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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 462098 matches for " A. Minikin "
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Atmospheric sub-3 nm particles at high altitudes
S. Mirme,A. Mirme,A. Minikin,A. Petzold
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2009,
Abstract: Formation of new atmospheric aerosol particles is known to occur almost all over the world and the importance of these particles to climate and air quality has been recognized. Recently, it was found that atmospheric aerosol formation begins at particle diameter of around 1.5–2.0 nm and a pool of sub-3 nm atmospheric particles – consisting of both charged and uncharged ones – was observed at the ground level. Here, we report on the first airborne observations of the pool of sub-3 nm neutral atmospheric particles. Between 2 and 3 nm, their concentration is roughly two orders of magnitude larger than that of the ion clusters, depending slightly on the altitude. Our findings indicate that new particle formation takes place actively throughout the tropospheric column up to the tropopause. Particles were found to be formed via neutral pathways in the boundary layer, and there was no sign of an increasing role by ion-induced nucleation toward the upper troposphere. Clouds, while acting as a source of sub-10 nm ions, did not perturb the overall budget of atmospheric clusters or particles.
Characterization of long-term and seasonal variations of black carbon (BC) concentrations at Neumayer, Antarctica
R. Weller,A. Minikin,A. Petzold,D. Wagenbach
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2013, DOI: 10.5194/acp-13-1579-2013
Abstract: Continuous black carbon (BC) observations were conducted from 1999 through 2009 by an Aethalometer (AE10) and from 2006 through 2011 by a Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP) at Neumayer Station (NM) under stringent contamination control. Considering the respective observation period, BC concentrations measured by the MAAP were somewhat higher (median ± standard deviation: 2.1 ± 2.0 ng m 3) compared to the AE10 results (1.6 ± 2.1 ng m 3). Neither for the AE10 nor for the MAAP data set a significant long-term trend could be detected. Consistently a pronounced seasonality was observed with both instruments showing a primary annual maximum between October and November and a minimum in April with a maximum/minimum ratio of 4.5/1.6 = 3.8 and 2.7/0.64 = 4.2 for the MAAP and AE10 data, respectively. Occasionally a secondary summer maximum in January/February was visible. With the aim to assess the impact of BC on optical properties of the aerosol at NM, we evaluated the BC data along with particle scattering coefficients measured by an integrating nephelometer. We found the mean single scattering albedo of ω550 = 0.992 ± 0.0090 (median: 0.994) at a wavelength of 550 nm with a range of values from 0.95 to 1.0.
Characterization of the inter-annual, seasonal, and diurnal variations of condensation particle concentrations at Neumayer, Antarctica
R. Weller, A. Minikin, D. Wagenbach,V. Dreiling
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2011,
Abstract: Continuous condensation particle (CP) observations were conducted from 1984 through 2009 at Neumayer Station under stringent contamination control. During this period, the CP concentration (median 258 cm 3) showed no significant long term trend but exhibited a pronounced seasonality characterized by a stepwise increase starting in September and reaching its annual maximum of around 103 cm 3 in March. Minimum values below 102 cm–3 were observed during June/July. Dedicated time series analyses in the time and frequency domain revealed no significant correlations between inter-annual CP concentration variations and atmospheric circulation indices like Southern Annular Mode (SAM) or Southern Ocean Index (SOI). The impact of the Pinatubo volcanic eruption and strong El Ni o events did not affect CP concentrations. From thermodenuder experiments we deduced that the portion of volatile (at 125 °C) and semi-volatile (at 250 °C) particles which could be both associated with biogenic sulfur aerosol, was maximum during austral summer, while during winter non-volatile sea salt particles dominated. During September through April we could frequently observe enhanced concentrations of ultrafine particles within the nucleation mode (between 3 nm and 7 nm particle diameter), preferentially in the afternoon.
Particle formation in the Arctic free troposphere during the ASTAR 2004 campaign: a case study on the influence of vertical motion on the binary homogeneous nucleation of H2SO4/H2O
F. Khosrawi, J. Str m, A. Minikin,R. Krejci
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2010,
Abstract: During the ASTAR (Arctic Study of Tropospheric Aerosol and Radiation) campaign nucleation mode particles (4 to 13 nm) were quite frequently observed at altitudes below 4000 m. However, in the upper free troposphere, nucleation mode particles were only observed once, namely during the flight on 24 May 2004 (7000 m). To investigate if vertical motion were the reason for this difference that on one particular day nucleation mode particles were observed but not on the other days we employ a microphysical box model. The box model simulations were performed along air parcel trajectories calculated 6-d backwards based on European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) meteorological analyses using state parameters such as pressure and temperature in combination with additional parameters such as vertical stability. Box model simulations were performed for the 24 May where nucleation mode particles were observed (nucleation event) as well as for the days with measurements before and after (22 and 26 May) which are representative for no nucleation (non-nucleation event). A nucleation burst was simulated along all trajectories, however, in the majority of the simulations the nucleation rate was either too low or too high so that no nucleation mode particles were left at the time when the measurements were performed. Further, the simulation results could be divided into three cases. Thereby, we found that for case 1 the temperature was the only driving mechanism for the formation of new particles while for case 2 and 3 vertical motion have influenced the formation of new particles. The reason why nucleation mode particles were observed on 24 May, but not on the other days, can be explained by the conditions under which particle formation occurred. On 24 May the particle formation was caused by a slow updraft, while on the other two days the particle formation was caused by a fast updraft.
