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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 854188 matches for " A.-M.J.; "
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Novel mechanisms of growth hormone regulation: growth hormone-releasing peptides and ghrelin
Lengyel, A.-M.J.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X2006000800002
Abstract: growth hormone secretion is classically modulated by two hypothalamic hormones, growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin. a third pathway was proposed in the last decade, which involves the growth hormone secretagogues. ghrelin is a novel acylated peptide which is produced mainly by the stomach. it is also synthesized in the hypothalamus and is present in several other tissues. this endogenous growth hormone secretagogue was discovered by reverse pharmacology when a group of synthetic growth hormone-releasing compounds was initially produced, leading to the isolation of an orphan receptor and, finally, to its endogenous ligand. ghrelin binds to an active receptor to increase growth hormone release and food intake. it is still not known how hypothalamic and circulating ghrelin is involved in the control of growth hormone release. endogenous ghrelin might act to amplify the basic pattern of growth hormone secretion, optimizing somatotroph responsiveness to growth hormone-releasing hormone. it may activate multiple interdependent intracellular pathways at the somatotroph, involving protein kinase c, protein kinase a and extracellular calcium systems. however, since ghrelin has a greater ability to release growth hormone in vivo, its main site of action is the hypothalamus. in the current review we summarize the available data on the: a) discovery of this peptide, b) mechanisms of action of growth hormone secretagogues and ghrelin and possible physiological role on growth hormone modulation, and c) regulation of growth hormone release in man after intravenous administration of these peptides.
Autonomous distributed temperature sensing for long-term heated applications in remote areas
A.-M. Kurth, N. Dawes, J. Selker,M. Schirmer
Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems (GI) & Discussions (GID) , 2013, DOI: 10.5194/gi-2-71-2013
Abstract: Distributed temperature sensing (DTS) is a fiber-optical method enabling simultaneous temperature measurements over long distances. Electrical resistance heating of the metallic components of the fiber-optic cable provides information on the thermal characteristics of the cable's environment, providing valuable insight into processes occurring in the surrounding medium, such as groundwater–surface water interactions, dam stability or soil moisture. Until now, heated applications required direct handling of the DTS instrument by a researcher, rendering long-term investigations in remote areas impractical due to the often difficult and time-consuming access to the field site. Remote control and automation of the DTS instrument and heating processes, however, resolve the issue with difficult access. The data can also be remotely accessed and stored on a central database. The power supply can be grid independent, although significant infrastructure investment is required here due to high power consumption during heated applications. Solar energy must be sufficient even in worst case scenarios, e.g. during long periods of intense cloud cover, to prevent system failure due to energy shortage. In combination with storage batteries and a low heating frequency, e.g. once per day or once per week (depending on the season and the solar radiation on site), issues of high power consumption may be resolved. Safety regulations dictate adequate shielding and ground-fault protection, to safeguard animals and humans from electricity and laser sources. In this paper the autonomous DTS system is presented to allow research with heated applications of DTS in remote areas for long-term investigations of temperature distributions in the environment.
Autonomous distributed temperature sensing for long-term heated applications in remote areas
A.-M. Kurth,N. Dawes,J. Selker,M. Schirmer
Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems Discussions , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/gid-2-855-2012
Abstract: Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) is a fiber-optical method enabling simultaneous temperature measurements over long distances. Electrical resistance heating of the metallic components of the fiber-optic cable provides information on the thermal characteristics of the cable's environment, providing valuable insight into processes occurring in the surrounding medium, such as groundwater-surface water interactions, dam stability or soil moisture. Until now, heated applications required direct handling of the DTS instrument by a researcher, rendering long-term investigations in remote areas impractical due to the often difficult and time-consuming access to the field site. Remote-control and automation of the DTS instrument and heating processes, however, resolve the issue with difficult access. The data can also be remotely accessed and stored on a central database. The power supply can be grid-independent, although significant infrastructure investment is required here due to high power consumption during heated applications. Solar energy must be sufficient even in worst case scenarios, e.g. during long periods of intense cloud cover, to prevent system failure due to energy shortage. In combination with storage batteries and a low heating frequency, e.g. once per day or once per week (depending on the season and the solar radiation on site), issues of high power consumption may be resolved. Safety regulations dictate adequate shielding and ground-fault protection, to safeguard animals and humans from electricity and laser sources. In this paper the autonomous DTS system is presented to allow research with heated applications of DTS in remote areas for long-term investigations of temperature distributions in the environment.
