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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 829196 matches for " A.J.S Benadé "
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Primary health care facility infrastructure and services and the nutritional status of children 0 to 71 months old and their caregivers attending these facilities in four rural districts in the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal provinces, South Africa
S Schoeman, C.M Smuts, M Faber, M Van Stuijvenberg, A Oelofse, J.A Laubscher, A.J.S Benadé, M.A Dhansay
South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition , 2010,
Abstract: Objective: To assess primary health care (PHC) facility infrastructure and services, and the nutritional status of 0 to 71-month-old children and their caregivers attending PHC facilities in the Eastern Cape (EC) and KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) provinces in South Africa. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Rural districts in the EC (OR Tambo and Alfred Nzo) and KZN (Umkhanyakude and Zululand). Subjects: PHC facilities and nurses (EC: n = 20; KZN: n = 20), and 0 to 71-month-old children and their caregivers (EC: n = 994; KZN: n = 992). Methods: Structured interviewer-administered questionnaires and anthropometric survey. Results: Of the 40 PHC facilities, 14 had been built or renovated after 1994. The PHC facilities had access to the following: safe drinking water (EC: 20%; KZN: 25%); electricity (EC: 45%; KZN: 85%); flush toilets (EC: 40%; KZN: 75%); and operational telephones (EC: 20%; KZN: 5%). According to more than 80% of the nurses, problems with basic resources and existing cultural practices influenced the quality of services. Home births were common (EC: 41%; KZN: 25%). Social grants were reported as a main source of income (EC: 33%; KZN: 28%). Few households reported that they had enough food at all times (EC: 15%; KZN: 7%). The reported prevalence of diarrhoea was high (EC: 34%; KZN: 38%). Undernutrition in 0 to younger than 6 month-olds was low; thereafter, however, stunting in children aged 6 to 59 months (EC: 22%; KZN: 24%) and 60 to 71 months (EC: 26%; KZN: 31%) was medium to high. Overweight and obese adults (EC: 49%; KZN: 42%) coexisted. Conclusion: Problems regarding infrastructure, basic resources and services adversely affected PHC service delivery and the well-being of rural people, and therefore need urgent attention.
Introdu??o ao teorema de Nash e às Branas-mundo
Capistrano, A.J.S.;Odon, P.I.;
Revista Brasileira de Ensino de Física , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1806-11172010000100005
Abstract: although brane-world models have gained considerable attention in the last years for providing several options for contemporary physics, their mechanisms are not completely understood or properly justified. taking into account such difficulty, in this work we provide a pedagogical contribution, written especially for physics graduate students, and present an introductory approach to one of the important themes in physics and geometry concerning the foundations of immersion theory of manifolds. we present a description of nash's embedding theorem of 1956 which shows how to do a local embedding between riemannian manifolds while preserving the regularity and differentiability of the embedding functions, and how it can be applied to physics in the contex of the brane-worlds.
Revestimentos de diamante CVD em Si3N4: Atrito e desgaste no deslizamento de pares próprios sem lubrifica o
C.S. Abreu,F.J. Oliveira,M. Belmonte,A.J.S. Fernandes
Ciência & Tecnologia dos Materiais , 2006,
Abstract: O diamante natural, dada a sua extrema dureza, apresenta elevada resistência ao desgaste. No entanto, além do seu elevado custo, caracteriza-se por uma forte anisotropia no comportamento tribológico. Estas limita es s o ultrapassadas pela utiliza o de revestimentos de diamante obtidos por deposi o química em fase vapor (CVD), que pela sua natureza policristalina combinada com a reten o das propriedades de excep o do diamante, proporcionam superfícies com elevado desempenho tribológico. Os revestimentos de diamante CVD podem ser depositados sobre substratos de natureza diversa. Porém, de modo a garantir elevados níveis de ades o, os ceramicos à base de nitreto de silício (Si3N4) s o substratos particularmente atractivos dado possuírem natureza carburígena e um coeficiente de expans o térmica próximo do do diamante. No presente trabalho foram produzidas por sinteriza o amostras densas de Si3N4, as quais foram posteriormente revestidas a diamante obtido por deposi o química a partir da fase gasosa activada por plasma de micro-ondas (MPCVD). Os testes tribológicos foram realizados na configura o esfera-placa (BOF), na ausência de lubrifica o e em atmosfera ambiente, envolvendo pares próprios de diamante CVD. A carga normal aplicada variou entre 10 N e 80 N, mantendo-se constante a frequência (1 Hz) de oscila o da placa. O comportamento tribológico foi caracterizado por valores do coeficiente de atrito em regime estacionário extremamente baixos (f ~ 0.03-0.04), acompanhados de taxas de desgaste denotando um regime de desgaste suave a muito suave (10-8 ≤ K ≤10-7 mm3N-1m-1). O principal mecanismo de desgaste consistiu na clivagem