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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1625 matches for " AO Okhamafe "
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Plasmodium falciparum malaria and antimalarial interventions in sub-Saharan Africa: Challenges and opportunities
EFO Enato, AO Okhamafe
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2004,
Abstract: Plasmodium falciparum malaria is one of the most important parasitic diseases affecting sub-Saharan Africa, despite the availability of interventions. It exerts tremendous socio-economic and medical burden on the continent, particularly in under five children and pregnant women. In this review, we have attempted to highlight the problems, constraints and the opportunities that are available for effective prevention and control within the region.
An Overview of Pharmaceutical Validation and Process Controls in Drug Development.
E Jatto, AO Okhamafe
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research , 2002,
Abstract: It has always been known that the processes involved in pharmaceutical production impact significantly on the quality of the products The processes include raw material and equipment inspections as well as in-process controls. Process controls are mandatory in good manufacturing practice (GMP). The purpose is to monitor the on-line and off-line performance of the manufacturing process, and hence, validate it. Thus validation is an integral part of quality assurance. This overview examines the need for pharmaceutical validation and the various approaches and steps involved as well other pertinent consideration.
Optimising oral systems for the delivery of therapeutic proteins and peptides
IM Arhewoh, EI Ahonkhai, AO Okhamafe
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2004,
Abstract: Therapeutic proteins/peptides are mostly administered as parenteral (injectable) preparations as a result of their poor oral bioavailability which is due to degradation by proteolytic enzymes, poor membrane permeability and large molecular size. However, the oral route would be preferred to the parenteral administration because it is more convenient for self-administration, non-invasive and more patient friendly. Consequently, efforts have intensified over the past two decades to maximize the extent of absorption of protein and peptide drugs in order to achieve optimum bioavailability via the oral route. A suitable oral delivery system should retain the drug and maintain its integrity until it gets to the region of maximum absorption where the protein/peptide is released. It would be advantageous for such a delivery system to be capable of attaching itself to the absorptive cells in that region during the course of drug release by means of specific interactions with the tissue components. Furthermore, movement of drug should be independent of prevailing factors in the gut during passage. This review examines the various efforts and strategies that have been used to pursue the goals of effective oral peptide delivery, progress made so far, as well as current trends and future prospects. Relevant issues and phenomena such as membrane permeability control, intestinal absorption, paracellular pathway and targeting have also been discussed.
A study of the pharmaceutical quality of chloroquine and paracetamol products sold in a major Nigerian “market”
J Ofonaike, EFO Enato, AO Okhamafe
African Journal of Health Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Malaria is a major public health problem in endemic countries, and the quality of antimalarial products is a concern in the therapeutic management of individual patient. In this study, we have evaluated the pharmaceutical quality of chloroquine and paracetamol oral products obtained from a major Nigerian drug “market” using a less elaborate sampling procedure. Results have shown that there are still some defects in the pharmaceutical quality of these drugs, despite the activities of the Nigeria\'s drug regulatory agency (National agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control, NAFDAC). 21% (7/34) of the drug products were not registered by NAFDAC. The pharmaceutical properties of the products indicated that 6, 15, 9, and 9% of them failed tests for disintegration, dissolution, crushing strength, and percentage of active content, respectively. 4 out of the 6 chloroquine liquid preparations evaluated had inadequate active content. These defects could have resulted from deliberate counterfeiting, poor quality control during manufacture or decomposition of the products. However, this could not be ascertained from the data available to us in this study. The implication of these findings, however, is that the newer anti-malarial drugs that have recently been introduced into the Nigerian market should be safeguarded, if their therapeutic usefulness must be sustained. African Journal of Health Sciences Vol. 14 (3-4) 2007: pp. 164-170
Microbiological and toxicological studies on cellulose generated from agricultural wastes
RI Ozolua, EKI Omogbai, JO Akerele, AO Okhamafe
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2005,
Abstract: A pharmaceutical excipient is required to meet certain minimum standards for use in the manufacture of dosage forms. In this study, two of such requirements, microbiological and toxicological suitability, was investigated in respect of cellulose powder derived from an agricultural waste, maize cob. Microbial count data were obtained by inoculating a suspension of the cellulose into various types of agar. We also studied some of the possible toxicological effects of sub-acute ingestion of the cellulose in 2% tragacanth mucilage on adult male Wistar rats given 1.6 g/kg per day for 14 days. Weight changes, locomotor activity, some haematological parameters and the presence of gastrointestinal lesions were evaluated. Microbiological results indicate a ‘no growth’ status for yeast, fungi as well as for coliform and pseudomonas bacteria. The mesophilic bacterium, Bacillus subtilis returned a count of 100 cfu/g. Toxicological results show that animal weight was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced on the 14th day compared to weights on the 1st and 3rd days. Locomotor activity increased in a similar pattern being significantly higher (P < 0.05) on day 14 than on days 1 and 3. Platelet counts, white blood cell counts, and packed cell volume were not affected. There were no visible gastrointestinal (GI) lesions or morbidity and mortality in the animals. We conclude that the cellulose satisfied the British Pharmacopoeia requirement for pharmaceutical grade starch that it should be free from the coliform bacterium, Escherichia coli. Furthermore, the results obtained showed that the cellulose neither exerted adverse effects on the haematological status of the animals nor is it associated with any other significant toxicological event.
