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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 462246 matches for " A. McGarry Houghton "
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IL-17RA Is Required for CCL2 Expression, Macrophage Recruitment, and Emphysema in Response to Cigarette Smoke
Kong Chen, Derek A. Pociask, Jeremy P. McAleer, Yvonne R. Chan, John F. Alcorn, James L. Kreindler, Matthew R. Keyser, Steven D. Shapiro, A. McGarry Houghton, Jay K. Kolls, Mingquan Zheng
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020333
Abstract: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is characterized by airspace enlargement and peribronchial lymphoid follicles; however, the immunological mechanisms leading to these pathologic changes remain undefined. Here we show that cigarette smoke is a selective adjuvant that augments in vitro and in vivo Th17, but not Th1, cell differentiation via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Smoke exposed IL-17RA?/? mice failed to induce CCL2 and MMP12 compared to WT mice. Remarkably, in contrast to WT mice, IL-17RA?/? mice failed to develop emphysema after 6 months of cigarette smoke exposure. Taken together, these data demonstrate that cigarette smoke is a potent Th17 adjuvant and that IL-17RA signaling is required for chemokine expression necessary for MMP12 induction and tissue emphysema.
Alpha 2 Delta (α2δ) Ligands, Gabapentin and Pregabalin: What is the Evidence for Potential Use of These Ligands in Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Lesley A. Houghton
Frontiers in Pharmacology , 2011, DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2011.00028
Abstract: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a complex disorder that is characterized by abdominal pain and altered bowel habit, and often associates with other gastrointestinal symptoms such as feelings of incomplete bowel movement and abdominal bloating, and extra-intestinal symptoms such as headache, dyspareunia, heartburn, muscle pain, and back pain. It also frequently coexists with conditions that may also involve central sensitization processes, such as fibromyalgia, irritable bladder disorder, and chronic cough. This review examines the evidence to date on gabapentin and pregabalin which may support further and continued research and development of the α2δ ligands in disorders characterized by visceral hypersensitivity, such as IBS. The distribution of the α2δ subunit of the voltage-gated calcium channel, possible mechanisms of action, pre-clinical data which supports an effect on motor–sensory mechanisms and clinical evidence that points to potential benefits in patients with IBS will be discussed.
Hall Effect in the mixed state of moderately clean superconductors
I. Vekhter,A. Houghton
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1088/0953-8984/9/28/001
Abstract: The Hall conductivity in the mixed state of a clean ($l \gg \xi_0$) type-II s-wave superconductor is determined from a microscopic calculation within a quasiclassical approximation. We find that below the superconducting transition the contribution to the transverse conductivity due to dynamical fluctuations of the order parameter is compensated by the modification of the quasiparticle contribution. In this regime the nonlinear behaviour of the Hall angle is governed by the change in the effective quasiparticle scattering rate due to the reduction in the density of states at the Fermi level. The connection with experimental results is discussed.
Quasiparticle thermal conductivity in the vortex state of high-T$_c$ cuprates
I. Vekhter,A. Houghton
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.83.4626
Abstract: We present the results of a microscopic calculation of the longitudinal thermal conductivity, $\kappa$, of a d-wave superconductor in the mixed state. Our results show an increase in the thermal conductivity with the applied field at low temperatures, and a decrease followed by a nearly field independent $\kappa(H)$ at higher temperatures, in qualitative agreement with the experimental results. We discuss the relationship between the slope of the superconducting gap and the plateau in $\kappa(H)$.
Quasiclassical Approach to Transport in the Vortex State and the Hall Effect
A. Houghton,I. Vekhter
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.57.10831
Abstract: We derive generalized quasiclassical transport equations which include the terms responsible for the Hall Effect in the vortex state of a clean type-II superconductor, and calculate the conductivity tensor for an s-wave superconductor in the high-field regime. We find that below the superconducting transition the contribution to the transverse conductivity due to dynamical fluctuations of the order parameter is compensated by the modification of the quasiparticle contribution. In this regime the nonlinear behaviour of the Hall angle is governed by the change in the effective quasiparticle scattering rate due to the reduction in the density of states at the Fermi level. The connection with experimental results is discussed.
