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Genetic and dietary factors related to schizophrenia  [PDF]
Karl L. Reichelt, Michael L. G. Gardner
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2012.21003
Abstract: Biochemical, immunological and epidemiological evidence increasingly support the suggestion that there is a causal relationship between gluten/gliadin and schizophrenia as originally proposed by F. C. Dohan. Furthermore the necessary physiological mechanisms exist to explain a mechanism involving bioactive peptides from these proteins, and these show that this mechanism is possible and probable in at least in a substantial subgroup of schizophrenic patients. Evidence shows a fairly strong genetic disposition, and it must be recognised that any genetic mechanism must implicate altered chemistry and function of proteins. Evidence supports the likelihood that dietary intervention is beneficial for some, and this demands further investigation. A similar conclusion may apply to autism spectrum conditions.
Tetanus Toxin Antibody Levels in Pre-School Nigerian Children after Three Doses of Diphtheria-Pertussis-Tetanus/Pentavalent Immunization: A Cross-Sectional Study  [PDF]
Emmanuel E. Ekanem, Helen O. Uket, Henry C. Okpara
World Journal of Vaccines (WJV) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/wjv.2018.82005
Abstract: Background: Post-neonatal tetanus is an important problem. Prevention of tetanus in Nigeria is via immunization with three doses of Diphtheria-Pertussis-Tetanus (DPT)/Pentavalent vaccine at 6, 10 and 14 weeks. The anti-tetanus antibody levels of these children are not known after they had received DPT3/Pentavalent vaccines. Aim: This work was to determine the anti-tetanus antibody (IgG) response in Nigerian children aged six months to five years who had received three doses of DPT vaccine in early infancy. Methods: Children aged six months to five years who were attended to in the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital for acute illnesses were recruited. Their anti-tetanus IgG levels were measured using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The optimal cut-off level of ≥0.1 IU/ml was used as the protective level. Data was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 with simple proportions and percentages. Students’ “t” test and ANOVA were used to compare quantitative variables while Chi-square and Fisher’s exact test were used to compare categorical data. Results: Four hundred and eighteen children participated in the study. The mean IgG antibody level was 1.021 ± 0.9 IU/ml. Four hundred children (95.7%) had protective levels of antibodies. The highest proportion of subjects with protective levels was in infants, 6 - 11 months (99%) and lowest in children aged 36 - 47 months (92.2%). Conclusion: The proportion of children with protective levels was above 90% in all age groups studied. The current national immunization schedule is adequate. Further studies in older age groups are needful.
Iranian Journal of Public Health , 1983,
Abstract: The IFA and the blue dye decolourization G6PD tests were applied in three cross-sectional studies to find out were applied in three cross-sectional studies to find out the relationship of malarial antibodies and G6PD deficiency in the male residents of the malarious areas of southern Iran. In the first study that the blood samples were collected in a random sampling method from the whole Hormozgan province, the G6PD deficient individuals has, significantly, lower sero-positive rate (SPR) and also, considerably lower total geometric mean of reciprocal titers (GMRT) with P.falciparum antigen as compared to the G6PD normal subjects. But with P.vivax antigen SPR and GMRT in both groups were almost the same. However in the second and third studies that the blood samples were collected from the selected groups of the residents of the above Hormozgan province with high incidences of malaria no such distinct serological differences between G6PD deficient and G6PD normal groups was observed. It is concluded that the cross-sectional serological survey of malaria in populations who are more frequently exposed to malarial infections, particularly in the areas where P.vivax is also prevalent is not enough to show a conclusive serological evidence to support G6PD /malaria hypotheses.
Production of human polyclonal antibodies by transgenic animals  [PDF]
Louis-Marie Houdebine
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2011.23022
Abstract: Polyclonal antibodies collected from the blood of animals and humans experimentally immunised or spontaneously immunised respectively can be injected into patients to protect them against pathogens, toxins, tumours etc. This approach is severely limited by the availability of human polyclonal antibodies of interest. Moreover, polyclonal antibodies from animals are recognised as antigens by patients and are thus rapidly rejected and inactivated. To circumvent this problem, animals (essentially rabbits, chicken, pigs and cows) are being genetically engineered. Their immunoglobulin genes are being inactivated and the corresponding human immunoglobulin genes are being transferred to them. These animals will be immunized and it is expected that large amounts of pure human polyclonal antibodies will be extracted from their blood to be administered to patients. The possible acceptability problem of this approach is under a case study of the European Union Pegasus project.
Preparation of monospecific anti-PAG antibodies for cattle pregnancy detection: use of synthetic peptides to improve specificity  [PDF]
Jimena Inés Ruiz álvarez, Juan Manuel Teijeiro, Patricia Estela Marini
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2011.22013
Abstract: Immunological methods involving pregnancy associ-ated glycoproteins (PAG) are used for cattle preg-nancy detection. The faults of these methods could be overcomed by using antibodies specific for each member of the PAG family. In order to differentiate between very similar proteins, preparation of anti-bodies specific for peptides is a method of choice. In this work, we summarize a series of considerations regarding peptide design and choose free access NCBI, Antigenicity Plot, EMBOSS Antigenic and Expasy tools to apply them. We design peptides spe-cific for different reported PAG members and obtain the corresponding polyclonal antibodies for five of them.
