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Treatment outcomes among pulmonary tuberculosis patients at treatment centers in Ibadan, Nigeria
AA Fatiregun, AS Ojo, AE Bamgboye
Annals of African Medicine , 2009,
Abstract: Objective : To assess treatment outcomes and determinants of outcome among tuberculosis patients. Design : A longitudinal study design involving a cohort of sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients at initiation of therapy, who were followed up to the end of treatment at eighth month. Setting : Tuberculosis treatment centers in Ibadan, Nigeria Results : A total of 1,254 patients were followed up with a mean age of 35.0±3.3 years. The percentages of patients with treatment outcomes assessed in the study were as follows: cure (76.6%), failure (8.1%), default (6.6%), transferred out (4.8%), and death (1.9%). The cure rate varied significantly between treatment centers from 40 to 94.4% (P<0.05). The treatment centers located within the specialist health centers at Jericho and the University College Hospital had 50 and 75% cure rates, respectively. The mean age of cured patients was 31.2±3.1 years, which was significantly lower than the mean age of those with poor treatment outcomes (36.7±3.5 years; P<0.05). Males had a higher risk of a poor treatment outcome (RR=1.8; 95% CI: 1.02-1.94) than females. Also, patients with a poor knowledge of tuberculosis had a higher risk of having a poor treatment outcome (RR=1.35; 95% CI: 1.25-1.62) compared to those with a good knowledge. Conclusion : Variations in health center treatment outcomes and poor knowledge of tuberculosis among patients suggest that poor program implementation quality may be a major modifiable determinant of treatment outcomes in our environment.
Prevalence of rubella antibody in pregnant women in Ibadan, Nigeria
AE Bamgboye, KA Afolabi, FI Esumeh, IB Enweani
West African Journal of Medicine , 2004,
Abstract: Background:- There is a dearth of information on the incidence and prevalence of rubella infection in Nigeria. The risk of congenital rubella in sero-negative pregnant women has been found to produce congenital abnormalities even in developed countries. Objective:- The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of rubella virus antibody in pregnant women. Setting:- The place of study is the antenatal care clinic of Adeoyo State Hospital, Ibadan. Design:- This is a cross-sectional study of primigravida women attending the antenatal care facilities in a general hospital. The rubella IgG antibody of the women was detected in sera using the RUB IgG Test kit. This is a quantitative ELISA technique. Result:- The prevalence of rubella antibody in 159 pregnant women that participated in this study was 68.5% with a confidence interval of 64.8% - 72.2%. Women living in rural -urban areas have statistically significant higher prevalence of antibody than those in urban areas. Conclusion:- This prevalence of rubella antibody in pregnant women suggests 1 in 4 pregnant woman is susceptible and the foetus at risk of congenital rubella malformation. Key Words: Rubella, IgG antibody, ELISA, Pregnant women, Prevalence, Optical density. Résumé Introduction:- II y a la pénurie de l'information sur les cas et la fréquence de l'infection de la rubéole au Nigeria. Le risqué de la rubéole congénitale chez une femme enceinte séronégative a été noté de anormalité congénitale même dans les pays developpés. Objectifs:- L'objet de cette étude est de décider les cas des anticorps virus de la rubéole chez des femmes enceintes. Cadre:- Le lieu de cette etude est la clinique des soins anténataux de l'H pital d'Etat Adeoyo, Ibadan. Plan:- II s'agit d'une étude en coupe transversale des femmes primigravida qui vont au centre des soins antenataux dans un h pital général. La rubéole lgG anticorps des femmes était trouvée dans sera avec l'utilisation d'équipement du RUB l Gg test. II s'agit d'une technique ELISA quantitative. Resultats:- Les cas d'anticorps de la rubéole chez 159 femmes enceintes qui ont participé dans cette étude étaient 68,5% avec l'intervalle de confiance de 64,8% - 72,2%. Des femmes qui habitent au miliue rural/urban ont une fréquence d'anticorps plus statisquement élevés que celles dans un milieu urbain. Conclusion:- Cet anticorps de la rubéole chez des femmes enceintes évoque l parmi 4 femmes enceintes est susceptible au syndrome congénital de la rubéole. C'est nécessaire d'avoir un programme national sur la vaccination pour la rubéole dans ce pays. West African Journal of Medicine Vol.23(3) 2004: 245-248
