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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1622 matches for " AO Okaro "
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Latex glove sensitivity amongst diagnostic imaging healthcare personnel: a study in Southeastern Nigeria.
CU Eze, AO Okaro, IV Nwobi
African Journal of Health Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: The paper reports a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence and type of symptoms, causal agents and awareness of latex glove reactions amongst four professional groups. The study was done at diagnostic imaging departments within ten major hospitals in Southeastern Nigeria. Radiologists/resident radiologists, radiographers, radiology nurses and darkroom technicians who were occupationally exposed to latex gloves were investigated between June and September 2006 to determine the level of latex hypersensitivity. The results show that prevalence is similar to that demonstrated elsewhere with 12.4% of individuals expressing latex associated symptoms. Symptoms included itching and redness of hands, dry cracked skin, soreness of eyes, and upper respiratory tract complaints. There are strong relationships between number of gloves used per day, duration of glove use and expression of symptoms. About 62.8% (n=76) of the respondents had previous knowledge of hypersensitivity reaction to latex gloves prior to this investigation. The paper concludes that latex hypersensitivity is a real problem amongst diagnostic imaging healthcare personnel in our locality. This preliminary work, therefore, provides the basis of a much larger controlled study in the future. African Journal of Health Sciences Vol. 15 (1&2) 2008: pp. 28-33
The effects of menopause on the serum lipid profile of normal females of South East Nigeria
JC Igweh, IU Nwagha, JM Okaro
Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences , 2005,
Abstract: Dyslipidemia in menopause is a known feature in women, whether it leads to significant increase in the development of coronary heart disease (CHD) is still controversial, more so in our environment where little work has been done. The present study is aimed at comparing the level of total serum cholesterol, including its subunits in premenopausal with that of their postmenopausal counterparts. This is to enable us ascertain the relative risk of developing cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women in our environment. One hundred and twenty six (126) apparently healthy, nonpregnant females (74 premenopausal and 52 postmenopausal) were recruited for the study. Serum total cholesterol and their subfractions- high-density lipoproteins (HDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL), very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and triglycerides (TG) were estimated using enzymatic and established mathematical methods. There was no significant difference in the total serum cholesterol and triglyceride between the two groups. There was however, a significant reduction of HDL and VLDL in the postmenopausal group (P<0.005) and a significant increase in the level of LDL in the postmenopausal group (P<0.005). The elevated LDL and the reduction of cardio protective HDL and VLDL is an indication that menopause is an independent risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease in our environment.
On Practice of the Effect of Systematic Family Nursing Guidance on the Quality of Life of Elderly Patients with Implanted Cardiac Pacemaker  [PDF]
Xin Ao
Yangtze Medicine (YM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ym.2018.23018
Abstract: Objective: To inquire into the effect of systematic family nursing guidance on improving the Quality of Life for elderly patients with implanted cardiac pacemaker. Methods: 41 elderly patients in accordance with the corresponding requirements were studied after offering systematic family nursing guidance and surveyed through the questionnaires about the QOL (quality of life) respectively 1 month, 3 months and 6 months after leaving hospital. Results: Compared with that of 1 month and 3 months after the operation, the questionnaire scores for 6 months after the operation were found to have significant improvement, and the differences were statistically significant. Conclusion: Systematic family nursing guidance can effectively improve the QOL for elderly patients with implanted cardiac pacemaker, which makes them spend their old age in comfort and happiness.
Differential Evolution Using Opposite Point for Global Numerical Optimization  [PDF]
Youyun Ao, Hongqin Chi
Journal of Intelligent Learning Systems and Applications (JILSA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jilsa.2012.41001
Abstract: The Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm is arguably one of the most powerful stochastic optimization algorithms, which has been widely applied in various fields. Global numerical optimization is a very important and extremely dif-ficult task in optimization domain, and it is also a great need for many practical applications. This paper proposes an opposition-based DE algorithm for global numerical optimization, which is called GNO2DE. In GNO2DE, firstly, the opposite point method is employed to utilize the existing search space to improve the convergence speed. Secondly, two candidate DE strategies “DE/rand/1/bin” and “DE/current to best/2/bin” are randomly chosen to make the most of their respective advantages to enhance the search ability. In order to reduce the number of control parameters, this algorithm uses an adaptive crossover rate dynamically tuned during the evolutionary process. Finally, it is validated on a set of benchmark test functions for global numerical optimization. Compared with several existing algorithms, the performance of GNO2DE is superior to or not worse than that of these algorithms in terms of final accuracy, convergence speed, and robustness. In addition, we also especially compare the opposition-based DE algorithm with the DE algorithm without using the opposite point method, and the DE algorithm using “DE/rand/1/bin” or “DE/current to best/2/bin”, respectively.
