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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1183 matches for " ANTIBIOTICS "
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Polymixin-B hemoperfusion in a case intolerant to conventional antibiotic therapy  [PDF]
Gilnardo Novelli, Vincenzo Morabito, Giancarlo Ferretti, Simone Novelli, Franco Ruberto, Milena Pernice, Cristina Cristina Donfrancesco, Perluigi Benedetti Panici
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2012.53013
Abstract: In this study we document how it was possible to resolve the septic complications of abdominal surgery, subjecting a patient severely allergic to intravenous antibiotics. We performed the hemoperfusion with polymyxin-B columns (PMX-DHP), guiding the therapy by assaying endotoxin activity and evaluating the clinical status of the patient after each session of PMX-DHP. The stabilization of hemodynamic and inflammatory frameworks were immediately observed after the PMX-DHP. The patient could be safely discharged five days after the discontinuation of the therapy. Our findings confirms data already published in literature concerning the effectiveness of PMX-DHP.
Quantification of Antibiotic Residues and Determination of Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Microorganisms Isolated from Bovine Milk in Lebanon  [PDF]
Kassaify Zeina, Abi Khalil Pamela, Sleiman Fawwak
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2013.47A001
Abstract: The rapid growth of dairy sectors in the Middle East, particularly in Lebanon, led to extensive use of antibiotics to enhance the health and productivity of animals. Prolonged usage may lead to antibiotic residues in foods of animal origin; hence, the emergence of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms. Accurate data on the antibiotic usage in livestock treatment, antibiotic residues and antimicrobial resistances in raw milk in Lebanon are lacking. This study aimed to investigate the types and usages of antibiotics in cattle, their residual levels and the potential microbial resistances in raw milk samples. A questionnaire-based survey identified Gentamicin and Streptomycin as the most frequently used antibiotics. Selected raw milk samples from main dairy farms were then analyzed in duplicate by quantitative ELISA for the antibiotics residual levels. The mean residual levels of Gentamicin and Streptomycin were 90 and 80 μg/L, respectively; which are below the allowable maximum residue limit of 200 μg/L as set by the FAO/WHO. Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, E. coli and total aerobic microorganisms isolated from the milk samples were then tested for resistance against Gentamicin and Streptomycin by the disc agar diffusion method. All the S. aureus, E. coli, and L. monocytogenes isolates showed high resistance to Gentamicin. However, 95% of S. aureus, 60% of E. coli and 58% of L. monocytogenes isolates were resistant to Streptomycin. The obtained results provide evidence that antimicrobial resistant strains of the above pathogens have become remarkably widespread in raw milk. This requires better management for antibiotic usages among livestock farmers to control sources of food contamination and reduce the health risks associated with the development of resistant microbial strains.
Number of Daily Doses Does Not Affect Compliance with Flucloxacillin Prescriptions  [PDF]
Elisabeth R?nnb?ck, Sofia K?lvemark Sporrong, Anders ?sterlund
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2013.49069
Abstract: Objective: To achieve optimal effect with beta-lactam antibiotics, regimens with frequent dosages have been found necessary. However, if compliance is negatively influenced by more frequent dosages, this might hamper the effect of the treatments. Therefore, we have studied whether the numbers of daily dosages influence the compliance with prescribed flucloxacillin regimens. Design: A prospective interview study of patients with different dosing regimens of flucloxacillin. Setting: In the study, 200 patients with different dosing regimens of flucloxacillin underwent structured telephone interviews in order to reveal their compliance with the medication. Of these, 13 were prescribed twice-daily doses, 163 three times daily and 24 patients four times daily regimens. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between missed doses and prescribed numbers of daily doses. There was, however, a significant difference in the number of daily doses and experiences associated with the medication. Conclusions: This study shows that patients comply well with regimens of up to four daily doses of flucloxacillin, despite experiencing increasing difficulties with regimens of more frequent dosages.
Antimicrobial Resistance and Plasmid Profiles of Campylobacter Species from Infants Presenting with Diarrhoea in Osun State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Olutoyin Catherine Adekunle, Abiodun A. Onilude
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2015.51003
Abstract: Antibiotic resistance among enteric bacterial pathogens complicates the heavy diarrhoea disease burden. Antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. to fluoroquinolones, which are generally used for the treatment of bacterial gastroenteritis, has increased during the past two decades, mainly as a result of the approval of this group of antimicrobials for use in food-producing animals. The aim is to determine the frequency of resistance of campylobacter to various antimicrobial agents and the relationship between antimicrobial agents of the isolates and the presence of plasmid. Twenty five Campylobacter isolates gotten from humans were subjected to antibiotics testing using Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method as well as standard E-test method. The plasmid profile of the isolates was determined using the Alkaline phosphatise procedure. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing of these isolates showed that all were sensitive to Erythromycin and Ciprofloxacin while none was sensitive to co-trimoxazole. The standard organisms were sensitive to co-trimoxazole (80%) and ciprofloxacin (65%) but were resistant to erythromycin (70%). No plasmid was found in streptomycin and ampicillin resistant strains, with the exception of four isolates which were co-trimoxazole-resistant and which contained around 24.4kb plasmids.
Cancer Therapy Using Antibiotics  [PDF]
Biplob Bhattacharya, Sreya Mukherjee
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2015.610093
Abstract: Anticancer antibiotics have made a successful impact in the field of chemotherapeutics. For most of them, DNA is the molecular target. Some act as DNA intercalators or some prevent DNA repair among other mechanisms of actions, they are seen to have. The major disadvantages of these drugs though are the constant side effects and toxicities. With more focus on discovery of new drugs with newer scaffolds, the urge to discover and modify anticancer antibiotics is being lost. Modifications or even the wider research can yield newer better drugs for clinical use. The review here discusses the current antibiotic therapeutics, newer discoveries in the field as well ideas for future research.
