonstrated
reduced BMI in all ethnic groups. Walnut supplementation in obese exhibited significant
reduction in cholesterol level in Baloch (P < 0.001) and Punjabi (P < 0.01)
males. There was profound and statistically significant [B (P < 0.05), P (P <
0.05), H (P < 0.01) and PU (P < 0.05)] elevation in HDL-C in all male ethnic
groups. In male sub-population LDL-C was significantly [P (P < 0.01), H (P < 0.001) and PU (P <
0.05)] reduced in these groups. In these subjects walnut supplementation showed
pronounced reduction [B (P < 0.001), P (P < 0.05), H (P < 0.001) and PU (P
< 0.001)] in triglyceride levels. The constructive influence of walnut on lipid
profile suggests that walnut rich diet may have advantageous effects beyond changes
in plasma lipid level.
Background: The present study was planned to investigate the level of cholesterol in obese/non-obese (normal) individuals according to their body mass index (BMI) and age in different population residing in Karachi. Aim: Comparison of serum cholesterol values of obese with normal subjects and comparison of BMI of obese and normal individuals. Methods: Selection of obese subjects was according to the WHO (1998) criteria. A total of 40 subjects 18 - 55 years of age participated in the study, among which 30 subjects (Mean Age = 29.47 ± 1.99) were obese (Mean BMI = 35.41 ± 0.878) and 10 were controls with Mean age = 21.00 ± 0.547 and BMI = 19.96 ± 0.432. An overnight fasting blood sample was obtained and serum total Cholesterol (T-CH) level was estimated. Results: Obese persons having Mean T-CH = 202.6 ± 14.3 and controls having Mean T-CH = 173.3 ± 14.0. The data were further divided into males and females. Obese females were 11 with their BMI 31.836 ± 0.21, mean age ranged at 28.73 ± 4.04 and T-CH 191.8 ± 21.8, while that of control females were 6 in number with their BMI ranged at 19.183 ± 0.507, age 21.000 ± 0.894 and Cholester 148.7 ± 16.0 in controls. Total numbers of obese males were 19 with their BMI ranged at 37.49 ± 1.14, age ranged at 29.89 ± 2.19 and cholesterol level ranged at 208.89 ± 19.1. Control males were 4 in number with their BMI ranged at 21.125 ± 0.075, age 21.250 ± 0.479 and their T-CH 128.7 ± 8.72. Conclusion: The results of current study have reflected that BMI and total cholesterol concentration are higher in obese subjects.