On Practice of the Effect of Systematic Family Nursing Guidance on the Quality of Life of Elderly Patients with Implanted Cardiac Pacemaker  [PDF]
Xin Ao
Yangtze Medicine (YM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ym.2018.23018
Abstract: Objective: To inquire into the effect of systematic family nursing guidance on improving the Quality of Life for elderly patients with implanted cardiac pacemaker. Methods: 41 elderly patients in accordance with the corresponding requirements were studied after offering systematic family nursing guidance and surveyed through the questionnaires about the QOL (quality of life) respectively 1 month, 3 months and 6 months after leaving hospital. Results: Compared with that of 1 month and 3 months after the operation, the questionnaire scores for 6 months after the operation were found to have significant improvement, and the differences were statistically significant. Conclusion: Systematic family nursing guidance can effectively improve the QOL for elderly patients with implanted cardiac pacemaker, which makes them spend their old age in comfort and happiness.
Processing pharmaceutical grade microcrystalline cellulose from groundnut husk: Extraction methods and characterization
Ohwoavworhua Frank,Adelakun Tiwalade,Okhamafe Augustine
International Journal of Green Pharmacy , 2009,
Abstract: Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) is an important ingredient in pharmaceutical, food, cosmetic and other industries. In this work, MCC was prepared from the alpha cellulose content of groundnut husk, a renewable natural resource that has no industrial utilization yet. The effects of pulping methods (sodium hydroxide and multistage pulping) and varying bleaching time on yield and amorphous properties of obtained alpha cellulose were examined. The prepared MCC (groundnut husk-MCC) was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffractometer (X-RPD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and compared with commercial-grade MCC. The results showed that complete pulping was achieved only by the use of the multistage pulping method and its yield was 15%. It was also found that the duration of bleaching affected the polymeric form of the processed alpha cellulose and hence, it is suggested that X-ray diffraction analysis should form an in-process check in the production of cellulose to ensure batch-to-batch consistency and performance. It was concluded that GH-MCC compared favourably with the commercial-grade MCC as well as conform to official specifications for MCC in the British Pharmacopoeia.
Response of Tripanosoma brucei brucei–induced anaemia to a commercial herbal preparation
Patrick O Erah, Canice C Asonye, Augustine O Okhamafe
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2003,
Abstract: Jubi Formula is a herbal preparation made from three medicinal herbs (Parquetina nigrescens, Sorghum bicolor and Harungana madagascariensis). It has been reported to have been successfully used in the treatment of anaemia in humans. A study was therefore carried out to determine the effect of the preparation on packed cell volume (PCV) and haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations in anaemic rabbits. The PCV and Hb concentrations of healthy rabbits infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei were monitored for 49 days. T. b. brucei produced a significant reduction in PCV and Hb concentrations in all infected rabbits when compared with the controls (p<0.05). These hematological parameters were restored to normal levels in the anaemic rabbits by the herbal preparation. The anaemic rabbits not treated with the herbal preparation presented with a progressive decline in their PCV and Hb concentrations and majority of them died before the end of the study. Healthy rabbits that received daily doses of the herbal preparation showed gradual elevation in PCV and Hb concentrations which were maintained within normal range. Jubi Formula can restore the PCV and Hb concentrations in anaemic conditions and is a potential substitute for blood transfusion. However, further studies are needed to investigate the potentials of the herbal preparation in reversing anaemia.
Plasmodium falciparum malaria resistance to chloroquine in five communities in Southern Nigeria
Patrick O Erah, Gertrude Arienmughare, Augustine O Okhamafe
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2003,
Abstract: Chloroquine is still a first-line antimalarial drug in uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Increasing resistance to chloroquine has been reported in many parts of Nigeria. Clinical and parasitological responses and classes of resistance to chloroquine in falciparum malaria in five communities in Delta region, southern Nigeria were assessed. Chloroquine was administered to 218 patients with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria. The levels of parasitemia, clinical response and classes of resistance were monitored for 7 days. High levels of therapeutic failures of chloroquine in P. falciparum malaria were recorded in the region. The frequencies of clinical and parasitological failure of chloroquine were 25.7% and 55%, respectively. These frequencies were significantly lower in children below 5 years than older people. R2 and R3 resistance occurred in 37.2% and 17.4% of the patients, respectively. The therapeutic failure of chloroquine was not gender dependent. We conclude that chloroquine is still effective in the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in some communities in Delta region of Nigeria. However, resistance to chloroquine is likely. These results may be used as an important indicator of the significant level of therapeutic failure of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria to chloroquine in Nigeria.
Effect of Solvent Type and Drying Method on Protein Retention in Chitosan-Alginate Microcapsules
E I Ahonkhai, I M Arhewoh, A O Okhamafe
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research , 2006,
Abstract: Purpose: The effect of solvent used in dissolving chitosan (membrane material) and the microcapsule drying method used, on protein retention in chitosan-alginate microcapsules were studied since these factors affect the physicochemical characteristics of the coating membrane. Method: The microcapsules were prepared by extruding a solution containing alginate and BSA into chitosan/calcium chloride solution prepared with different acid solvents – acetic acid, formic acid, tartaric acid and hydrochloric acid. A portion of the microcapsules was air-dried at ambient temperature while the remaining portion was freeze-dried. The elution of protein from the microcapsules in simulated gastric fluid was monitored spectrophotometrically at λmax 280 nm. Results: Tartaric acid effected the highest mean protein retention (54%) after 9 h followed by acetic acid (35%), hydrochloric acid (31%) and formic acid, (30%). There appears to be a link between the pKa of the acids and the degree of chitosan–solvent interaction on the one hand, and protein retention on the other hand. Increase in elution pH from 1.2 to 5.0 did not significantly (P>0.05) affect protein retention. Furthermore, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the protein retention capacities of air-dried and freeze-dried microcapsules as both types showed protein retention of 50% after 5 h. Conclusion: Tartaric acid was the most suitable solvent for enhancing protein retention in chitosan-alginate microcapsules in simulated gastric fluid .
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