Comparison of MIC with MBEC Assay for in Vitro Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing in Biofilm Forming Clinical Bacterial Isolates  [PDF]
Summaiya Mulla, Ambuj Kumar, Sangita Rajdev
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2016.62007
Abstract: Context: MIC results can be misleading for treatment of biofilm associated. The Minimum Biofilm Eradication Concentration (MBEC) measures the determination to be made for a biofilm susceptibility to antibiotics. Aims: Assessment of biofilm production and comparison of the MIC and MBEC assays evaluate differences in the antibiotic sensitivity patterns of different clinical bacterial isolates from patients implanted with medical devices. Settings and Design: Random sampling with experimental study at tertiary care institute. Methods and Material: The study was carried out during January 2014 to March 2014 on 50 positive bacteriological cultures of medical devices which were inserted in hospitalized patients. Biofilm forming strains were identified by tissue culture plate method & tube method. Biofilm-producing and non-biofilm forming reference strains were used as controls. Assay has been developed for the use with flat bottom, 96-well microtiter plates. Sterile autoclaved PCR tubes were used as pegs which provided surface for the biofilm formation. Amikacin, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, vancomycin, cefoperazone/ sulbactam, gentamycin were tested for MIC and MBEC assay. Statistical Analysis Used: Results will be discussed in the form of percentages. Results: Colonization by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter
Impact of Some Antibiotics on Bacteria Isolated from Appendices in Kirkuk Province, Iraq  [PDF]
Ayoub A. Bazzaz, Diyari A. K. Lor, Najdat B. Mahdi
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2018.91001
Abstract: A bacteriological study of 50 appendectomy cases for patients diagnosed by physicians to be appendicitis, within Kirkuk province was carried out to isolate the habitat bacteria of appendix and to assess the impact of some antibiotics on isolated bacterial species from the appendices. The age of patients ranged between 3 - 45 year old (21 male and 29 female). The culture results showed 94% single isolate with 2% negative growth and 4% mixed growth were obtained. The gram positive bacteria isolate formed (11.77%) less than gram negative (88.23%). The total isolates represented 51 included Escherichia coli 34 (66.66%), followed by Enterococcus faecalis 3 (5.89%), Klebsiella pneumonia 3 (5.89%), Citrobacter youngae 2 (3.92%), Raultella terrigena 2 (3.92%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Urinary Tract Infections Identified in the Preoperative and Their Sensitivities to Antibiotics  [PDF]
Amadou Kassogué, Fadima Tall, Daouda Diallo, Drissa Cissé, Zanafon Ouattara
Open Journal of Urology (OJU) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oju.2018.85018
Abstract: Introduction: Urinary tract infection is a public health problem. Patients who have to undergo urology surgery are exposed to infectious complications if there is an untreated urinary tract infection. The objective of our study is to identify all the germs responsible for urinary tract infections discovered in the preoperative assessment of hospitalized patients with their susceptibility and antibiotic resistance profiles. Patients and Methods: This is a retrospective and descriptive study of 124 cases of cytobacteriological examination of urine collected over 2 years from January 1st, 2016 to December 31st, 2017, performed in the urology department of the University Hospital of Bocar S. Sall of Kati. The parameters studied were: age, sex, reason for admission, the diagnosis chosen, the result of the cytobacteriological examination of urine and the antibiogram. Results: We collected 124 cases of cytobacteriological examination of urine during this period. The average age of our patients was 58 years old with extremes ranging from 3 years to 84 years. The sex ratio was 6 in favor of men. 86 patients, or 69%, were admitted for micturition disorders. In 53.2%, the diagnosis was BPH followed by urolithiasis 22.6%. Cytobacteriological examination of urine identified 55 cases of urinary infection, 44%. In 34 cases or 60%, the germ responsible was an E. coli. Two germs were sensitive only to one antibiotic. Conclusion: This study made it possible to have an idea about the antibiotic susceptibility of germs involved in urinary tract infections. Awareness-raising for the proper use of antibiotics needs to be strengthened to minimize the risk of increasing antibiotic resistance.
Antibiotic Resistance, Uncertainty, and Medical Decision-Making by a Physician  [PDF]
Sanjana S. Batabyal
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2018.811154
Abstract: I explore the decision-making process of a physician in the context of otitis media—commonly known as an ear infection—when resistance to antibiotics is an issue. Otitis media provides a unique context in which to study such decision-making because there is no culture that one can use to definitively prove the presence of a bacterial infection. This creates an atmosphere in which the abuse of antibiotics is possible. I first use a decision tree to characterize the decision-making process and then I conduct numerical analysis using fictitious data to illustrate the working of my model. Next, I show how the dependence of the infection probability, PS, on socioeconomic variables can be used to shed light on a physician’s behavior and on the patient-physician relationship. Finally, I discuss how the research presented in this paper might be extended in the future.
Necessidade de novos antibióticos
Brito, Monique Araujo de;Cordeiro, Benedito Carlos;
Jornal Brasileiro de Patologia e Medicina Laboratorial , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1676-24442012000400002
Abstract: antibiotics are a important class of drugs, without them there would be losses in life expectancy achieved over decades. but the power of antibiotics is threatened by bacterial resistance. there is an explosion of cases reported in the literature. in fact, the increase in bacterial resistance, particularly among potentially dangerous pathogens, has led to an increased need for new drugs and new classes of antibiotics for both infections acquired in hospitals and in the community. however, despite this need, only two new classes of antibiotics have been introduced in medicine since 1963, when nalidixic acid was approved: one in 2000 and one in 2003. the article discusses this issue.
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