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Aka Canturk Oral Autopsy Method for the Dental Identification of Fetus and Infant Cases  [PDF]
P. Sema Aka, Nergis Canturk
Forensic Medicine and Anatomy Research (FMAR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fmar.2014.23009
Abstract: Forensic research requires the application of reliable identification methods for unidentified individuals, among which the dental analysis has prime importance. The most significant source of dental evidence is oral autopsy applications, which consist of an examination and evidence collection from the oral cavity of a deceased individual. Oral autopsies show variations depending on the age of the person due to rigor mortis. The oral autopsy of a child may require an easier operation than adults, and thus, the procedures are usually simpler for fetus or infant cases. The aim of this study is to propose the theoretical and experimental aspects of an oral autopsy protocol for a special age group of fetus or infant cases, which is a method for extracting tooth germs in their developmental stages for identification purposes and entitled by the authors’ names as the “Aka-Canturk Oral Autopsy Method”.
Profile of Amputations in National Orthopaedic Hospital, Dala, Kano  [PDF]
Abdurrahman Alhaji Mamuda, Muhammad Nuhu Salihu, Muhammad Kabir Abubakar, Kabir Musa Adamu, Mustapha Ibrahim, Muhammad Ujudud Musa
Open Journal of Orthopedics (OJO) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojo.2014.48033
Abstract: Introduction: Amputation is the removal of a body part through a bone, while disarticulation is a removal of a part through a joint. This common procedure has different causes depending on the geographical locations and cultural practices. These ranges from dead body part to malignancy. Our study focused on the profile of the amputees including the biodata, causes and the financial consequences of the procedure. Material and Methods: The case notes of all patients who had amputation from 1998-2012 (15 years) were collected and the biodata, intra-operative diagnosis, parts amputated and duration of hospital stay were retrospectively analysed. Results: One hundred and ninety six patients had various types of amputations for the duration of our study. 159 (81.12%) were males while 37 (18.88%) were females. 68 (34.69%) patients had below knee amputation. 54 (27.55%) had above knee amputation. 27 (13.78%) had above elbow amputation. 18 (9.18%) patients had below elbow amputation, while 30 (15.30%) patients had other forms of amputations. The highest number of amputees (72 patients) was within the age range of 21 - 30 yr and the least number (5 patients) was within the age range of 51 - 60 yr. The highest number of amputation (71 patients) was due to complications from by traditional bone setters intervention. Conclusion: In our study, we found that most cases were males with a mean age of 35 years and majority (34.69%) had below knee amputation, and that most cases suffered vascular occlusion leading to gangrene.
Security Enhancement Using Mutual Authentication in Existing CDMA Systems
L. Krishna Bharathi,Gnanou Florence Sudha
International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering , 2010,
Abstract: Even though CDMA2000 wireless networks are being widely deployed as a cellular digital standard around the world, it has some hidden vulnerabilities concerned with security issues. The existing CDMA systems use authentication mechanism by CAVE (Cellular Authentication and Voice Encryption) algorithm. This authentication method has several disadvantages. Only one way authentication is provided, that is, only a base station authenticates a subscriber. And, CAVE algorithm is prone to cryptographic attacks. This work proposes to implement authentication method using ESA (Enhanced Subscriber Authentication) algorithm instead of CAVE algorithm in the existingCDMA systems. Authentication mechanism using ESA algorithm uses AKA (Authentication and Key Agreement) to enhance security strength and to provide mutual authentication between a base station and a mobileterminal. AKA with 128-bit key adopts the SHA1 hash algorithm to generate authentication value and message encryption keys. Performance analysis of the proposed work is done by calculating the autocorrelation, crosscorrelation of the transmitted voice signal and also the BER (Bit Error Rate) of the system. Thus the proposedwork enhances the security strength of the system with increased key strength and bilateral authentication. The proposed scheme can readily be applied to the existing CDMA systems because only the algorithm is replaced but the input parameters remain the same.
Non Linear Vortex Structures in Stratified Fluid Driven by Small-Scale Helical Force  [PDF]
Anatoly Tur, Vladimir Yanovsky
Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics (OJFD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojfd.2013.32009