Influence of obstetric factors on the development of postpartum antithyroid antibodies  [PDF]
José Morales Roselló, Beatriz Tirado Pelaez, Nuria Peralta Llorens
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2012.21008
Abstract: Aim: To correlate obstetric data with the appearance of antithyroid antibodies. Methods: A 6 months follow up was performed on 135 healthy women with assessment of TSH, T3, T4 and antithyroid antibodies (anti thyroglobulin and anti peroxidase). Correlation of diverse obstetrical parameters with the appearance of antithyroid antibodies at 2 and 6 months postpartum was determined. Results: Only two parameters were significant during the complete follow up: the newborn weight, which correlated with both antibodies (anti-thyroglobulin and anti-peroxidase) positivity and the maternal height, which exclusively correlated with anti-thyroglobulin positivity. Conclusions: Correlation of maternal height and newborn weight with positive autoantibodies allows to consider a future clinical screening test for this disorder.
JC virus: A brief review  [PDF]
Basilio Vagner Ramírez, Viviana Casta?o Palacio
World Journal of Neuroscience (WJNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2013.32015

Proportional to the growth rate of its clinical expression, the last decades have seen an increase on JC Virus diagnosis testing, and on therapeutic and symptoms management plans. Whether isolated or associated to retroviral therapy, the relationship of JC Virus to HIV allowed us to delve a little deeper into the knowledge of its behavior. Now as new immune-modulating and immune-suppressing therapies are developed, its clinical expression has become broader and more complexly, thereby our need is to develop more precise diagnosis and therapeutic plans.

ANCA-Associated Vasculitides—An Update  [PDF]
Johanna Kegel, Torsten Kirsch
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.614209
Abstract: Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides are characterized by destruction of small vessels, granulomatous inflammation of the respiratory tract and necrotizing glomerulonephritis. This review describes the clinical diagnosis and therapy as well as the patho-physiology of ANCA-associated vasculitides with a specific focus on the interplay of ANCAs with activated neutrophils and the deleterious pathophysiological consequences of neutrophil-endothelium interaction.
Rheumatoid Factor and Anti Citrulinated Peptide. Relation with Remission and Progression in Rheumatoid Arthritis with Biologic Agent Therapy, during a One-Year Follow-Up  [PDF]
Asunción Acosta Pereira, Berta Magallares López, Esther Moga Naranjo, Arturo Rodríguez de la Serna
Open Journal of Rheumatology and Autoimmune Diseases (OJRA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojra.2014.41005
Abstract: The aim of this study is to assess the variations of the RF and ACCP in RA patients treated with biologics in actual clinical practice (real) conditions for a one-year follow-up from the first biologic medication. The evaluated patients with a diagnosis of RA, according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 1987 were selected from the outpatient consult of Rheumatology of the “Hospital de Sant Pau” during one month (November 2012). We collected and analyzed data from 41 patients with RA and positivity for RF and/or ACCP. Of the 41 patients had given FR and ACCP at 3, 6 and 12 months respectively in 18 and 10 patients. In 22 patients had given DAS 28 at 3, 6 and 12 months respectively. The mean age of the sample is 55 years (range 29-79), with a mean disease progression 9 years (4 months to 32 years). 70% are women. 33 patients (80.5%) initiated treatment with anti-TNF and 8 (19.5%) with other no anti-TNF mechanism of action. There was a statistically significant (p = 0.001, ANOVA) decrease in DAS 28 (average decrease of 1.6 points) at 3 months is maintained at 6 and 12 m and no significant differences in their evolution by separating anti-TNF drugs vs. other biological agents (different mechanisms of action (p = 0.285). So we have not detected a correlation between DAS 28 and FR or ACCP along the first 12 months of biological treatment. In our experience we did not find a correlation between DAS 28 and RF or ACCP, thus RF and ACCP do not appear to predict the response to treatment.
Electrochemical Immunosensors for the Diagnosis of Celiac Disease  [PDF]
Katharina Anne Scherf, Peter Koehler, Herbert Wieser
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2015.51009
Abstract: Celiac disease is a permanent intolerance to gluten proteins of wheat, rye, barley, and oats in genetically susceptible individuals. The clinical picture is characterized by inflammation and damage of the small intestinal mucosa and malabsorption of essential nutrients. Therapeutically, a lifelong strict gluten-free diet is necessary. The diagnosis of celiac disease is complex and includes symptomatology, serology, small intestinal histology, and genetic status. Serological testing plays a central role within the diagnostic procedure and is based on the measurement of disease-specific antibodies against gluten proteins (antigen) and tissue transglutaminase (autoantigen). Immunofluorescence detection and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays are currently most often applied for antibody testing. However, these tests are expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, simple and rapid alternative methods have been developed during the last years, and electro-chemical immunosensors seem to be the most promising analytical tools. The architecture of these sensors may comprise the following elements: working and reference electrodes, covalent or noncovalent binding of the antigen to the surface of the working electrode by means of a functional monolayer, and blocking of unreacted binding sites. The analytical procedure is initiated by adding the analyte (serum antibodies) and an analyte-specific second antibody, which is usually labeled with an enzyme. The special reaction of the enzyme with an appropriate substrate results in a product that initiates a current that can be measured by different electrical methods. A number of different electrochemical immunosensors variable in different electrodes, binding systems, secondary antibodies, and current measurements have been developed. Most of them have been tested with real human serum samples of celiac patients and healthy individuals, and some of them reached disease sensitivity and specificity comparable with traditional analytical systems. Thus, electrochemical immunosensors can be promising alternatives to existing diagnostic tests in the future. They are simple, reliable, robust, user-friendly, and cost-effective tools with short operation times.
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