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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3357 matches for " AIDs "
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Health Care Discrimination in HIV Care  [PDF]
Jayakumar Palanisamy, Senthilkumar Subramanian
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2011.13015
Abstract: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected population is experiencing enormous amount of social discrimination and stigmatization compared to other patients with any other chronic illness. Healthcare setup is not an exception where the HIV infected patients are shuttled from one place to another to get their basic services compared to HIV negative patients. This referral game of manipulation imparts additional stress to the already stressed HIV infected population. The physical and psychological impacts caused by other chronic conditions will be supplemented by social impact in the HIV infected population. This referral game in healthcare can cause the HIV infected to avoid their health seeking behavior and it may bring them back to their high risk activities, which can result in higher mortality/morbidity and failure in prevention and intervention strategies.
Musculoskeletal Infections in Human Immunodeficiency Virus  [PDF]
Honoré Ntsiba, Madeleine Ngandeu-Singwé, Akoli-Ekoya Ondzala
Open Journal of Rheumatology and Autoimmune Diseases (OJRA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojra.2012.22007
Abstract: Objective: To describe clinical, paraclinical and evolution’s spectrum of musculoskeletal infections in patients with human immunodeficiency virus. Methods: Descriptive and analytical cross-study carried out on the file of 23.5% presented a musculoskeletal infection among 85 who were infected with human immunodeficiency virus and hospitalized in the Rheumatology Department of Brazzaville Teaching Hospital during 3 years. Results: 7 males and 13 females all HIV/AIDS infected, average age of 35.2 years, extremes 18 - 68 years. Patients were at C and B stages of CDC Atlanta 1993 classification. We found 7 Pott’s diseases, 7 septic arthritis and 6 pyomyositis. Pott’s disease affected the lumbar spine in 4 cases, dorsolumbar curve 2 times, dorsal spine once and was complicated by paraplegia in 4 cases. Septic arthritis was exclusively localized at the knee, and myositis was located in the thigh in 3 cases, arm in 2 cases, and buttock in 2 cases, with multifocal localization in 2 cases. The most frequently isolated germ was staphylococcus aureus; this was isolated 5 times at the knee and thrice in the muscle. The evolution was favorable under antibiotic therapy with recovery periods longer than that in the HIV negative patients. Conclusion: Musculoskeletal infections of HIV related patients have a profile which appears comparable to the immunocompetent patients. Pott’s disease affected dorsal and lumbar spine, complicated by paraplegia. Septic arthritis is located on the knee and pyomyositis are frequent with unusual and multifocal localizations. The bacterial ecology is dominated by staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The recovery is longer in these patients.
Evaluation of Condom Use and Associated Factors among Adult HIV Clients in Maiduguri, North Eastern Nigeria: A Comparative Cross Sectional Study  [PDF]
Ballah Akawu Denue, Salisu Aliyu Kwayabura, David Bukbuk, Umaru Inuwa, Babajide Babatunde Ajayi
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2014.42022
Abstract:

Objective: To assess the pattern of condom use among HAART naive and experienced patients in north eastern Nigeria. Methods: An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to assess the pattern of condom use among 201 HIV clients. Participants included for this comparative cross sectional study were divided into two group: HAART experienced participants that had been on therapy for at least 12 months and HAART naive participants that had been registered at least 3 months before the beginning of the study. Results: Almost half of the HAART naive and substantial proportion of HAART experienced couples never used condom. Few (13.4%) HAART experienced and 16.5% naive participants always used condom. Inconsistent condom use among HAART naive and experienced partners was 38.8% and 41.8% respectively. Spouse notification of HIV was significantly associated with the use of condoms (p = 0.02; OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.06 - 1.64). The stepwise logistic regression indicated that female (OR 2.40; CI: 1.09 - 3.82), partner notification of HIV sero-positive status (OR 1.32; CI: 1.06 - 1.64, yes versus none), occupation as a civil servant (OR 1.40; CI: 0.15 - 1.05), are factors independently associated with condom use in our studied participants. Conclusion: We report that condom use is uncommon among HIV clients in our environment. Condom is significantly influenced by partner notification of HIV seropositive status, occupation as a civil servant and female gender. This study supports an absence of association between condom uptake and HAART use. Intensive and regular condom counselling for every HIV-positive outpatient who attends the clinic in our environment is expedient. We recommend interventions directed at increasing condom use among HIV clients in our environment.

