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A simple method for quantification of interferon- &alfa;2b through surface plasmon resonance technique
RN Ramanan, TC Ling, BT Tey, AB Ariff
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2010,
Abstract: A rapid and efficient immunoassay method for quantification of interferon-2b using surface plasmon resonance was developed with BIAcore 3000 as a sensor. Two different levels of anti-interferon monoclonal antibody were immobilized onto a CM5 chip using an amine coupling method. Similar binding ratio was observed for both the ligand densities. There was no steric hindrance and loss of antibody activity even at higher ligand density (> 22,000 RU). The sensitivity of the assay was increased up to 45% with the increment in ligand density from 15,400 to 22,360 RU. The binding between interferon-2b and anti-interferon monoclonal antibody was predominantly controlled by mass transfer rate and the relationship was found linear, ranged from 5 to 400 ng/mL. Total cycle time per analysis was less than 8 min and required only 5 L of sample injection.
Effect of different flocculants on the flocculation performance of flocculation performance of microalgae, Chaetoceros calcitrans, cells
ZT Harith, FM Yusoff, MS Mohamed, M Shariff, M Din, AB Ariff
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2009,
Abstract: The possibility of using flocculation technique for the separation of microalgae, Chaetoceros calcitrans, biomass from the culture broth was investigated. The flocculation experiments were conducted in 500 mL beaker using culture broth obtained from 10 L photobioreactor. The harvesting efficiency of 90 and 60% was obtained in flocculation without flocculants conducted for 10 days at 27oC (in light and dark) and 4oC (dark), respectively. Harvesting efficiency higher than 90% with short settling time was achieved by adjusting the culture pH to 10.2 using either sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or potassium hydroxide (KOH). Improved cell viability (> 80%) and settling time with a slight improvement of flocculation efficiency was achieved by the addition of polyelectrolytes flocculant (Magnafloc LT 27 and LT 25). However, the flocculants were only functioned when the pH of the microalgae culture was pre-adjusted to a certain value that promotes cells entrapment and surface charge neutralization prior to flocculation process. The flocculation efficiency and cell viability obtained in flocculation with Magnafloc (LT 25 and LT 27) was comparable to that obtained in flocculation with chitosan. When chitosan and Magnafloc (LT 25 and LT 27) were used as flocculants, the highest flocculation efficiency of C. calcitrans cells was observed at pH 8 and 10.2, respectively. Substantial increased in sedimentation rate was observed with increasing flocculants dosage though the flocculation efficiency and cell viability were not significantly varied.
Effect of promoter strength and signal sequence on the periplasmic expression of human interferon- b in Escherichia coli
RN Ramanan, WB Tik, HR Memari, SNA Azaman, TC Ling, BT Tey, MAM Lila, MP Abdullah, RA Rahim, AB Ariff
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2010,
Abstract: Two plasmids, pFLAG-ATS and pET 26b(+), were studied for the periplasmic expression of recombinant human interferon-2b (IFN-2b) in Escherichia coli. The pFLAG-ATS contains ompA signal sequence and tac promoter while pET 26b(+) contains pelB signal sequence and T7lac promoter. It was observed that periplasmic expression of IFN-2b from pET 26b(+) was around 3000 times higher than pFLAGATS. Difference in the expression level was attributed to the difference in the promoters and the signal sequences. In silico analysis of mRNA secondary structures were analyzed using Vienna RNA package and MFOLD. The results suggested that the increase of expression would mainly due to the difference in the translation initiation associated with secondary structure of mRNA transcribed by both plasmids.
Modelling the Violation of Restrictions Pertaining to Deforestation in a Given Land Right  [PDF]
Anthony G. Tumba, Shahidah Bte Mohd Ariff
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2015.611108
Abstract: This paper develops a model that could be used to visualize and predict the violation of restrictions in a given forest. The violation of restriction in this case is assumed to be the difference in areal extent between two forest cover scenes with time; termed “deforestation”. It analyses the relationship in forest cover changes overtime in Ganye Forest Reserve and Glide Cross Country Farm in Adamawa state, Nigeria. Cadastral maps of the forest reserve and farmland were used as the base maps, while the satellite images served as the spatio-temporal data. Landsat ETM+ images of 2003, 2008 and 2013 were used to identify, determine and estimate the violation of restrictions. The result shows that the violation of restrictions could be reliably determined for both the forest reserve and farmland and forecast made in order to predict future occurrence. It also revealed a continuous deforestation in the forest reserve, while in the farmland regeneration of forest stock was noticed. This information is very vital for forest management, planning and decision making in a viable land administration domain.