Effects of antifolates - co-trimoxazole and pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine - on gametocytes in children with acute, symptomatic, uncomplicated, Plasmodium falciparum malaria
Sowunmi, A;Fateye, BA;Adedeji, AA;Fehintola, FA;Bamgboye, AE;Babalola, CP;Happi, TC;Gbotosho, GO;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762005000400019
Abstract: antimalarial drugs including the antifolate, pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine (ps), can modulate the prevalence and intensities of gametocytaemia following treatment of acute malaria infections. they may also directly influence the transmission and spread of drug insensitivity. little is known of the effects of co-trimoxazole (co-t), another antifolate antimalarial, on gametocytes in children with acute malaria infections. we compared the effects of co-t and ps on the prevalence and intensities of gametocytaemia and gametocyte sex ratios in 102 children aged 0.5-12 years presenting with acute and uncomplicated falciparum malaria. compared to pre-treatment, both drugs significantly increased gametocyte carriage post-initiation of treatment. however, gametocyte carriage was significantly lower on day 14 in those treated with co-t than ps. significant increase in gametocytaemia with time occurred in ps - but not co-t-treated children. kaplan-meier survival curve of the cumulative probability of remaining gametocyte-free in children who were agametocytaemic at enrolment showed that by day 7 of follow up, children treated with ps had a significantly higher propensity to have developed gametocytes than in co-t-treated children (log-rank statistic 5.35, df = 1, p = 0.02). gametocyte sex ratio changes were similar following treatment with both drugs. ps and co-t treatment of acute malaria infections in children from this endemic area is associated with significant increases in prevalence and intensities of gametocytaemia but these effects are more marked in those treated with ps than co-t.
Risk factors for road traffic accidents among drivers of public institutions in Ibadan, Nigeria
CO Bekibele, OI Fawole, AE Bamgboye, LV Adekunle, R Ajav, AM Baiyeroju
African Journal of Health Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Recent studies have shown an increase in the rate of road traffic accident (RTA). Identifying the risk factors for this problem may provide a clue to possible effective intervention. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors for self reported RTA among drivers of educational institutions and make suggestions to promote safer driving. A cross sectional population study of motor vehicle drivers from the College of Medicine, University of Ibadan and University College Hospital (UCH) Ibadan was undertaken between December 2003 and January 2004. The study comprised of 99 motor vehicle drivers. 67 (67.7%) were from the College of Medicine, and 32 (32.3%) from the UCH. Response rate was 97.1%. All were males, aged 38 to 60 years, mean 50.1 + (SD= 4.8 years). The prevalence of self reported RTA was 16.2%. The cause of road traffic accidents included, mechanical fault (50%), bad road (12.5%). RTA prevalence was higher among older drivers (OR=1.7, 95%CI=0.5-5.9; P>0,05), drivers who had part time jobs (Odds ratio 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.3; X2 =4.5, P=0.03), and drivers with visual impairment (OR=1.6, 95% CI=0-9, X2 0.49, P > 0.05). The prevalence of RTA was lower amongst drivers who did not take alcohol, cola nut and other CNS stimulants while driving (OR 0.9, 95% CI=0.3-2.3, P >0.05). Regular maintenance of official vehicles and examination of drivers\' eyes are recommended. Drivers should be discouraged from drugs and part jobs so as to ensure that they have enough time to rest and therefore prevent fatigue related RTA. African Journal of Health Sciences Vol. 14 (3-4) 2007: pp. 137-142
Trends and Effective Use of Energy Input in the Palm Kernel Oil Mills
Bamgboye, AI.,Jekanyinfa, SO.