In this work, we consider the effect of a small-scale helical driving force on fluid with a stable temperature gradient with Reynolds number \"\". At first glance, this system does not have any instability. However, we show that a large scale vortex instability appears in the fluid despite its stable stratification. In a non-linear mode this instability becomes saturated and gives a large number of stationary spiral vortex structures. Among these structures there is a stationary helical soliton and a kink of the new type. The theory is built on the rigorous asymptotical method of multi-scale development.

Fast Handover Pre-Authentication Protocol in 3GPP-WLAN Heterogeneous Mobile Networks  [PDF]
Sung-Shiou Shen, Shen-Ho Lin, Jung-Hui Chiu
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2014.74012

The demand of ubiquitous communications drives the development of advanced mobile technologies. Meanwhile, recent increases in mobile data usage and the emergence of new IP service applications constitute the motivation to integrate 3GPP cellular mobile systems with broadband WLANs. Since 3GPP and WLAN systems complement each other in terms of infrastructure and network coverage and bandwidth, 3GPP-WLAN Heterogeneous Mobile Networks based on the 3GPP-based Home Network (3GHN) are proposed for meeting the growing demands in high-speed data access on any mobile devices. However, heterogeneous radio access technologies and architectures lead to many interworking issues, such as network transparency, security mechanism, seamless handover, and quality of service. Among of them, security and handover are the major motives to ensure the confidentiality, reliability and continuity of services in 3GPP-WLAN Heterogeneous Mobile Networks. This paper proposes fast handover pre-authentication protocol to reduce the handover authentication latency and authentication signaling overhead during the whole handover session. The proposed protocol supports Intra-Domain Handover Pre-Authentication (Intra-HO Pre-Auth) and Inter-Domain Handover Pre-Authentication (Inter-HO Pre-Auth) for preauthenticating the Mobile User (MS) prior to performing an Inter-domain Handover (Inter-domain HO)/Intra-domain Handover (Intra-domain HO) process. Meanwhile, the reduction in retrieving new Authentication Vector sand key sets from the Home Location Register/Home Subscriber Service/Authentication Center in 3GHN achieves for minimized redundant authentication signaling transactions between 3GPP domains and WLAN domains. In addition, this paper provides simulation results which show that the proposed Intra-HO Pre-Auth achieves 49% handover authentication performance improvement compared to EAP-AKA, and the proposed Inter-HO Pre-Auth achieves 26% handover authentication performance improvement as well.

Security V/S Qos for LTE Authentication and Key Agreement Protocol
Jacques Bou Abdo,Jacques Demerjian,Hakima Chaouchi
International Journal of Network Security & Its Applications , 2012,
Abstract: Protocol and technology convergence, the core of near future communication, will soon be forming theinteroperating heterogeneous networks. Attaining a strict secure authentication without risking the QoSperformance and call success rates is a major concern when it comes to wireless heterogeneousnetworks. In order to achieve this, a generic, fast and secure, Authentication and Key Agreement protocolis to be used; a version of which is to be implemented between each two technologies. In this research,different existing EPS-EPS AKA protocols will be compared with our proposed protocol EC-AKA(Ensure Confidentiality Authentication and Key Agreement) based on security, cost effectiveness,signaling overhead, delay and performance. It is proven that EC-AKA is the exclusive protocol satisfyingthe New Generation Network’s KPIs and it will be promoted as the target generic AKA protocol inheterogeneous networks.
An Enhancement of Authentication Protocol and Key Agreement (AKA) For 3G Mobile Networks
Mustafa AL-Fayoumi,Ja’afer AL-Saraireh
International Journal of Security , 2011,
Abstract: This paper proposes a secure authentication mechanism by integrating the public key with thehash-chaining technique. The propose protocol satisfies the security requirements of thirdgeneration (3G) mobile networks. Also provide the protection of the international mobilesubscriber identity (IMSI) to ensure subscriber un-traceability, key refreshment periodically,strong key management and a new non-repudiation service in a simple and elegant way. Theproposed protocol is more secure protocol than the other available authentication protocols. Toavoid the complicated synchronization as in universal mobile telecommunications system (UMTS)the proposed protocol does not use sequence number (SEQ), the management of a hash chain issimple and elegant compared to that of SEQ. This proposed protocol is secure against networkattacks, such as replay attacks, guessing attacks, and other attacks.
Analysis and Amendment of EAP-AKA Protocol

