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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 462018 matches for " A. Marshak "
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Analysis of co-located MODIS and CALIPSO observations near clouds
T. Várnai,A. Marshak
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT) & Discussions (AMTD) , 2012,
Abstract: This paper aims at helping synergistic studies in combining data from different satellites for gaining new insights into two critical yet poorly understood aspects of anthropogenic climate change, aerosol-cloud interactions and aerosol radiative effects. In particular, the paper examines the way cloud information from the MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) imager can refine our perceptions based on CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) lidar measurements about the systematic aerosol changes that occur near clouds. The statistical analysis of a yearlong dataset of co-located global maritime observations from the Aqua and CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) satellites reveals that MODIS's multispectral imaging ability can greatly help the interpretation of CALIOP observations. The results show that imagers on Aqua and CALIPSO yield very similar pictures, and that the discrepancies – due mainly to wind drift and differences in view angle – do not significantly hinder aerosol measurements near clouds. By detecting clouds outside the CALIOP track, MODIS reveals that clouds are usually closer to clear areas than CALIOP data alone would suggest. The paper finds statistical relationships between the distances to clouds in MODIS and CALIOP data, and proposes a rescaling approach to statistically account for the impact of clouds outside the CALIOP track even when MODIS cannot reliably detect low clouds, for example at night or over sea ice. Finally, the results show that the typical distance to clouds depends on both cloud coverage and cloud type, and accordingly varies with location and season. In maritime areas perceived cloud free, the global median distance to clouds below 3 km altitude is in the 4–5 km range.
Analysis of co-located MODIS and CALIPSO observations near clouds
T. Várnai,A. Marshak
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Discussions , 2011, DOI: 10.5194/amtd-4-6861-2011
Abstract: This paper aims at helping synergistic studies in combining data from different satellites for gaining new insights into two critical yet poorly understood aspects of anthropogenic climate change, aerosol-cloud interactions and aerosol radiative effects. In particular, the paper examines the way cloud information from the MODIS imager can refine our perceptions based on CALIOP lidar measurements about the systematic aerosol changes that occur near clouds. The statistical analysis of a yearlong dataset of co-located global maritime observations from the Aqua and CALIPSO satellites reveals that MODIS's multispectral imaging ability can greatly help the interpretation of CALIOP observations. The results show that imagers on Aqua and CALIPSO yield very similar pictures, and that the discrepancies – due mainly to wind drift and differences in view angle – do not significantly hinder aerosol measurements near clouds. By detecting clouds outside the CALIOP track, MODIS reveals that clouds are usually closer to clear areas than CALIOP data alone would suggest. The paper finds statistical relationships between the distances to clouds in MODIS and CALIOP data, and proposes a rescaling approach to statistically account for the impact of clouds outside the CALIOP track even when MODIS cannot reliably detect low clouds, for example at night or over sea ice. Finally, the results show that the typical distance to clouds depends on both cloud coverage and cloud type, and accordingly varies with location and season. The global median distance to clouds in maritime clear-sky areas is in the 4–5 km range.
Multi-satellite aerosol observations in the vicinity of clouds
T. Várnai, A. Marshak,W. Yang
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2013,
Abstract: Improved characterization of aerosol properties in the vicinity of clouds is important for better understanding two critical aspects of climate: aerosol–cloud interactions and the direct radiative effect of aerosols. Satellite measurements have provided important insights into aerosol properties near clouds, but also suggested that the observations can be affected by 3-D radiative processes and instrument blurring not considered in current data interpretation methods. This study examines systematic cloud-related changes in particle properties and radiation fields that influence satellite measurements of aerosols in the vicinity of low-level maritime clouds. For this, the paper presents a statistical analysis of a yearlong global dataset of co-located MODIS and CALIOP observations and theoretical simulations. The results reveal that CALIOP-observed aerosol particle size and optical thickness, and MODIS-observed solar reflectance increase systematically in a wide transition zone around clouds. It is estimated that near-cloud changes in particle populations – including both aerosols and undetected cloud particles – are responsible for roughly two thirds of the observed increase in 0.55 μm MODIS reflectance. The results also indicate that 3-D radiative processes significantly contribute to near-cloud reflectance enhancements, while instrument blurring contributes significantly only within 1 km from clouds and then quickly diminishes with distance from clouds.
