Abstract:
Kozeny-Carman equation was used to estimate field and laboratory determined saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) based on Pe values obtained from soils of two Northern Savanna ecological zones of Nigeria (Samaru and Kadawa). Total porosity was determined from measured dry bulk density (Db), particle density (Dp) and moisture content at –33kPa pressure potential. Effective porosity was calculated as the difference between total porosity and volumetric moisture at -33kpa. The Ks and Pe values were fitted into the Kozeny-Carman equation using the linear least square fitting. In Samaru, 91.7 and 61% variation of Ks were explained respectively from field (Kfs) and laboratory measurements (Kls) while 61% variation of Ks was explained from the average values of laboratory measurement for Kadawa. The proportionality constant (β) varied widely between 7.1 × 10-3 to 6918.30 while the fitting parameters (n) varied from values < 1 to 2.37. The Relative Effective Porosity (REP) was adapted to substitute Pe in the Kozeny-Carman equation. Only field measured data (r2 = 0.881) and laboratory measured data (r2 = 0.573) from Samaru fit into the model and the regression coefficients were not improved. The REP- Model did not perform well with the data presented in this study.

Abstract:
In this work the physical, chemical and microbial properties of four locally composted green waste composts (GWCs) namely Almukhasib, Growers, Plantex, and Super along with four imported GWC (Florabella, Mikskaar, Potgrond, and Shamrock) were studied to evaluate the quality of these composts with the acceptable standards. All composts showed normal physical properties, except the bad smell from sulfur reducing bacteria in Almukhasib, light brown color Plantex and one viable weed seed in Shamrock compost. The germination indexes of the composts comparable to the standard (90%) were 100% for Mikskaar, followed by Shamrock (92%), Florabella (97), Potgrond (95%), Plantex (98%), Growers (77%), and 5% for both Super and Almukhasib. The physical and chemical properties vary considerably as follows: pH 3 - 10.5, 5.1 - 6.5 (standard 5 - 8), electrical conductivity (EC) 0.4 - 10.2 mS·cm^{-1}, 0.8 - 1.8 mS·cm^{-1}(standard 0.0 - 4.0 mS·cm^{-1}), moisture content (MC%) 29% - 43.7%, 64% - 74% (standard 35% - 60%) and water holding capacity (WHC%) 92% - 200% and 400% - 800% for the locally produced and imported composts, respectively. Wide ranges in the chemical properties were expressed as ammonia concentration 512.4 - 1640.1 mg·kg^{-1}, 459.4 - 656.5 mg·kg^{-1}(standard < 500 mg·kg^{-1}), organic matter 17% - 67.6%, and 53.3% - 66.2% (standard 35%) for the locally composted and imported composts, respectively. The concentrations of the heavy metals (Zn, Ni, Pb, Hg, As, Cd, and Cr) were lower than the recommended levels. The average of the bacterial colony forming unit per gram of locally produced and imported composts ranged between 260 - 1740 CFU/g and 330 - 2870 CFU/g, whereas the fungal CFU were 10 - 2800 CFU/g and 27 - 1800 CFU/g, respectively. The most probable number (MPN) for coliform bacteria was 43 - 1100 CFU/g for locally produced composts, and 23 - 480 CFU/g for the imported composts. Therefore, these composts can not be used directly without effective treatment as substrate for plant growth, soil amendment and as biofertilizer.

Abstract:
Fish were fed with live (Gammarus pulex) and wet foods (cattle spleen) per 2 and 4 days in order to determine the effects of feed on the activities of glucose 6 Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) and Carbonic Anhydrase (CA) enzymes and some growth properties of fry rainbow trout. Although the group fed with G. pulex per 2 days had the highest G6PD activity, the group fed with cattle spleen ones at two days showed the lowest enzyme activity. The effect of live feed given per 2 days on G6PD activity was significantly different for treatment groups (p< 0.01). There was no significant effect of feed on CA activity. On the other hand, the best result for Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) was found in the control group (p< 0.05). Specific Growth Rate (SGR) and Survival Rate (SR) values were not different among the groups. At the end of the present study, it was concluded that both G. pulex and cattle spleen can be used as alternative food sources for rainbow trout fries. But, similar studies should be carried out for more clearly data about interactions between feeding and enzyme activities in fish.