In situ observations of aerosol particles remaining from evaporated cirrus crystals: Comparing clean and polluted air masses
M. Seifert,J. Str?m,R. Krejci,A. Minikin
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2002,
Abstract: In situ observations of aerosol particles contained in cirrus crystals are presented and compared to interstitial aerosol size distributions (non-activated particles in between the cirrus crystals). The observations were conducted in cirrus clouds in the Southern and Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes during the INCA project. The first campaign in March and April 2000 was performed from Punta Arenas, Chile (54° S) in pristine air. The second campaign in September and October 2000 was performed from Prestwick, Scotland (53° N) in the vicinity of the North Atlantic flight corridor. Size distribution measurements of crystal residuals (particles remaining after evaporation of the crystals) show that small aerosol particles (Dp < 0.1μm) dominate the number density of residuals. The crystal residual size distributions were significantly different in the two campaigns. On average the residual size distributions were shifted towards larger sizes in the Southern Hemisphere. For a given integral residual number density, the calculated particle volume was on average three times larger in the Southern Hemisphere. This may be of significance to the vertical redistribution of aerosol mass by clouds in the tropopause region. In both campaigns the mean residual size increased with increasing crystal number density. The observations of ambient aerosol particles were consistent with the expected higher pollution level in the Northern Hemisphere. The fraction of residual particles only contributes to approximately a percent or less of the total number of particles, which is the sum of the residual and interstitial particles.
Freezing thresholds and cirrus cloud formation mechanisms inferred from in situ measurements of relative humidity
W. Haag,B. K?rcher,J. Str?m,A. Minikin
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2003,
Abstract: Factors controlling the distribution of relative humidity above ice saturation in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere in the presence of cirrus clouds are examined with the help of microphysical trajectory simulations using a box model. Our findings are related to results from recent field campaigns and global model studies. We suggest that the relative humidities at which ice crystals form in the atmosphere can be inferred from in situ measurements of water vapor and temperature close to, but outside of, cirrus clouds. The comparison with similar measurements performed inside cirrus clouds provides a clue to freezing mechanisms active in cirrus. The comparison with field data reveals distinct interhemispheric differences in cirrus cloud freezing thresholds. Combining the present findings with recent results addressing the frequency distributions of updraft speeds and cirrus ice crystal number densities (K rcher and Str m, 2993} provides evidence for the existence of complex heterogeneous freezing mechanisms in cirrus, at least in the polluted northern hemisphere, and further emphasizes the key role of gravity wave-induced dynamical variability in vertical air motion at the mesoscale. The key features of distributions of upper tropospheric relative humidity simulated by a global climate model are shown to be in general agreement with both, microphysical simulations and field observations, delineating a feasible method to include and validate ice supersaturation in other large-scale models of the atmosphere, in particular chemistry-transport and weather forecast models.
Particle formation in the Arctic free troposphere during the ASTAR 2004 campaign: a case study on the influence of vertical motion on the binary homogeneous nucleation of H2SO4/H2O
F. Khosrawi,J. Str?m,A. Minikin,R. Krejci
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2009,
Abstract: During the ASTAR (Arctic Study of Tropospheric Aerosol and Radiation) campaign nucleation mode particles (4 to 13 nm) were quite frequently observed at altitudes below 4000 m. However, in the upper free troposphere, nucleation mode particles were only observed once, namely during the flight on 24 May 2004 (7000 m). To investigate if vertical motion are the reason for this difference that on one particular day nucleation mode particles were observed but not on the other days we employ a microphysical box model. The box model simulations were performed along air parcel trajectories calculated 6-d backwards based on European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) meteorological analyses using state parameters such as pressure and temperature in combination with additional parameters such as vertical stability. Box model simulations were performed for the 24 May where nucleation mode particles were observed (nucleation event) as well as for the day with measurements before and after (22 and 26 May) which are representative for no nucleation (none nucleation event). A nucleation burst was simulated along all trajectories, however, in the majority of the simulations the nucleation rate was either too low or too high so that no nucleation mode particles were left at the time were the measurements were performed. Further, the simulation results could be divided into three cases. Thereby, we found that for case 1 the temperature was the only driving mechanism while for case 2 and 3 vertical motion have influenced the formation of new particles. The reason why nucleation mode particles were observed on 24 May, but not on the other day, can be explained by the conditions under which particle formation occurred. On 24 May the particle formation was caused by a slow updraft, while on the other two days the particle formation was caused by a fast updraft.