ZHANG Sheng,XU Guo-ai,HU Zheng-ming,YANG Yi-xian,

计算机应用研究 , 2005,
Abstract: 3G-WLAN interworking is a research hotspot now, and EAP-AKA is its authentication and key agreement protocol. The paper analyses the procedure and security of EAP-AKA protocol,and the vulnerability and possible attack to this protocol are described.To the vulnerability and possible attack, an amended scheme is presented. Finally, an analysis of the amended scheme has been made.
Turkish Studies , 2010,
Abstract: Aka Gündüz has preferred women characters when creating his novels and has mentioned women issues using women characters. He had selected women as the topic at the National Struggle years and then. Women has been told sistematically like classifying them owing their statues in novels that was included women portraits at every class of society. Similar problems that women can be faced every time who live at different categories in society had been arranged in novels. The solition offers that writer presented for women problems are important as a someone that looking the problems at different angles. Some of the women problems that Aka Gündüz said approximately 70-80 years ego couldn’t solved till now. Aka Gündüz, romanlar n olu tururken daha ok kad n karakterleri tercih eden ve bu karakterler vas tas yla kad n sorunlar na de inen bir yazard r. O, Mill Mücadele y llar ve sonras n n kad nlar n konu olarak se er. Toplumun hemen her kesiminden kad n portrelerine yer verilen romanlarda kad nlar statülerine g re tasnif edilir gibi sistematik olarak anlat l r. Romanlarda de i ik konumlarda ya ayan kad nlar n her zaman kar la abilecekleri benzer problemler s ralanmaktad r. Yazar n kad n sorunlar na getirdi i zümler meseleye farkl tepeden bakan birisi olarak dikkate de erdir. Aka Gündüz’ün yakla k 70–80 y l nce s ralad kad n sorunlar n n baz lar günümüzde hala zülmeyi beklemektedir.
Enhanced Intrusion Detection System for PKMv2 EAP-AKA used in WiBro
Sang-Guun Yoo,Soojin Lee,Yunho Lee,Yeong-Kyu Yang
Information Technology Journal , 2011,
Abstract: WiBro (Wireless Broadband), the service based on the IEEE 802.16e (mobile WiMAX) standard, is an emerging wireless broadband Internet technology providing full mobility through open IP based network with various types of terminals. The security of WiBro is based on the IEEE 802.16e-2005 with new version of PKMv2 (Privacy Key Management version 2) which allows the use of EAP-AKA protocol for authentication. However, the enhanced security solution does not make WiBro free from attacks creating the need for additional security measures. Present study proposes an option of such security measure in form of an intrusion detection system for the authentication phase of WiBro. The proposed system makes use of formalized specifications of the normal operation of the PKMv2 EAP-AKA authentication to detect misbehavior messages being transmitted over the network. Once defined the architecture and design, the proposed intrusion detection system was developed and implemented in an experimental network to verify its capabilities by simulations. Simulations show how the proposed solution detects existing attacks and provides capabilities to detect new attacks that violate the normal flow of EAP-AKA protocol. The specification-based characteristic of the proposed intrusion detection system allows effective detection of unknown attacks which is very useful in a complicated WiBro environment with the potential to be a victim of new type of attacks in the future.
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