Abstract:
The aim of this study is to examine the theoric and empirical literature about “rebound effect”. This study summarizes energy efficiency policy and programs in general and in Turkey. Also it gives defination of the “rebound effect” concept. The rebound effect is related to consumer’s tendency to consume more energy due to economic benefit from efficiency improvement. The ‘rebound effect’ is the focus of a long-running dispute of energy economics but it is very new concept in the most developing countries. In literature according to some economist gains in energy efficiency will also reduce the real per unit price of energy services and hence the consumption of energy will rise and partially offset the initial reduction in the usage of energy sources. However for others size of the rebound effect is too small to take attention. The empirical literature shows that the size of rebound effect can change from country to country and sector to sector.

Abstract:
A soil-zinc calibration test study based on 0.1 N HCl extractable zinc and Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) was carried out with upland soils of Northern Nigeria using maize (Zea mays L. moench) as a test crop. Treatments consisted of (I) no zinc and (ii) 10 mg kg-1 Zn (greenhouse) and five levels of Zn as ZnSO4. 7 H2O (field) replicated 3 and 6 times in a randomized complete block design respectively. Plant zinc concentration increased with levels of applied Zn. Higher zinc concentrations were observed in plants that received Zn application. Extractable Zn concentration increased with an increase in CEC. A positive correlation was also observed between extractable Zn and pH. HCl extractable-Zn correlated positively and significantly with Zn uptake in the first and second crops (r = +0.735** and +0.575**), respectively. The amount of Zn extracted by 0.5 N HCl was also significantly correlated with CEC. The amount of Zn extracted by 0.1 N HCl was significantly correlated with the Zn uptake by the first and second crop. The regression equations obtained from this study indicated that the distribution of ions in the exchange site of soils should be considered in estimating plant Zn requirements in soils of the northern Nigeria. However available information on the soil CEC can be used to estimate or predict the Zn concentration of the plant tissue. Critical limits may not be required in estimating or interpreting plant Zn fertilization, as regression equations are more reliable and not empirical.

Abstract:
Bu yaz , “Gabriel MORAN, nterplay: “A Theory of Religion and Education”, Saint Mary's Press, Minnesota, 1981” künyeli eserin “Can Adult Education Be Religious?” ba l kl 8. b lümünün evirisidir.

Abstract:
We study Liouville numbers in the non-Archimedean case. We deal with the concept of a Liouville sequence in the non-Archimedean case and we give some results both in the p-adic numbers field and the functions field . 1. Introduction It is well known that if a complex number is a root of a nonzero polynomial equation where the s are integers (or equivalently, rational numbers) and satisfies no similar equation of degree , then is said to be an algebraic number of degree . A complex number that is not algebraic is said to be transcendental. Liouville’s theorem states that, for any algebraic number with degree , there exists such that for all rational numbers with . The construction of transcendental numbers has been usually shown using Liouville's theorem. For instance, the transcendence of the number can be easily proved from Liouville's theorem. Also, Liouville's theorem can be applied to prove the transcendence of a large class of real numbers which are called Liouville numbers. A real number is called a Liouville number if, for every positive real number , there exist integers and such that It is easy to prove that any real number with is a Liouville number (see [1, 2]). Real Liouville numbers have many interesting properties and have been investigated by many authors (see [3–8]). In 1975, Erd？s [9] proved a very interesting criterion for Liouville series. Theorem 1 (see Erd？s [9]). Let be an infinite sequence of integers satisfying for every and for fixed and . Then, is a Liouville number. Han？l [8] defined the concept of Liouville sequences and generalized the above theorem of Erd？s. Now, we recall the definition of Liouville sequences. Definition 2 (see [8]). Let be a sequence of positive real numbers. If, for every of positive integers, the sum is a Liouville number, then the sequence is called a Liouville sequence. The properties of Liouville sequences were investigated in [8] and some criteria were given for them. In the present work, we define the concept of Liouville sequences in non-Archimedean case and obtain some properties for them. 2. -adic Numbers and -adic Liouville Numbers Recall that a norm on a field is a function satisfying the following conditions:(i) if and only if ,(ii) , for all ,(iii) , for all . A norm on is called non-Archimedean if it satisfies the extra condition(iv) for all ;otherwise, we say that the norm is Archimedean. It is well known that the usual absolute value on the rational numbers field (or the real numbers field ) is Archimedean. There are interesting non-Archimedean norms. First, we recall the definition of