Multi-satellite aerosol observations in the vicinity of clouds
T. Várnai,A. Marshak,W. Yang
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/acpd-12-32039-2012
Abstract: Improved characterization of aerosol properties in the vicinity of clouds is important for better understanding two critical aspects of climate: aerosol-cloud interactions and the direct radiative effect of aerosols. Satellite measurements have provided important insights into aerosol properties near clouds, but also suggested that the observations can be affected by 3-D radiative processes and instrument blurring not considered in current data interpretation methods. This study examines systematic changes in particle properties and radiation fields that influence satellite measurements of aerosols in the vicinity of clouds. For this, the paper presents a statistical analysis of a yearlong global dataset of co-located MODIS and CALIOP observations and theoretical simulations. The results reveal that CALIOP-observed aerosol particle size and optical thickness, and MODIS-observed solar reflectance increase systematically in a wide transition zone around clouds. It is estimated that near-cloud changes in particle populations – including both aerosols and undetected cloud particles – are responsible for roughly two thirds of the observed increase in 0.55 μm MODIS reflectance. The results also indicate that 3-D radiative processes significantly contribute to near-cloud reflectance enhancements, while instrument blurring does not.
Remote sensing the vertical profile of cloud droplet effective radius, thermodynamic phase, and temperature
J. Vanderlei Martins,A. Marshak,L. A. Remer,D. Rosenfeld
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2007,
Abstract: Cloud-aerosol interaction is no longer simply a radiative problem, but one affecting the water cycle, the weather, and the total energy balance including the spatial and temporal distribution of latent heat release. Information on the vertical distribution of cloud droplet microphysics and thermodynamic phase as a function of temperature or height, can be correlated with details of the aerosol field to provide insight on how these particles are affecting cloud properties and its consequences to cloud lifetime, precipitation, water cycle, and general energy balance. Unfortunately, today's experimental methods still lack the observational tools that can characterize the true evolution of the cloud microphysical, spatial and temporal structure in the cloud droplet scale, and then link these characteristics to environmental factors and properties of the cloud condensation nuclei. Here we propose and demonstrate a new experimental approach (the cloud scanner instrument) that provides the microphysical information missed in current experiments and remote sensing options. Cloud scanner measurements can be performed from aircraft, ground, or satellite by scanning the side of the clouds from the base to the top, providing us with the unique opportunity of obtaining snapshots of the cloud droplet microphysical and thermodynamic states as a function of height and brightness temperature in clouds at several development stages. The brightness temperature profile of the cloud side can be directly associated with the thermodynamic phase of the droplets to provide information on the glaciation temperature as a function of different ambient conditions, aerosol concentration, and type. An aircraft prototype of the cloud scanner was built and flew in a field campaign in Brazil. The CLAIM-3D (3-Dimensional Cloud Aerosol Interaction Mission) satellite concept proposed here combines several techniques to simultaneously measure the vertical profile of cloud microphysics, thermodynamic phase, brightness temperature, and aerosol amount and type in the neighborhood of the clouds. The wide wavelength range, and the use of mutli-angle polarization measurements proposed for this mission allow us to estimate the availability and characteristics of aerosol particles acting as cloud condensation nuclei, and their effects on the cloud microphysical structure. These results can provide unprecedented details on the response of cloud droplet microphysics to natural and anthropogenic aerosols in the size scale where the interaction really happens.
What does reflection from cloud sides tell us about vertical distribution of cloud droplet sizes?
A. Marshak, J. V. Martins, V. Zubko,Y. J. Kaufman
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2006,
Abstract: Cloud development, the onset of precipitation and the effect of aerosol on clouds depend on the structure of the cloud profiles of droplet size and phase. Aircraft measurements of cloud profiles are limited in their temporal and spatial extent. Satellites were used to observe cloud tops not cloud profiles with vertical profiles of precipitation-sized droplets anticipated from CloudSat. The recently proposed CLAIM-3D satellite mission (cloud aerosol interaction mission in 3-D) suggests to measure profiles of cloud microphysical properties by retrieving them from the solar and infrared radiation reflected or emitted from cloud sides. Inversion of measurements from the cloud sides requires rigorous understanding of the 3-dimentional (3-D) properties of clouds. Here we discuss the reflected sunlight from the cloud sides and top at two wavelengths: one nonabsorbing to solar radiation (0.67 μm) and one with liquid water efficient absorption of solar radiation (2.1 μm). In contrast to the plane-parallel approximation, a conventional approach to all current operational retrievals, 3-D radiative transfer is used for interpreting the observed reflectances. General properties of the radiation reflected from the sides of an isolated cloud are discussed. As a proof of concept, the paper shows a few examples of radiation reflected from cloud fields generated by a simple stochastic cloud model with the prescribed vertically resolved microphysics. To retrieve the information about droplet sizes, we propose to use the probability density function of the droplet size distribution and its first two moments instead of the assumption about fixed values of the droplet effective radius. The retrieval algorithm is based on the Bayesian theorem that combines prior information about cloud structure and microphysics with radiative transfer calculations.