dos cristais de diamante paralelamente ao plano de deslizamento, resultando no polimento à escala fina das superfícies em interac o tribológica. Due to its extreme hardness natural diamond posses a high wear resistance. However, apart from the high cost, it is characterised by a strong anisotropy in terms of tribological behaviour. These limitations are overcome using diamond coatings produced by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) which due to their polycristalline nature, while retaining the extreme properties of natural diamond, make surfaces with high tribological performance. CVD diamond coatings can be deposited on various types of substrates. However, in order to sustain high levels of adhesion, silicon nitride (Si3N4) based ceramics constitute a particularly attractive substrate material due to its carburizing nature and low thermal expansion coefficient mismatch with diamond. In the present work, dense Si3N4 samples w
Induction of oral tolerance and the effect of interleukin-4 on murine skin allograft rejection
Dettino, A.L.A.;Duarte, A.J.S.;Sato, M.N.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X2004000300022
Abstract: we studied the effect of oral and portal vein administration of alloantigens on mouse skin allograft survival. graft receptor balb/c mice received spleen cells (30, 90, 150 or 375 x 106) from donor c57bl/6 mice intragastrically on three successive days, starting seven days before the skin graft. allograft survival was significantly increased with the feeding of 150 x 106 allogeneic spleen cells by one gavage (median survival of 12 vs 14 days, p £ 0.005) or when 300 x 106 cells were given in six gavage (12 vs 14 days, p < 0.04). a similar effect was observed when 150 x 106 spleen cells were injected into the portal vein (12 vs 14 days, p £ 0.03). furthermore, prolonged allograft survival was observed with subcutaneous (12 vs 16 days, p £ 0.002) or systemic (12 vs 15 days, p £ 0.016) application of murine interleukin-4 (il-4), alone or in combination with spleen cell injection into the portal vein (12 vs 18 days, p £ 0.0018). taken together, these results showed that tolerance induction with spleen cells expressing fully incompatible antigens by oral administration or intraportal injection partially down-modulates skin allograft rejection. furthermore, these findings demonstrated for the first time the effect of subcutaneous or systemic il-4 application on allograft skin survival suggesting its use as a beneficial support therapy in combination with a tolerance induction protocol.
Induction of oral tolerance and the effect of interleukin-4 on murine skin allograft rejection
Dettino A.L.A.,Duarte A.J.S.,Sato M.N.
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2004,
Abstract: We studied the effect of oral and portal vein administration of alloantigens on mouse skin allograft survival. Graft receptor BALB/c mice received spleen cells (30, 90, 150 or 375 x 10(6)) from donor C57BL/6 mice intragastrically on three successive days, starting seven days before the skin graft. Allograft survival was significantly increased with the feeding of 150 x 10(6) allogeneic spleen cells by one gavage (median survival of 12 vs 14 days, P <= 0.005) or when 300 x 10(6) cells were given in six gavage (12 vs 14 days, P < 0.04). A similar effect was observed when 150 x 10(6) spleen cells were injected into the portal vein (12 vs 14 days, P <= 0.03). Furthermore, prolonged allograft survival was observed with subcutaneous (12 vs 16 days, P <= 0.002) or systemic (12 vs 15 days, P <= 0.016) application of murine interleukin-4 (IL-4), alone or in combination with spleen cell injection into the portal vein (12 vs 18 days, P <= 0.0018). Taken together, these results showed that tolerance induction with spleen cells expressing fully incompatible antigens by oral administration or intraportal injection partially down-modulates skin allograft rejection. Furthermore, these findings demonstrated for the first time the effect of subcutaneous or systemic IL-4 application on allograft skin survival suggesting its use as a beneficial support therapy in combination with a tolerance induction protocol.
Ascospore discharge, germination and culture of fungal partners of tropical lichens, including the use of a novel culture technique
E. Sangvichien,D.L. Hawksworth,A.J.S. Whalley
IMA Fungus , 2011,
Abstract: A total of 292 lichen samples, representing over 200 species and at least 65 genera and 26 families, were collected, mainly in Thailand; 170 of the specimens discharged ascospores in the laboratory. Generally, crustose lichens exhibited the highest discharge rates and percentage germination. In contrast, foliose lichen samples, although having a high discharge rate, had a lower percentage germination than crustose species tested. A correlation with season was indicated for a number of species. Continued development of germinated ascospores into recognizable colonies in pure culture was followed for a selection of species. The most successful medium tried was 2 % Malt-Yeast extract agar (MYA), and under static conditions using a liquid culture medium, a sponge proved to be the best of several physical carriers tested; this novel method has considerable potential for experimental work with lichen mycobionts.