Health Beliefs regarding Dietary Behavior and Physical Activity of Surinamese Immigrants of Indian Descent in The Netherlands: A Qualitative Study
A.-M. Hendriks,J. S. Gubbels,M. W. J. Jansen,S. P. J. Kremers
ISRN Obesity , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/903868
Abstract:
Health Beliefs regarding Dietary Behavior and Physical Activity of Surinamese Immigrants of Indian Descent in The Netherlands: A Qualitative Study
A.-M. Hendriks,J. S. Gubbels,M. W. J. Jansen,S. P. J. Kremers
ISRN Obesity , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/903868
Abstract: This study explored the health beliefs about eating habits and physical activity (PA) of Surinamese immigrants of Indian (Hindustani) descent to examine how health education messages to prevent obesity can be made more culturally sensitive. Indians are known for their increasing obesity incidence and are highly vulnerable for obesity-related consequences such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Therefore they might benefit from culturally sensitive health education messages that stimulate healthy eating habits and increase PA levels. In order to examine how health education messages aimed at preventing obesity could be adapted to Indian culture, we interviewed eight Hindustanis living in The Netherland, and conducted two focus groups ( ) with members from a Surinamese Hindustani community. Results showed cultural implications that might affect the effectiveness of health education messages: karma has a role in explaining the onset of illness, traditional eating habits are perceived as difficult to change, and PA was generally disliked. We conclude that health education messages aimed at Hindustani immigrants should recognize the role of karma in explaining the onset of illness, include more healthy alternatives for traditional foods, pay attention to the symbolic meaning of food, and suggest more enjoyable and culturally sensitive forms of PA for women. 1. Introduction Overweight and obesity is increasing worldwide more rapidly than ever, also among the Indian population [1–6]. For example, overweight and obesity among women in India increased with 24.52% between 1998 and 2006 [5]. This trend is especially prevalent among high-socioeconomic groups that live in urban areas [3]. Besides, people of Indian origin have the highest prevalence of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in the world, which are related to genetic predispositions and amplified by the increase in current Western lifestyles and obesity [7–19]. Moreover, prevalence of CVD and diabetes among Indian immigrants in other countries even exceeds that of the indigenous populations and Indians living in India [12–20]. This is unusual since the prevalence of noncommunicable diseases among immigrants generally lies between those of the country of origin and the country of adoption [14]. The mortality from CVD and prevalence of diabetes are much higher among Indian immigrants compared to other ethnic groups [12–20]. In The Netherlands too, these ethnic disparities between immigrants of Indian origin and the indigenous Dutch population are apparent [7, 12, 20]. Moreover, these
An overview of the HIBISCUS campaign
J.-P. Pommereau,A. Garnier,G. Held,A.-M. Gomes
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2007,
Abstract: HIBISCUS was a field campaign for investigating the impact of deep convection on the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) and the Lower Stratosphere, which took place during the Southern Hemisphere summer in February–March 2004 in the State of S o Paulo, Brazil. Its objective was to provide a set of new observational data on meteorology, tracers of horizontal and vertical transport, water vapour, clouds, and chemistry in the tropical UT/LS from balloon observations at local scale over a land convective area, as well as at global scale using circumnavigating long-duration balloons. Overall, the composition of the TTL, the region between 14 and 19 km of intermediate lapse rate between the almost adiabatic upper troposphere and the stable stratosphere, appears highly variable. Tracers and ozone measurements performed at both the local and the global scale indicate a strong quasi-horizontal isentropic exchange with the lowermost mid-latitude stratosphere suggesting that the barrier associated to the tropical jet is highly permeable at these levels in summer. But the project also provides clear indications of strong episodic updraught of cold air, short-lived tracers, low ozone, humidity and ice particles across the lapse rate tropopause at about 15 km, up to 18 or 19 km at 420–440 K potential levels in the lower stratosphere, suggesting that, in contrast to oceanic convection penetrating little the stratosphere, fast daytime developing land convective systems could be a major mechanism in the troposphere-stratosphere exchange at the global scale. The present overview is meant to provide the background of the project, as well as overall information on the instrumental tools available, on the way they have been used within the highly convective context of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone, and a brief summary of the results, which will be detailed in several other papers of this special issue.
