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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4550 matches for " ANIMAL WELFARE "
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Consciousness-raising in animal welfare through practical experience with horses  [PDF]
Roberto Trentini, Marilena Sticco, Filomena J. Misantone, Umberta Persichetti, Giovanni Gamberini, Nicola Bernabò, Pia Lucidi
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2012.21008
Abstract: In Italy, Law no. 189/2004 (enforced by law n. 201/2010) on safeguarding animal welfare establishes penalties for anyone keeping animals in conditions that are incompatible with their physiological or ethological needs. Thus, in order to recognize the condition of poor welfare or mistreatment, the training of a veterinarian needs to adopt a new approach to animal well being —that is somewhat different from the health ideas that have been prevalent so far. In this research we carry out an evaluation of the competence of veterinary students after a theoric 20-hour course in ethology and after three weeks of practical horses handling class. For two years 24 students were selected to took part in a program of horse management, in order to reach a high level of practical competence, from the ability to recognize non-verbal signals from horses, to cleaning and grooming, and to a more specific and refined ability—the establishment of a relationship with horse. While the skill level at the beginning was generally low, being the students’ backgrounds mainly urban, at the end of the practical course nearly 90% of them succeeded in the area of horse-human relationship, reaching evaluations in a range of good-excellent scores (p < 0.01). By combining over the years the applied ethology knowledge with the more profession-oriented health-related subjects, veterinary education will give students the resources that can better assist them in facing the challenges they will meet in their working lives. The fact that too many unlawful horses’ estab-lishments are often found all over the countries point indeed to a need for new experienced, well-trained professional people.
Ecological Agriculture. Integrating Low Input, High Productive Farming with Wildlife Conservation. Results from the Experimental Farm La Combe, Drome France  [PDF]
Marthe Kiley-Worthington
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2014.412064
Abstract: Wildlife conservation must be integrated with energy and resource efficient agriculture for the human population to survive. Modern high input energy and resource inefficient agriculture does not address these problems. An efficient food producing system which marries wildlife conservation with resource and energy efficient human food production is needed. This is Ecological Agriculture, modelled on how natural ecosystems work. It is defined as: The establishment and maintenance of a diversified, self-sustaining low input farming system managed to maximize net production without causing large or long term changes to the environment. It must be economically viable, and ethically and aesthetically acceptable [1]. Forty years of research on 4 experimental farms have assessed the practicality of this approach (results previously published). The 5th experimental farm in the mountains of the Pre Alps has completed its 10 years. The results are discussed in relation to the tenets of Ecological Agriculture. The techniques previously developed have allowed the results to fulfil the majority of the demands of efficient ecological agriculture and to produce food for 20 families from the farm’s resources despite the difficult climate, topography and soils. It is shown how energy and resource inefficient the omnivorous animals (poultry and pigs) are, compared to herbivores. The species diversity has increased and the whole farm is a nature reserve. Aesthetic and ethical problems have been addressed with an emphasis on a life of quality for farm animals.
Animal Handling during Supply for Marketing and Operations at an Abattoir in Developing Country: The Case of Gudar Market and Ambo Abattoir, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Fufa S. Bulitta, Girma Gebresenbet, Techane Bosona
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2012.51008
Abstract: In the agricultural sector, it is important to appropriately develop livestock resources in of developing countries in order to reduce poverty. The aim of this study was to investigate the animal handling and welfare issues during transport for marketing with special focus on cattle flow to and from Gudar livestock market and activity chain of Ambo abattoir in Ethiopia. Information and data on main feeder markets to Gudar regional market; the main stakeholders in this animal supply chain; number of animals flow to and from Gudar market; the distance and time duration the animals transported; animal handling and welfare concerns during transport and at market site; and activities in Ambo abattoir chain were gathered, interpreted and discussed. The study indicated that the flow of cattle to and from Gudar market was by walk- ing which took up to 4 days or by vehicles which took up to 3 h. There were no appropriate vehicle and loading facili- ties and animal handling conditions were poor. From total number of animals supplied to Gudar market about 7.6% died, 6.9% injured and 2.8% was stolen during transport. During transport from Gudar to final destination by walking, about 16% died and 10.7% was injured. The effect of animal number (p = 0.0498) was slightly significant than the effect of travel distance (p = 0.3487) on the occurrence of incidences such as animal death and injuries, at significance level of 0.05. Lameness and injury to bone, muscle, swelling of leg and sickness were widely observed during transportation by walking. Poor market infrastructures; lack of regional abattoir facilities; difficulties in getting timely market information; and lack of well-organized networks between stakeholders were also identified as existing problems compromising the animal welfare and economic benefits. Therefore, further research works concerning animal welfare during animal flow in the supply chain; and impact of abattoir activities on environment and human and animal health should be conducted. Such studies important to improve the economic benefits gained from livestock resources with positive contribution towards efforts of insuring food security and sustainable development.