Thermal stability analysis of particles incorporated in cirrus crystals and of non-activated particles in between the cirrus crystals: Comparing clean and polluted air masses
M. Seifert,J. Str?m,R. Krejci,A. Minikin
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2003,
Abstract: A thermal volatility technique is used to provide indirect information about the chemical composition of the aerosol involved in cirrus cloud formation. The fraction of particles that disappears after being heated to 125°C is termed volatile and the fraction that disappears between 125 and 250°C is termed semi-volatile. Particles that still remain after being heated to 250°C make up the non-volatile fraction. The thermal composition of residual particles remaining from evaporated cirrus crystals is presented and compared to interstitial aerosol particles (non-activated particles in between the cirrus crystals) for two temperature regimes (cold: T<235 K, warm: 235
Aerosol-cirrus interactions: A number based phenomenon at all?
M. Seifert,J. Str?m,R. Krejci,A. Minikin
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2003,
Abstract: In situ measurements of the partitioning of aerosol particles within cirrus clouds were used to investigate aerosol-cloud interactions in ice clouds. The number density of interstitial aerosol particles (non-activated particles in between the cirrus crystals) was compared to the number density of cirrus crystal residuals. The data was obtained during the two INCA (Interhemispheric Differences in Cirrus Properties form Anthropogenic Emissions) campaigns, performed in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) and Northern Hemisphere (NH) midlatitudes. Different aerosol-cirrus interactions can be linked to the different stages of the cirrus lifecycle. Cloud formation is linked to positive correlations between the number density of interstitial aerosol (Nint) and crystal residuals (Ncvi), whereas the correlations are smaller or even negative in a dissolving cloud. Unlike warm clouds, where the number density of cloud droplets is positively related to the aerosol number density, we observed a rather complex relationship when expressing Ncvi as a function of Nint for forming clouds. The data sets are similar in that they both show local maxima in the Nint range 100 to 200 cm 3, where the SH-maximum is shifted towards the higher value. For lower number densities Nint and Ncvi are positively related. The slopes emerging from the data suggest that a tenfold increase in the aerosol number density corresponds to a 3 to 4 times increase in the crystal number density. As Nint increases beyond the ca. 100 to 200 cm 3, the mean crystal number density decreases at about the same rate for both data sets. For much higher aerosol number densities, only present in the NH data set, the mean Ncvi remains low. The situation for dissolving clouds presents two alternative interactions between aerosols and cirrus. Either evaporating clouds are associated with a source of aerosol particles, or air pollution (high aerosol number density) retards evaporation rates.
Thermal stability analysis of particles incorporated in cirrus crystals and of non-activated particles in between the cirrus crystals: comparing clean and polluted air masses
M. Seifert,J. Str?m,R. Krejci,A. Minikin
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2004,
Abstract: A thermal volatility technique is used to provide indirect information about the chemical composition of the aerosol involved in cirrus cloud formation. The fraction of particles that disappears after being heated to 125°C is termed volatile and the fraction that disappears between 125 and 250°C is termed semi-volatile. Particles that still remain after being heated to 250°C make up the non-volatile fraction. The thermal composition of residual particles remaining from evaporated cirrus crystals is presented and compared to interstitial aerosol particles (non-activated particles in between the cirrus crystals) for two temperature regimes (cold: T< -38°C, warm: -38≤T< -23°C), based on in-situ observations. The observations were conducted in cirrus clouds in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) and Northern Hemisphere (NH) midlatitudes during the INCA project. In the cold temperature regime, the non-volatile fraction of the residual particles was typically in the range 10 to 30% in the NH and 30 to 40% in the SH. In the warm temperature regime, the non-volatile residual fraction was typically 10 to 30% (NH) and 20 to 40% (SH). At high crystal number densities the non-volatile fraction in both temperature regimes was even higher: in the range of 30 to 40% (NH) and 40 to 50% (SH). The semi-volatile fraction was typically less than 10% in both hemispheres, causing the volatile fraction to essentially be a complement to the non-volatile fraction. In terms of the fractioning into the three types of particles, the SH cold case is clearly different compared to the other three cases (the two warm cases and the cold NH case), which share many features. In the NH data the distribution of different particle types does not seem to be temperature dependent. In all the cases, the non-volatile fraction is enriched in the residual particles compared to the fractions observed for the interstitial particles. This enrichment corresponds to about 15 (NH) and 30 (SH) percent units in the two cold cases and to 15-25 (NH) and 25-35 (SH) percent units in the two warm cases. In the NH cold case, there is a clear relation between the fractions observed in the interstitial particles and what is observed in the residual particles. The observed large fractions of non-volatile particles show that particles forming ice crystals are not entirely made up of water-soluble sulfate particles.
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