Capitalism, Globalisation and the Underdevelopment Process in Africa: History in Perpetuity
AO Olutayo, AO Omobowale
Africa Development , 2007,
Abstract: Since the incorporation of the Third World nations into the world capitalist system, the underdevelopment process seems to have commenced through the use of liberal economic principles. In spite of the obvious pauperisation of these nations, it seems as if there is no alternative even when indigenous governments are in control of affairs. This paper attempts to show why the underdevelopment process has persisted with capitalism entrenched in the garb of globalisation. It suggests that the way out is for the developing world to control and own their means of survival without which the underdevelopment process shall continue. Of utmost significance however is the need to control the intellectual domain.
Microbiological profile of bacterial conjunctivitis in Ibadan, Nigeria
AO Okesola, AO Salako
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine , 2010,
Abstract: Objective : In bacterial conjunctivitis, clinical presentations are not diagnostic of the causative agent, therefore, microbiological analysis is mandatory for specific treatment option. This study was undertaken to determine the microbiology profile of bacterial conjunctivitis in our environment. Methodology: This is a laboratory-based study carried out in the Medical Microbiology Laboratory of University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Conjunctival swabs collected from 365 patients with clinically diagnosed conjunctivitis, were analysed by standard bacteriological methods. Results: Bacterial pathogens were detected in 342 (93.7%) conjunctival samples while 23(6.3%) were sterile. Of the pathogens, 256 (74.9%) were Staphylococcus aureus, 35(10.2%) Coagulase- negative staphylococci, 22 (6.4%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa , 11(3.2%) Escherichia coli, 7(2.1%) Klebsiella species, 5(1.5%) Streptococcus pneumoniae , 4(1.2%) Haemophilus influenzae, 1(0.3%) Proteus mirabilis and 1(0.3%)Neisseria gonorrhoeae . The highest rate of conjunctivitis 96(26.3%) was found among infants and children (0-10years).Resistance rates to most of the tested antibiotics were high. However, 67% of them were susceptible to ceftriaxone while only 39.2% were susceptible to chloramphenicol. Conclusions: This study has recorded high antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens of conjunctivitis in this environment; therefore, determining the susceptibility pattern of these pathogens to available antibiotics is crucial to effective management of bacterial conjunctivitis.
Infectious agents and cancer
AO Oluwasola, AO Adeoye
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine , 2005,
Abstract: No Abstract.
A skin colour code for the Nigerian (Negroid) population
AO George, AO Ogunbiyi
African Journal of Health Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: Some researchers have codified various people of different racial and pigment backgrounds into skin types. The West African native population generally falls into type VI –least likely to burn. There is a need for skin colour code in a multiethnic country like Nigeria especially for the purpose of health matters. The human eye is still the most accurate instrument for the measurement of colour; its interpretation however is subjective. An objective form of documentation is needed that will be simple, quick and inexpensive. To meet the challenge for the development of a skin colour code for Nigerians, a study was conducted at the University College Hospital (UCH) Ibadan, Nigeria. The study aimed at visually identifying possible skin colours and to reproduce this on the computer. 40 colour chips were identified and found relevant for the Negroid skin in Nigeria including the Nigerian albino. The chart can be laminated using thin transparent plastic film to prevent transmission of infection from skin to skin in different people. A skin colour code can be useful for clinical evaluation of disease conditions like vitiligo as well as for epidemiological studies. Its diagnostic potential is yet to be assessed. African Journal of Health Sciences Vol. 13 (1-2) 2008: pp. 96-100
Epidemiology of Clinical Isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis at Ibadan, Nigeria
AO Kehinde, AO Okesola
Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: Despite the huge burden of tuberculosis (TB) in Nigeria, case detection rate of infectious cases still remain low, thus constituting obstacle to eradication of the disease in the community. We carried out a 15 month (1st January 2008 to 30th March 2009) retrospective review of epidemiology of clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis isolated at TB regional reference laboratory at the department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Fifty isolates were recovered from 720 specimens during the period of study with a recovery rate of 6.9%. Sixty- two (8.6%) of the specimens were contaminated. Thirty eight (76.0%) isolates were from the specimens of male subjects and 12 (24.0%) from female subjects giving a male to female ratio of 3.2: 1.0 Majority (62.0%) of the isolates were from subjects aged 20 years and above with an isolation rate of 7.3% while only two clinical isolates (4.0%) were recovered from specimens from children. A high yield of 20.8% was recovered from specimen collected from Hausa ethnic group who predominantly domiciled in a particular part of the metropolis. In terms of socio-economic status, clinical isolates recovered from specimens from unskilled workers (76.0%) was more than thrice from that obtained from the professionals (24.0%). Seven (14.0%) of the total isolates were recovered from extra-pulmonary lesions while the majority 43 (86.0%) were for pulmonary TB. The isolation rate from children and extra-pulmonary sites are low. This suggests a need to pay more attention to diagnosis of childhood and extra-pulmonary TB in Ibadan, Nigeria.
Maternal Mortality at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Before and After Kenya
JM Okaro, AC Umezulike, HE Onah, LI Chukwuali, OF Ezugwu, PC Nweke
African Journal of Reproductive Health , 2001,
Abstract: A comparative retrospective analysis of maternal deaths at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria, was carried out for two ten-year periods ? 1976-1985 and 1991-2000 ? in order to evaluate the effect of Safe Motherhood Initiative on maternal mortality in the hospital. Variables for the two periods were compared by means of the t-test at 95% confidence level. Maternal mortality ratio was significantly higher in Period II than in Period I (1406 versus 270 per 100,000; p = 0.00). The leading causes of maternal death were uterine rupture for Period I and septicaemia for Period II. Although from the first to the second ten-year period there was a significant decrease in the number of midwives, physicians and nurse anaesthetists, there was more than a proportionate decrease in the number of deliveries. There was also increase in the incidence of anaemia due to diminished standards of living and in the mean decision-intervention interval (1.5 ± 0.5 versus 5.8 ± 1.2 hours; p = 0.000) as a result of worker dissatisfaction and changes in hospital policies. We conclude that since the launching of the Safe Motherhood Initiative, MMR at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria, has increased five-fold as a result of institutional delays and a deterioration in the living standards of Nigerians, both consequences of a depressed economy. To halt this trend, we recommend that the living standard of all Nigerians should be improved. Furthermore, healthcare personnel should be motivated through enhanced salaries and provision of working materials including efficient mobile telephone services. (Afr J Reprod Health 2001; 5[2]: 90-97) RéSUMé Mortalité matrenelle au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire à Enugu, Nigéria: Avant et après le Kenya. Une analyse retrospective comparée des décès maternels au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire à Enugu au Nigeria a été faite au cours de deux périodes de dix ans chacune, 1976-1985 et 1991-2000. Le but de l'analyse était d'évaluer l'effet de la Safe Motherhood Initiative sur la mortalité maternelle dans l'h pital. Des variables pour les deux périodes ont été comprarés à l'aide du test de t à un niveau de confiance de 95%. Le rapport de mortalité maternelle était, de manière significative, plus élevé dans la période II que dans la Période I (1406 par opposition à 270 par 100,000, p = 0,00). Les causes principales du décès maternel étaient la rupture de l'utérine pour la Période I et la septicémie pour la Période II. Bien que depuis la première jusqu'à la deuxième période de dix ans il y ait une baisse significative dans le nombre de sages-femmes, de médecins et d'infirmières anesthésistes, il y avait plus qu'une baisse proportionnelle dans le nombre d'accouchements. Il y avait également une augmentation de l'incidence d'anémie à cause du niveau de vie baissé et dans l'espace de la moyenne décision-intervention (1,5 ± 0,5 par opposition à 5,8 ± 1,2 heures; p = 0,000) à cause du mécontentement chez
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