Thermal conductivity in the vortex state of d-wave superconductors
I. Vekhter,A. Houghton
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1016/S0921-4534(00)00419-6
Abstract: We present the results of a microscopic calculation of the longitudinal thermal conductivity of quasiparticles, $\kappa_{xx}$, in a 2D d-wave superconductor in the vortex state. Our approach takes into account both impurity scattering and a contribution to the thermal transport lifetime due to the scattering of quasiparticles off of vortices. We compare the results with the experimental measurements on high-T$_c$ cuprates and organic superconductors.
Bosonization and Fermion Liquids in Dimensions Greater Than One
A. Houghton,J. B. Marston
Physics , 1992, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.48.7790
Abstract: (Revised, with postscript figures appended, corrections and added comments.) We develop and describe new approaches to the problem of interacting Fermions in spatial dimensions greater than one. These approaches are based on generalizations of powerful tools previously applied to problems in one spatial dimension. We begin with a review of one-dimensional interacting Fermions. We then introduce a simplified model in two spatial dimensions to study the role that spin and perfect nesting play in destabilizing Fermion liquids. The complicated functional renormalization group equations of the full problem are made tractable in our model by replacing the continuum of points that make up the closed Fermi line with four Fermi points. Despite this drastic approximation, the model exhibits physically reasonable behavior both at half-filling (where instabilities occur) and away from half-filling (where a Luttinger liquid arises). Next we implement the Bosonization of higher dimensional Fermi surfaces introduced by Luther and advocated most recently by Haldane. Bosonization incorporates the phase space and small-angle scattering .... (7 figures, appended as a postscript file at the end of the TeX file).
4-Chloro-3-fluoro-2-methylaniline–pyrrolidine-2,5-dione (1/1)
Benjamin A. Mayes,Patrick McGarry,Adel Moussa,David J. Watkin
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2008, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536808018795
Abstract: Chlorination of 3-fluoro-2-methylaniline with N-chlorosuccinimide gave one major regioisomer whose structure was determined by X-ray crystallography. The product was found to have cocrystallized with succinimide, giving the title compound, C7H7ClFN·C4H5NO2. The crystal structure is stabilized by N—H...O hydrogen-bonding and π–π stacking interactions with a centroid–centroid distance of 3.4501 (8) .
Nutrient Intake Values for Folate during Pregnancy and Lactation Vary Widely around the World
Rosemary A. Stamm,Lisa A. Houghton
Nutrients , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/nu5103920
Abstract: Folate is a B-vitamin with particular importance during reproduction due to its role in the synthesis and maintenance of DNA. Folate is well known for its role in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) during the periconceptional period. There is also an increased need for folate throughout pregnancy to support optimal growth and development of the fetus and blood volume expansion and tissue growth of the mother. During lactation, women are at risk of folate deficiency due to increased demands to accommodate milk folate levels. Nutrient Intake Values (NIVs) for folate have been calculated to take into account additional needs during pregnancy and lactation. However, these values vary widely between countries. For example, the folate requirement that is set to meet the needs of almost all healthy women during pregnancy varies from 300 μg/day in the United Kingdom to 750 μg/day in Mexico. Currently, there is no accepted standardized terminology or framework for establishing NIVs. This article reviews country-specific NIVs for folate during pregnancy and lactation and the basis for setting these reference values.
To What Extent Would E-mall Enable SMEs to Adopt E-Commerce?
Adel A. Bahaddad,Rayed AlGhamdi,Luke Houghton
International Journal of Business and Management , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ijbm.v7n22p123
Abstract: This paper presents findings from a study of e-commerce adoption by Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Saudi Arabia. Only tiny number of Saudi commercial organizations, mostly medium and large companies from the manufacturing sector, in involved in e-commerce implementation. The latest report released in 2010 by The Communications and Information Technology Commission (CITC) in Saudi Arabia shows that only 8% of businesses sell online. Accordingly new research has been conducted to explore to what extent electronic mall (e-mall) would enable SMEs in Saudi Arabia to adopt and use online channels for their sales. A quantitative analysis of responses obtained from a survey of 108 SMEs in Saudi Arabia was conducted. The main results of the current analysis demonstrate the significant of organizational factors, and technology and environmental factors. Interestingly, traditional & cultural factors have no significance in this regard.
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