Spectrally-invariant behavior of zenith radiance around cloud edges simulated by radiative transfer
J. C. Chiu, A. Marshak, Y. Knyazikhin,W. J. Wiscombe
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2010,
Abstract: In a previous paper, we discovered a surprising spectrally-invariant relationship in shortwave spectrometer observations taken by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. The relationship suggests that the shortwave spectrum near cloud edges can be determined by a linear combination of zenith radiance spectra of the cloudy and clear regions. Here, using radiative transfer simulations, we study the sensitivity of this relationship to the properties of aerosols and clouds, to the underlying surface type, and to the finite field-of-view (FOV) of the spectrometer. Overall, the relationship is mostly sensitive to cloud properties and has little sensitivity to other factors. At visible wavelengths, the relationship primarily depends on cloud optical depth regardless of cloud phase function, thermodynamic phase and drop size. At water-absorbing wavelengths, the slope of the relationship depends primarily on cloud optical depth; the intercept, by contrast, depends primarily on cloud absorbing and scattering properties, suggesting a new retrieval method for cloud drop effective radius. These results suggest that the spectrally-invariant relationship can be used to infer cloud properties near cloud edges even with insufficient or no knowledge about spectral surface albedo and aerosol properties.
Physical interpretation of the spectral radiative signature in the transition zone between cloud-free and cloudy regions
J. C. Chiu,A. Marshak,Y. Knyazikhin,P. Pilewskie
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2008,
Abstract: One-second-resolution zenith radiance measurements from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program's new shortwave spectrometer (SWS) provide a unique opportunity to analyze the transition zone between cloudy and cloud-free air, which has considerable bearing on the aerosol indirect effect. In the transition zone, we find a remarkable linear relationship between the sum and difference of radiances at 870 and 1640 nm wavelengths. The intercept of the relationship is determined primarily by aerosol properties, and the slope by cloud properties. We then show that this linearity can be predicted from simple theoretical considerations and furthermore that it supports the hypothesis of inhomogeneous mixing, whereby optical depth increases as a cloud is approached but the effective drop size remains unchanged. In addition, the width of transition zones from SWS data is in the range of 50–150 m, which differs from the width in satellite observations (a few kilometers) and in airborne lidar data (1–2 km).
Remote sensing of cloud sides of deep convection: towards a three-dimensional retrieval of cloud particle size profiles
T. Zinner,A. Marshak,S. Lang,J. V. Martins
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2008,
Abstract: The cloud scanner sensor is a central part of a recently proposed satellite remote sensing concept – the three-dimensional (3-D) cloud and aerosol interaction mission (CLAIM-3D) combining measurements of aerosol characteristics in the vicinity of clouds and profiles of cloud microphysical characteristics. Such a set of collocated measurements will allow new insights in the complex field of cloud-aerosol interactions affecting directly the development of clouds and precipitation, especially in convection. The cloud scanner measures radiance reflected or emitted by cloud sides at several wavelengths to derive a profile of cloud particle size and thermodynamic phase. For the retrieval of effective size a Bayesian approach was adopted and introduced in a preceding paper. In this paper the potential of the approach, which has to account for the complex three-dimensional nature of cloud geometry and radiative transfer, is tested in realistic cloud observing situations. In a fully simulated environment realistic cloud resolving modelling provides complex 3-D structures of ice, water, and mixed phase clouds, from the early stage of convective development to mature deep convection. A three-dimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer is used to realistically simulate the aspired observations. A large number of cloud data sets and related simulated observations provide the database for an experimental Bayesian retrieval. An independent simulation of an additional cloud field serves as a synthetic test bed for the demonstration of the capabilities of the developed retrieval techniques.
Spectrally-invariant behavior of zenith radiance around cloud edges simulated by radiative transfer
J. C. Chiu,A. Marshak,Y. Knyazikhin,W. J. Wiscombe
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2010, DOI: 10.5194/acp-10-11295-2010
Abstract: In a previous paper, we discovered a surprising spectrally-invariant relationship in shortwave spectrometer observations taken by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. The relationship suggests that the shortwave spectrum near cloud edges can be determined by a linear combination of zenith radiance spectra of the cloudy and clear regions. Here, using radiative transfer simulations, we study the sensitivity of this relationship to the properties of aerosols and clouds, to the underlying surface type, and to the finite field-of-view (FOV) of the spectrometer. Overall, the relationship is mostly sensitive to cloud properties and has little sensitivity to other factors. At visible wavelengths, the relationship primarily depends on cloud optical depth regardless of cloud phase function, thermodynamic phase and drop size. At water-absorbing wavelengths, the slope of the relationship depends primarily on cloud optical depth; the intercept, by contrast, depends primarily on cloud absorbing and scattering properties, suggesting a new retrieval method for cloud drop effective radius. These results suggest that the spectrally-invariant relationship can be used to infer cloud properties near cloud edges even with insufficient or no knowledge about spectral surface albedo and aerosol properties.
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