Effects of Feeding Intensity and Ca:P Ratio on Foot Welfare in Blue Foxes (Vulpes lagopus)  [PDF]
Hannu T. Korhonen, Pekka Eskeli, Teijo Lappi, Hanna Huuki, Juhani Sepponen
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2014.44020
Abstract: The aim was to clarify effects of ad libitum and restricted feeding with Ca:P ratios on foot welfare in blue foxes. Experiment was started at weaning on August 6th and finished at pelting on November 26th, 2013. Treatments were: 1) restricted feeding, Ca:P ratio 1.5:1; 2) restricted feeding, Ca:P ratio 2.9:1; 3) restricted feeding Ca:P ratio control level; 4) ad libitum feeding, Ca:P ratio 1.5:1; 5) ad libitum feeding, Ca:P-ratio 2.9:1; 6) ad libitum feeding Ca:P ratio control level. Body growth variables, feed intake and welfare variables were measured. The behaviour was video recorded. Foreleg carpal joint angle as an indicator of leg weakness and the fox’s ability to move were evaluated. During weeks 32 - 35 and 37 - 47 animals from restricted groups ate 60% - 65% and 67% - 68% of the given feed, respectively. Body weight gain was faster in foxes fed ad libitum than with a restricted diet (P < 0.001). At pelting, waistline and neck circumference were significantly (P < 0.001) larger in ad libitum groups compared to restricted ones. The body condition score was significantly (P < 0.001) larger for ad libitum animals. Body length was greater for ad libitum than for restricted groups (P < 0.05). Significant differences were not found in body size variables between Ca:P ratios. During the course of experiment, bending of carpal joints increased in each group (P < 0.001). Most bended joints were found at final scoring. Significant differences were noted in the angle of joint between ad libitum and restricted groups (P < 0.05). Pronounced difficulties in locomotor activity were not found. Differences between the groups were slight in stick, floorball and capture tests. No pain reaction was evident during sensitivity test. Foot welfare problems were multi-factorial problems.
Effect of Transport Time of up to 12 Hours on Welfare of Cows and Bulls  [PDF]
Fufa Sorri Bulitta, Samuel Aradom, Girma Gebresenbet
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2015.82019
Abstract: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of transport time up to 12 h on welfare of bulls and cows. Cattle transport vehicle was used for the experiment. Sensors to measure temperature, relative humidity and video camera to monitor behaviour were mounted in observation pen. Eighteen measurements were performed during summer and winter for 4, 8, and 12 h transport time with three replications. To determine cortisol, glucose, lactate, and creatine kinase concentrations, blood samples were collected before and after transport from 80 bulls, 82 cows and 20 control animals. Cortisol concentration was generally inversely proportional to transport time (P < 0.001). Glucose concentration for cows was the highest at 12 h and the lowest at 8 h and for bulls it increased with transport time (P < 0.002). Lactate level generally correlated with transport time (P < 0.001), but for bulls the highest and the lowest were at 8 and 4 h in winter. Creatine kinase concentration positively correlated with transport time for bulls and cows but at different rates. Loss of balance and swaying strongly correlated with transport time (P < 0.002). Based on behaviour, stress hormones and pH values, an increase from 4 to 8 h had a higher effect than from 8 to 12 h transport time on welfare and subsequent meat quality.
Romero Pe?uela,Marlyn Hellen; Paranhos da Costa,Mateus J R; Sánchez Valencia,Jorge Alberto;
Biosalud , 2011,
Abstract: animal welfare is an ethical element of the integral "meat quality" concept. consumers, besides demanding innocuous food, everyday demand food produced under ethical animal handling. the knowledge of bovine ethology, and cattle handling favoring their natural behavior, reduce the risks of the staff's occupational accidents, and prevent unnecessary suffering of animals. this article presents the management guidelines for the implementation of pre-slaughter practices based on cattle behavior as well as the importance of staff training and auditing.
The influence of some factors on carcass defects during fattening period in broilers
Kun,Z.; Uluocak,A.N.; Karaman,M.;
Archivos de Zootecnia , 2009, DOI: 10.4321/S0004-05922009000100013
Abstract: the aim of present study was to determine the effect of slaughtering age, stocking density, gender, litter type, feeder type and poultry house type on the possible carcass defects such as broken bones, joint defects, breast blister, blood and bruise on breast, thigh and wing, breast bruise. the incidence of these carcass defects decreased with increasing age of broiler. the incidence of broken bones, joint defects and breast bruise increased with increasing stocking density. the incidence of joint defects and blood and bruise on thigh for female were significantly higher than those for male broiler. there are no significant differences among litter type in terms of the carcass defects of broilers. there are no significant differences among type of feeder and of house in terms of incidence of carcass defects measured in this experiment. broken bones, bruising and other defects with carcass indicate adverse animal welfare and loss in product yield. this experiment determined the nature and incidence of defects contributing to the total.