Techniques used to identify the Brazilian variant of HIV-1 subtype B
Komninakis, S.;Fukumori, L.;Alcalde, R.;Cortina, M.;Abdala, L.;Brito, A.;Sanabani, S.;Duarte, A.J.S.;Casseb, J.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X2006005000062
Abstract: the purpose of the present study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of v3 enzyme immunoassay (solid phase eia and eia inhibition) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) with the dna sequencing "gold standard" to identify the brazilian hiv-1 variants of subtype b and b"-gwgr. peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected from 61 hiv-1-infected individuals attending a clinic in s?o paulo. proviral dna was amplified and sequentially cleaved with the fok i restriction enzyme. plasma samples were submitted to a v3-loop biotinylated synthetic peptide eia. direct partial dna sequencing of the env gene was performed on all samples. based on eia results, the sensitivity for detecting b-gpgr was 70%, compared to 64% for the brazilian variant b"-gwgr while, the specificity of b-gpgr detection was 85%, compared to 88% for gwgr. the assessment of rflp revealed 68% sensitivity and 94% specificity for the b-gpgr strain compared to 84 and 90% for the b"-gwgr variant. moreover, direct dna sequencing was able to detect different base sequences corresponding to amino acid sequences at the tip of the v3 loop in 22 patients. these results show a similar performance of v3 serology and rlfp in identifying the brazilian variant gwgr. however, v3 peptide serology may give indeterminate results. therefore, we suggest that v3 serology be used instead of dna sequencing where resources are limited. samples giving indeterminate results by v3 peptide serology should be analyzed by direct dna sequencing to distinguish between b-gpgr and the brazilian variant b"-gwgr.
Revestimentos de diamante CVD em Si3N4: Atrito e desgaste no deslizamento de pares próprios sem lubrifica??o
Abreu,C.S.; Oliveira,F.J.; Belmonte,M.; Fernandes,A.J.S.; Silva,R.F.; Gomes,J.R.;
Ciência & Tecnologia dos Materiais , 2006,
Abstract: due to its extreme hardness natural diamond posses a high wear resistance. however, apart from the high cost, it is characterised by a strong anisotropy in terms of tribological behaviour. these limitations are overcome using diamond coatings produced by chemical vapour deposition (cvd) which due to their polycristalline nature, while retaining the extreme properties of natural diamond, make surfaces with high tribological performance. cvd diamond coatings can be deposited on various types of substrates. however, in order to sustain high levels of adhesion, silicon nitride (si3n4) based ceramics constitute a particularly attractive substrate material due to its carburizing nature and low thermal expansion coefficient mismatch with diamond. in the present work, dense si3n4 samples were diamond coated using the microwave plasma activated chemical vapour deposition (mpcvd) technique. the tribological tests were performed using a ball-on-flat (bof) configuration on self-mated diamond cvd pairs, without the presence of lubrication in ambient atmosphere. the applied normal varied in the range 10-80 n, while keeping the frequency (1 hz) constant throughout the tests. the tribological behaviour was characterised by extremely low steady-state friction coefficient values (f ~ 0.03-0.04), accompanied by wear rates denoting a very mild to mild wear regime (10-8£ k £ 10-7 mm3n-1m-1). the main wear mechanism consisted on the truncating of diamond crystals parallel to the plane of sliding, resulting in a self-polishing of the interacting surfaces at the micro-scale level.
A gasometric method to determine erythrocyte catalase activity
Siqueira, A.J.S.;Remi?o, J.O.;Azevedo, A.M.P.;Azambuja, C.R.J.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 1999, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X1999000900006
Abstract: we describe a new gasometric method to determine erythrocyte catalase activity by the measurement of the volume of oxygen produced as a result of hydrogen peroxide decomposition in a system where enzyme and substrate are separated in a special reaction test tube connected to a manometer and the reagents are mixed with a motor-driven stirrer. the position of the reagents in the test tube permits the continuous measurement of oxygen evolution from the time of mixing, without the need to stop the reaction by the addition of acid after each incubation time. the enzyme activity is reported as khb, i.e., mg hydrogen peroxide decomposed per second per gram of hemoglobin (s-1 g hb-1). the value obtained for catalase activity in 28 samples of hemolyzed human blood was 94.4 ± 6.17 mg h2o2 s-1 g hb-1. the results obtained were precise and consistent, indicating that this rapid, simple and inexpensive method could be useful for research and routine work.
A gasometric method to determine erythrocyte catalase activity
Siqueira A.J.S.,Remi?o J.O.,Azevedo A.M.P.,Azambuja C.R.J.
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 1999,
Abstract: We describe a new gasometric method to determine erythrocyte catalase activity by the measurement of the volume of oxygen produced as a result of hydrogen peroxide decomposition in a system where enzyme and substrate are separated in a special reaction test tube connected to a manometer and the reagents are mixed with a motor-driven stirrer. The position of the reagents in the test tube permits the continuous measurement of oxygen evolution from the time of mixing, without the need to stop the reaction by the addition of acid after each incubation time. The enzyme activity is reported as KHb, i.e., mg hydrogen peroxide decomposed per second per gram of hemoglobin (s-1 g Hb-1). The value obtained for catalase activity in 28 samples of hemolyzed human blood was 94.4 ± 6.17 mg H2O2 s-1 g Hb-1. The results obtained were precise and consistent, indicating that this rapid, simple and inexpensive method could be useful for research and routine work.
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