Tropicultura , 2007,
Abstract: This work aims at studying the importance and the efficiency of energy use in a few palm kernel oil mills selected for their representativity. Pattern of energy use, the cost of energy per unit product, energy intensity and normalized performance indicator (NPI) were determined. Results show that the medium and the large mills depend largely on fossil fuel; while the small mill depends on electricity. It was found out that the large mill has the most effective use of energy with high energy intensity. The annual cost of energy per unit product of N8,360,000 ($64,307.69); N12,262,250 ($94,325) and N13,353,870 ($102, 722.08) were obtained for small, medium and large mills respectively. The NPI results show that there was no wastage of energy through space heating in energy supplied for production within the factory site.
Management traits in dairy cattle: dystocia, udder characteristics related to production, and a review of other traits
AE Freeman
Genetics Selection Evolution , 1976, DOI: 10.1186/1297-9686-8-2-288b
Teaching animal breeding in the united states
AE Freeman
Genetics Selection Evolution , 1977, DOI: 10.1186/1297-9686-9-1-132b
Genetic differences in feed utilization by dairy cattle
AE Freeman
Genetics Selection Evolution , 1980, DOI: 10.1186/1297-9686-12-1-123c
Assessment of protection and comparative advantage in rice processing in Nigeria
AE Oguntade
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2011,
Abstract: This study was carried out to determine the contributors to value-addition in the processing of paddy rice into basic milled rice and value-added rice as well as analyze the comparative advantage and competitiveness of rice processing in Nigeria. The extent of policy distortion and agricultural protection was also determined by the study. The data were collected from Ebonyi State, Nigeria, a major rice processing state with 850 registered small-scale processors. Data from other secondary sources were also used. The main analytical framework used was the Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM). The policy distortions were measured through Nominal Protection Coefficient (NPC) and Effective Protection Coefficient (EPC). Private Profitability Coefficient (PPC) was used to measure the comparative advantage a processor has in producing value-added rice while the Domestic Resource Cost ratio (DRC) was selected as the measure of the comparative advantage Nigeria has in producing the commodity. The results show that the total value addition in the processing of paddy rice into basic milled rice was N20,000 or 20% of the output value while the total value addition in the processing of basic milled rice into value-added rice was about N21,500 or 17% of the output. The margin derivable from the processing of paddy rice into basic milled rice was N1,660 per tonne of basic milled rice while further processing of basic milled rice into valueadded rice yielded N7,667 as the margin per metric tonne of value-added rice. Financing, milling and margin are major contributors to value-additions. PAM results show that the price of value-added rice has been kept higher than the world price through policy interventions as the NPC for output was 1.74. Government policy has, therefore, provided incentives to processors of paddy rice into value-added rice. Farmers producing paddy rice also benefited from Government protection as captured by NPC for tradable inputs, which was 1.27; paddy rice being the main tradable input into rice processing operations Though it was profitable for a producer to process paddy rice into value-added rice given the policy environment, Nigeria has no comparative advantage in processing paddy rice into value-added rice, as the DRC was 4.88.
Using Appropriate Strategies to Improve Students' Comprehension of Chemistry Texts: A Guide for Chemistry Teachers
AE Okanlawon
African Research Review , 2011,
Abstract: Traditionally, the textbook has been the most frequently used instructional and learning aid in the hands of the teacher and the learner, through which officially prescribed curriculum is transacted. On many occasions, chemistry textbooks are challenging because they contain too many unknown technical terms, new ideas, and densely packed information. In addition, their complex organization and even unfriendly physical layout constitute serious reading comprehension difficulties. Undoubtedly, effective learning of chemistry requires good possession of reading comprehension skills. When students have reading comprehension difficulties, they have little or no ability ofunderstanding written texts. This inability to read and understand what isread, means learning of chemistry may be stunted and sometimes hopelessly crippled at the grassroot. Unfortunately, contemporary research insight into science reading is lacking and science educators tend to focus on methods of teaching specific subject matter and students misconceptions. As a result, learners lack the skills and strategies involved in reading and hence having reading comprehension difficulties. To help solve some of this problems, comprehension strategy instruction that can be adopted to assist less skilledreaders acquire skills necessary for successful comprehension of chemistry texts are offered.
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