Estudio preliminar del uso de un protocolo para evaluar el bienestar de vacas lecheras usando observaciones basadas en el animal
Arra?o,C; Báez,A; Flor,E; Whay,H R; Tadich,N;
Archivos de medicina veterinaria , 2007, DOI: 10.4067/S0301-732X2007000300007
Abstract: the aim of this study was to evaluate the welfare of dairy cows using a simplified protocol of animal-based observations. twenty-two commercial dairy farms in the province of valdivia, chile, were visited once between march and july 2005. the farms were selected considering the willingness of the owners to participate, distance from the university and size of the herd (291±71.6). five out of the 22 dairy farms grazed their cows all year round; of the remaining 17 farms four of them kept the cows indoors all year round while 13 kept them indoors during the night. visits started two hours before afternoon milking, and the cows were systematically observed at milking time in order to evaluate physical condition and behaviour. the data was entered into an excel xp spread sheet. the results for each welfare indicator were grouped into five quintiles (a, top to e, bottom), then the dairy farms were ranked according to the number of indicators in each category. all the farms had at least one indicator in category a. only one farm achieved five out of seven indicators in category a. the best evaluated indicator was body condition score of the cows, and the worse one was the "flight zone" of the cows. it can be concluded that no farm had consistenly good or bad results when compared to the others, with regards to evaluating cow welfare using animal based observations
Assessment of pack animal welfare in and around Bareilly city of India
Probhakar Biswas,Triveni Dutt,M. Patel,Reena Kamal
Veterinary World , 2013, DOI: 10.5455/vetworld.2013.332-336
Abstract: Aim: To assess the welfare of pack animal: Pony, Horse, Mule and Donkey in and around Bareilly city. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out in Bareilly city and Izatnagar area of Bareilly district of Uttar Pradesh in the year 2009. Representative sample of 100 pack animal owners were selected to get the information regarding various social, personal and economic attributes of the pack animal. Further during interviewing different health and behavior pattern of animals was keenly examined. Analysis has been done as per standard procedures. Results: Most of the pack animal owners (98%) were aware of the freedom from hunger and thirst. Majority of respondents (96, 93, 81 & 85 percent) were aware of freedom from injury and disease, pain and discomfort, to express normal behavior and adequate space and freedom from fear and distress. Respondents (85%) believed that they themselves were responsible for the welfare of the animals. Most of the owners (48.8%) employed their animals for work for 9-10 hrs with rest (96.5%) in between work and most (88.3%) indulged into beating to compel the animals to work. All pregnant animals were put to work in the first two trimesters of pregnancy. Upon physical examination, pack animals showed abnormality in eyes (49%), abnormality in gait (40%) and limb deformity (39%). Most animals (75%) had tether lesions and 34 percent animals avoided or were aggressive to observer. Majority (74.1%) of the owners housed their animals in a part of their own residence with improper drainage and cleaning. Most of the owners (82%) consulted Veterinary doctors for treatment and believed in allopathic medicine (57%). Vaccination was not carried out on most (96%) of the animals. All the animals were feed green fodder but practice of supplementation of minerals to animals was only among 11 percent owners. Conclusions: Present findings provide baseline information on welfare activities followed by pack animal owners and status of pack animals in regards to animal welfare. A more detailed in-depth study is needed regarding welfare issues in all varied pack animals, designing of scientific efficient carts, working hours and special requirements related to feed and other managemental practices for pack and draught animals. Rules and Regulations advocated by Government Act can be used to enforce welfare laws of the animals but thrust should be more in regard to development of awareness among owners for animal welfare. [Vet World 2013; 6(6.000): 332-336]
Animal welfare assessment
Vu?ini? Marijana,Lazi? Ivana
Veterinarski Glasnik , 2008, DOI: 10.2298/vetgl0802097v
Abstract: The paper deals with animal welfare definitions and animal welfare assessment. Animal welfare is a prolonged mental state, resulting from how the animal experiences its environment over time. There are different methods for animal welfare assessment. The four basic criteria for animal welfare assessment are feeding, housing, health and appropriate behavior. Therefore, criteria used to assess animal welfare are not direct measures of the mental state but only parameters that need to be interpreted in terms of welfare. The immediate housing environment and feeding may influence animal welfare either positively, when most of the important requirements are respected, or negatively, when animals are exposed to various stress factors and unpleasant emotions that contribute to animal disease, injuries or inappropriate behavior. Therefore, animal welfare is a unique link between housing conditions, feeding and watering on one side, and animal health status and behavior on the other side.
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