New analysis software for Viking Lander meteorological data
O. Kemppinen, J. E. Tillman, W. Schmidt,A.-M. Harri
Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems (GI) & Discussions (GID) , 2013, DOI: 10.5194/gi-2-61-2013
Abstract: We have developed a set of tools that enable us to process Viking Lander meteorological data beyond what has been previously publicly available. Besides providing data for new periods of time, the existing data periods have been augmented by enhancing the data resolution significantly. This was accomplished by first transferring the original Prime computer version of the data analysis software to a standard Linux platform, and then by modifying the software to be able to process the data despite irregularities in the original raw data and reverse engineering various parameter files. In addition to this, the processing pipeline has been streamlined, making processing the data faster and easier. As a case example of new data, freshly processed Viking Lander 1 and 2 temperature records are described and briefly analyzed in ways that have not been previously possible due to the lack of data.
New analysis software for Viking Lander meteorological data
O. Kemppinen,J. E. Tillman,W. Schmidt,A.-M. Harri
Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems Discussions , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/gid-2-801-2012
Abstract: We have developed a set of tools that enable us to process Viking Lander meteorological data beyond what has been previously publicly available. Besides providing data for new periods of time, the existing data periods have been augmented by enhancing the data resolution significantly. This was accomplished by first transferring the original Prime computer version of the data analysis software to a standard Linux platform, and then by modifying the software to be able to process the data despite irregularities in the original raw data and reverse engineering various parameter files. In addition to this, the processing pipeline has been streamlined, making processing the data faster and easier. As a case example of new data, freshly processed Viking Lander 1 and 2 temperature records are described and briefly analyzed in ways that have not been previously possible due to the lack of data.
Influence of numerical schemes on current-topography interactions in 1/4° global ocean simulations
T. Penduff,J. Le Sommer,B. Barnier,A.-M. Treguier
Ocean Science Discussions (OSD) , 2007,
Abstract: The combined use of partial steps and of an energy-enstrophy conserving momentum advection scheme was shown by Barnier et al. (2006) to yield substantial improvements in the surface solution of the DRAKKAR ° global sea-ice/ocean model. The present study extends this investigation below the surface with a special focus on the Atlantic and reveals many improvements there as well: e.g. more realistic path, structure and transports of major currents (Gulf Stream, North Atlantic Current, Confluence region, Zapiola anticyclone), behavior of shedded rings, narrower subsurface boundary currents, stronger mean and eddy flows (MKE and EKE) at depth, beneficial enhancement of cyclonic (anticyclonic) flows around topographic depressions (mountains). Interestingly, adding a no-slip boundary condition to this improved model setup cancels most of these improvements, bringing back the biases diagnosed without the improved momentum advection scheme and partial steps (these biases are typical of other models at comparable or higher resolutions). This shows that current-topography interactions and full-depth eddy-admitting model solutions can be seriously deteriorated by near-bottom sidewall friction, either explicit or inherent to inadequate numerical schemes.
Influence of numerical schemes on current-topography interactions in 1/4° global ocean simulations
T. Penduff,J. Le Sommer,B. Barnier,A.-M. Treguier
Ocean Science (OS) & Discussions (OSD) , 2007,
Abstract: The combined use of partial steps and of an energy-enstrophy conserving momentum advection scheme was shown by Barnier et al. (2006) to yield substantial improvements in the surface solution of the DRAKKAR ° global sea-ice/ocean model. The present study extends this investigation below the surface with a special focus on the Atlantic and reveals many improvements there as well: e.g. more realistic path, structure and transports of major currents (Gulf Stream, North Atlantic Current, Confluence region, Zapiola anticyclone), behavior of shedded rings, narrower subsurface boundary currents, stronger mean and eddy flows (MKE and EKE) at depth, beneficial enhancement of cyclonic (anticyclonic) flows around topographic depressions (mountains). Interestingly, adding a no-slip boundary condition to this improved model setup cancels most of these improvements, bringing back the biases diagnosed without the improved momentum advection scheme and partial steps (these biases are typical of other models at comparable or higher resolutions). This shows that current-topography interactions and full-depth eddy-admitting model solutions can be seriously deteriorated by near-bottom sidewall friction, either explicit or inherent to inadequate numerical schemes.
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