An Assessment of Comprehensive Knowledge of HIV/AIDS among Slum and Non-Slum Populations in Delhi, India  [PDF]
Pravin K. Jha, Padum Narayan, Saritha Nair, Deepika Ganju, Damodar Sahu, Arvind Pandey
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2015.56029
Abstract: In order to design appropriate HIV prevention programs, it is important to examine the perception and knowledge of HIV/AIDS and methods of preventive. This article explores comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among women and men in slum and non-slum areas in the National Capital Territory of Delhi, India. Data were drawn from the National Family Health Survey, 2005-06 (NFHS-3). The sample included 3096 women aged 15 - 49 years and 1321 men aged 15 - 54 years. Pearson Chi-square test and logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between the study variables and the background characteristics of the slum and non-slum populations. Comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS prevention methods was significantly lower among women and men in slum areas as compared with non-slum areas. Compared to men, women had less comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS prevention methods in slum and non-slum areas, even after controlling for various demographic and socio-economic and exposure variables. Findings indicate that comprehensive knowledge of HIV prevention methods is low among women in slum areas. Interventions are needed to build knowledge of HIV transmission and prevention methods in this vulnerable group. Strategies to build awareness of HIV/AIDS could include mass media campaigns HIV/AIDS, and information, education and communication programs (IEC) on HIV/AIDS in slum areas.
Sociodemographic, Clinical and Quality of Life Aspects of People Aged over 50 Years Living with HIV/AIDS  [PDF]
Alexsandra Rodrigues Feij?o, Klebia Karoline dos Santos Neco, Jéssica Dayane Dantas Costa, Isabelle Christine Marinho de Oliveira, Ana Luisa Brand?o de Carvalho Lira, Bertha Cruz Enders
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2016.66045
Abstract: Introduction: In the last few years, there has been a growth in the number of cases of people with HIV/AIDS aged 50 years and older. This is explained by the inclusion of antiretroviral therapy, increased survival of patients as well as by the growth in the number of infected people in this age group. Objective: To analyze the association between sociodemographic and clinical characteristics with the QOL of people aged 50 years or older living with HIV/AIDS. Methods: Quantitative, cross-sectional study conducted in the outpatient clinic of a reference hospital in Natal, Brazil. The sample consisted of 50 subjects, aged over 50, seropositive for HIV and with cognitive conditions to answer the interview. Authors used sociodemographic and clinical evaluation tools and the WHOQOL-HIV BREF scale. Results: Sociodemographic: respondents’ average age was 57.32 years, 58% male, 38% brown, 26% incomplete primary education, 46% single, 56% retired, 70% with a monthly income of 1 to 2 minimum wages and 70% Catholic. Clinical: 60% have a partner without the diagnosis of HIV/AIDS; 62% had not been hospitalized previously; 66% did not have opportunistic infections; 40% indicated that there was a change in the physiological sexual function after the onset of the disease. Quality of life: people living with HIV/AIDS had low scores in QOL domains. When associating sociodemographic and clinical aspects, it was observed that they had associations with QOL, especially in regard to education, income, religion, change in sexual function and feelings. Conclusion: The spiritual domain was highlighted with the best performance, collaborating to facing, hope and resilience of HIV/AIDS.
Homossexualidade e saúde: desafios para a terceira década de epidemia de HIV/AIDS
Terto Jr., Veriano;
Horizontes Antropológicos , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-71832002000100008
Abstract: in this paper i discuss some challenges posed by the aids epidemic to those involved in the promotion of health among men with homosexual practices. although homosexuals are at the forefront of the struggle against the epidemic, with a mobilization that has generated the creation of ngos, safe sex manuals and the promotion of human rights, they are still suffering with the association aids-homosexuality. i divide the challenges into three fields: epidemiology, prevention and care. i highlight the importance of interdisciplinarity among the different fields of knowledge, solidarity among researchers and activists and the integration of prevention and care actions. the lessons learned indicate that solidarity and the promotion of happiness should be the basis upon which the relations between homosexuality and health should be determined.
ORGANIZA ES N O GOVERNAMENTAIS EM TEMPO REAL: O CASO DAS ONGS/AIDS NO ESTADO DE GOIáS
Genésio Amorim Lima,Antonio Carlos Pinheiro
Boletim Goiano de Geografia , 2008,
Abstract: Neste artigo apresentamos uma exposi o sobre as Organiza es N o Governamentais - ONGs, com objetivo de discutir as ONGs/Aids no Estado de Goiás. Para tal, se faz presente uma revis o teórica sobre algumas recentes discuss es que permeiam o universo das ONGs e das ONGs/Aids, finalizando com as formas de atua o no Estado de Goiás. As temáticas ONG, ONGs/Aids e Aids direcionam as discuss es, que têm como elo o espa o produzido pelas a es sociais institucionais.