Ariff KM,Beng KS
Malaysian Family Physician , 2006,
Insomnia: case studies in family practice
Kamil Mohd Ariff,Zailinawati Abu Hassan
Malaysian Family Physician , 2006,
Risk Factors Associated with Birth Asphyxia in Rural District Matiari, Pakistan: A Case Control Study  [PDF]
Farhana Tabassum, Arjumand Rizvi, Shabina Ariff, Sajid Soofi, Zulfiqar A. Bhutta
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2014.521181
Background: During the past two decades there has been a sustained decline in child mortality; however, neonatal mortality has remained stagnant. Each year approximately 4 million babies are born asphyxiated resulting in 2 million neonatal deaths and intrapartum stillbirths. Almost all neonatal deaths occur in developing countries, where the majority is delivered at homes with negligible antenatal care and poor perinatal services. Objectives: To identify socio-demographic and clinical risk factors associated with birth asphyxia in Matiari District of Sindh Province, Pakistan. Method: A matched case control study was conducted in Matiari District with 246 cases and 492 controls. Newborn deaths with birth asphyxia diagnosed through verbal autopsy accreditation during 2005 and 2006 were taken as cases. Controls were the live births during the same period, matched on area of residence, gender and age. Result: The factors found to be associated with birth asphyxia mortality in Matiari District of Sindh Province, Pakistan are maternal education, history of stillbirths, pregnancy complications (including smelly or excessive vaginal discharge and anemia), intrapartum complications (including fever, prolong or difficult labour, breech delivery, cord around child’s neck, premature delivery, large baby size) and failure to establish spontaneous respiration after birth. Conclusion and Recommendation: There is an immediate need to develop strategies for early identification and management of factors associated with birth asphyxia by involving women, families, communities, community health workers, health professionals and policy makers. Community health workers should be trained for emergency obstetric care, basic newborn care including preliminary resuscitation measures to provide skilled birth attendance and encourage early recognition and referral.
Yield and organoleptic characteristics of Suya (an intermediate moisture meat) prepared from three
AB Omojola
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: High cost of choice meat used in suya production makes the product an exclusive meat for the rich. In order to make suya (an intermediate moisture meat) available and affordable to the common man thereby increasing their animal protein intake, this experiment therefore become imperative. Meat from the semimembranosus (SM), biceps femoris (BF) and psoas major (PM) muscles were used for the study. The muscles were carefully excised and trimmed of all visible connective tissue. The meat was sliced into thin sheet of 0.15 – 0.30 cm thick and between 5 – 9 cm long. The experiment comprised of three treatments in a completely randomized design. A total of 30 sticks of suya were prepared from each muscle-type. The percent cooking loss was highest (P < 0.05) in the PM (23.91 ± 0.38) as against the values of 20.70 ± 0.36 and 18.52 ± 0.38 obtained for SM and BF respectively. The water holding capacity (WHC) was highest in the SM followed by BF and PM with values of 79.99 ± 2.05, 71.11 ± 8.30 and 68.17 ± 1.72% respectively. BF gave the highest (P < 0.05) product yield (87.72 ± 2.51) while SM and PM gave values that were statistically similar (P > 0.05). SM gave the highest (P < 0.05) values for tenderness, juiciness and overall acceptability. Suya can be produced from other muscles than the traditional SM muscle without compromising quality.
Biotechnology in plant nutrient management for agricultural production in the tropics: The research link
AB Nyende
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: The potential benefits of biotechnology are extraordinary and traverse sectors like agriculture, environment, health, industry, bio-informatics, and human resource development. In agriculture, biotechnology research has helped to improve the understanding of diseases, to improve the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, to improve resistance to herbicides/insects/pests/diseases/drought, to improve crop varieties and yields, marker assisted selection breeding, to develop new uses for agricultural products, to facilitate early maturation and to improve food and feed nutritional value. The uncertainties and risks of biotechnology are yet to be fully understood but its possibilities are yet also to be fully exploited for agricultural production. Research has currently linked plant nutrition to biotechnology through plants modifications to obtain improved photosynthetic system and enhanced nutrient uptake. Due to the corresponding higher physiological efficiency of the improved crops via the biotechnological modifications, plant nutrient management can be adjusted appropriately. These adjustments ultimately lead to other potential benefits in agriculture that include reduced labour and capital inputs, improved environmental protection and strengthened rural economies, which can translate into sustained agricultural production.
L’espace public au ras du sol en postcolonie : travail de l’imagination et interpellation du politique au Cameroun
C Abé
Africa Development , 2011,
Abstract: This article focuses on public space as it can be seen from the grassroots level in Africa. The experience of Cameroon under the single party shows how ‘the grassroots’ capitalizes on social imagination and takes an indirect route to political interpellation. The hypothesis upheld here is that observing social practices in single-party Cameroon cannot be reduced to the mobilization of the category of subjection alone without being seriously impoverished, since the social actors evolving on the sidelines do not lack initiative. And these forms of initiative, which are often overlooked, are our focus in this study. The focus is particularly on those that contribute to the construction of a public speech culminating in the critical mediatization of the established order. By public speech, we mean any practice, discursive or not, that has a public function. To study such practices in terms of critic civility, we will draw inspiration from the work of Bakhtine and the everyday sociology of de Certeau. The research focus is on the discovery of the rationale behind the daily collective practices of the people of Cameroon. Thus oriented, the aim of this article is to uncover the political interpellation at work in the ‘ways of speaking’ and the ‘ways of doing’ of the grassroots people. It focuses on various daily operations that are not overtly challenging, but that still express the idea that the people have of the management of matters of public interest. Some use a ‘common stock of available knowledge’, some use imagination and others appropriation after transformation. This article is divided into two parts. The first shows how ordinary people take advantage of vampire stories and rumours to describe the political regime in place and the social order it exudes. The second concerns the practices used by the grassroots people to fool the authorities by doubling what is offered to it in terms of consumption of another meaning that is challenging to the established order.
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