Abstract:
the testing procedure in order to determine the precise mechanical testing results in marshall design is very time consuming. also, the physical properties of the asphalt samples are obtained by further calculations. therefore if the researchers can obtain the stability and flow values of a standard mixture with the help of mechanical testing, the rest of the calculations will just be mathematical manipulations. determination of mechanical testing parameters such as strain accumulation, creep stiffness, stability, flow and marshall quotient of dense bituminous mixtures by utilising artificial neural networks is important in the sense that, cumbersome testing procedures can be avoided with the help of the closed form solutions provided in this study. marshall specimens, prepared by utilising polypropylene fibers, were tested by universal testing machine carrying out static creep tests to investigate the rutting potential of these mixtures. on the very well trained data basis, artificial neural network analyses were carried out to propose five separate models for mechanical testing properties. the explicit formulation of these five main mechanical testing properties by closed form solutions are presented for further use for researches.

Abstract:
Prolonged obstructed labor is a critical intrapartum emergency. This intricacy
is, however, unusual as a primary presentation of a giant bladder calculus. We
report a case of a 25-year-old Para 6 + 1, who presented with a history of labor
pains of 72 hours duration. She had background lower urinary tract
symptoms with supra-pubic swelling and hematuria of 2 years duration. She
had a single antenatal visit at 32 weeks however; no obstetric ultrasound scan
was done before she went into labor. Examination revealed a highly placed
fetal head with increase fetal heart rate. There was a hard mass bulging under
the anterior vaginal wall. The diagnosis was a prolonged obstructed labor
secondary to bladder mass with fetal distress was made. She had a caesarean
section (CS) with the delivery of fresh stillborn. The bi-manually palpable
bladder mass persisted post-CS. Her abdominopelvic ultrasound scan and
abdominal X-ray post-CS revealed giant vesical calculus with obstructive
uropathy. Urine microscopy culture and sensitivity yielded E. coli sensitive to
Ciprofloxacin; other laboratory investigations were normal. She was treated
for UTI and 2 weeks post-CS, she had opened cystolithotomy. The stone
weighed 536 g. Her postoperative recovery was uneventful.

Abstract:
We overexpressed Pim1 in three human prostate cell lines representing different disease stages including benign (RWPE1), androgen-dependent cancer (LNCaP) and androgen-independent cancer (DU145). We then analyzed in vitro and in vivo tumorigenicity as well as the effect of Pim1 overexpression on c-MYC transcriptional activity by reporter assays and gene expression profiling using an inducible MYC-ER system. To validate that Pim1 induces tumorigenicity and target gene expression by modulating c-MYC transcriptional activity, we inhibited c-MYC using a small molecule inhibitor (10058-F4) or RNA interference.Overexpression of Pim1 alone was not sufficient to convert the benign RWPE1 cell to malignancy although it enhanced their proliferation rates when grown as xenografts in vivo. However, Pim1 expression enhanced the in vitro and in vivo tumorigenic potentials of the human prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and DU145. Reporter assays revealed increased c-MYC transcriptional activity in Pim1-expressing cells and mRNA expression profiling demonstrated that a large fraction of c-MYC target genes were also regulated by Pim1 expression. The c-MYC inhibitor 10058-F4 suppressed the tumorigenicity of Pim1-expressing prostate cancer cells. Interestingly, 10058-F4 treatment also led to a reduction of Pim1 protein but not mRNA. Knocking-down c-MYC using short hairpin RNA reversed the effects of Pim1 on Pim1/MYC target genes.Our results suggest an in vivo role of Pim1 in promoting prostate tumorigenesis although it displayed distinct oncogenic activities depending on the disease stage of the cell line. Pim1 promotes tumorigenicity at least in part by enhancing c-MYC transcriptional activity. We also made the novel discovery that treatment of cells with the c-MYC inhibitor 10058-F4 leads to a reduction in Pim1 protein levels.Pim1 is a constitutively active serine/threonine kinase [1], whose activity is therefore primarily regulated at the level of expression and stability. Pim1 enhan