Psychosocial Profile of HIV Patients on HAART in Southern India  [PDF]
Jayakumar Palanisamy, Karthikeyan Murugesan, Senthilkumar Subramanian, Uma Devi, Pitchai Chinnapidaran, Rajamahendravarman Vellandi, Inigo Beula
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2011.14028
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Mortality of HIV/AIDS patients comes down in India after the National Aids Control Organization started providing free Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) since 2004. Madurai ART Center started providing free ART since 2004. Psychosocial profile of this population explored in this study. METHODS: A cross sectional interview conducted during the year 2008 with semi structured questionnaire on HIV positive clients who are on Highly Active Anti-Retro- viral Therapy (HAART) for more than 6 months. Convenience sampling done and totally 433 clients were interviewed with informed consent. RESULTS: Three fourth (73.4%) of the clients know about ART centre through Government Hospitals or Primary Health Centre. Most of the Clients (98.6%) on ART are feels back to normal life or back to near normal life. Pill burden/ Pill fatigue perceived by clients is 4.8%.Discrimination perceived was 8.8% and mostly in their own house or by neighbors, but most of their children (99.2%) were not discriminated as per the clients. Spouse positive rate for the married clients was 61.5% and unmarried in this population was 4.6%. Major or minor psychological problems in this group were 39.7% and attempted suicide was 8.8%. Drug abuse (alcohol and smoking) while started on ART was 40.4% and the current abusers are 7.6%. CONCLUSION: This study supports effectiveness of free ART program and effective case referral from government institutions. High percentage of major or minor psychological problem warrants further exploratory study and may need psychological interventions in this population.
Cidofovir Therapy for Adenovirus Pneumonia in an AIDS Patient on HAART: A Case Report  [PDF]
Trong Tony Trinh, Quy Ton, Robert Y. Choi
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2012.24046
Abstract: Introduction: Adenovirus infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised hosts. Adenovirus pneumonia is a rare and often fatal disease in patients with AIDS. Case Report: We report a case of a 28-year-old woman with advanced HIV/AIDS, who developed pneumonia four weeks after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Despite empiric antibiotics, the patient developed worsening hypoxemia and progressive pneumonia on chest x-ray. Culture data from a bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was negative for bacteria, fungi, pneumocystis jirovecii, but was positive for adenovirus detected by PCR. After transfer to a tertiary care hospital intensive care unit, a repeat BAL confirmed the presence of adenovirus by immunohistochemical staining. Tissue samples sent for histopathology revealed \"smudge cells\". Serum adenovirus viral load was 1.6 × 105 copies/mL. Intravenous cidofovir, 1 mg/kg/day, was initiated and scheduled three times a week. The patient exhibited remarkable improvement and was discharged to home in stable condition after four doses of cidofovir treatment. Discussion: Prior to our case, the few published accounts of HIV patients with adenovirus pneumonia treated with cidofovir have all resulted in death. Our case is distinct from these cases by the lack of concomitant pulmonary infection and the initiation of HAART prior to presentation. Conclusion: To our knowledge, we present the first case of adenovirus pneumonia in a patient with AIDS successfully treated with cidofovir. Our case suggests that limited and low dose cidofovir may be an efficacious approach to treat adenovirus pneumonia among HIV patients, especially those established on HAART.
Histopathological Analysis about Autopsies from HIV/AIDS Patients—About Two Decades of Research Comparing Results before and after Antiretroviral Therapy Advent  [PDF]
Aline Domingos Pinto Ruppert, Alexandre de Matos Soeiro, Maria Carolina F. de Almeida, Vera Luiza Capelozzi, Carlos V. Serrano Jr.
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2013.33028
Abstract:

Objectives: This study considers 489 autopsies of HIV/AIDS patients who died from acute respiratory failure and describes the demographic data, etiology, and histological pulmonary findings of HIV associated diseases, comparing results before and after introduction of antiretroviral therapy. Methods: The following data were obtained: age, sex, and major associated diseases (found at the autopsy). Pulmonary histopathology was categorized as: diffuse alveolar damage; pulmonary edema; alveolar hemorrhage; and acute interstitial pneumonia. Odds ratio of the HIV/AIDS-associated diseases developing a specific histopathological pattern was determined by logistic regression. Results: A total of 355 men were studied. The mean age was 37 years old. Bronchopneumonia presented in 43% and Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia in 38% of patients. Pulmonary histopathology showed diffuse alveolar damage in 31% and acute interstitial pneumonia in 23%. The multivariate analysis showed a significant and positive association between diffuse alveolar damage with disseminated tuberculosis, cirrhosis and sepsis; and acute interstitial pneumonia with Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia and cytomegalovirosis. After the introduction of antiretroviral therapy we observed an increase in the prevalence of bacterial bronchopneumonia, sepsis and cirrhosis; and a decrease in Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia and cytomegalovirosis. Conclusions: Coherent to literature, this study showed a decrease of respiratory failure mortality associated with some opportunistic infections after antiretroviral therapy introduction. But an increased prevalence of sepsis, bronchopneumonia and sepsis was observed too. The most prevalent pulmonary histopathological pattern was diffuse alveolar damage, which suggested a positive association with disseminated tuberculosis, sepsis and cirrhosis.

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