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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 554559 matches for " A. K. Sermé "
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Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Should Not Be the Only Sought Marker to Distinguish Blood Donors towards Hepatitis B Virus Infection in High Prevalence Area  [PDF]
K. S. Somda, A. K. Sermé, A. Coulibaly, K. Cissé, A. Sawadogo, A. R. Sombié, A. Bougouma
Open Journal of Gastroenterology (OJGas) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojgas.2016.611039
Abstract: Since its discovery by Blumberg in 1965, the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is used as the fingerprint of hepatitis B infection. Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is defined by a viral replication (DNA detectable) in the absence of HBsAg. Burkina Faso is a high endemic area where the prevalence is higher than 14%. At the National Center for Blood Transfusion (NCBT) of Ouagadougou, HBsAg is the only sought marker used to distinguish donors towards Hepatitis B Virus (HBV). Acceptation of blood donation is based specifically on the absence of HBsAg, which exposes to the risk of HBV transmission during transfusion. The goal of this study is to evaluate this risk by determining the prevalence of OBI in blood donors. Patients and Methods: ?It was a five-month prospective study on blood donations collected from January to May 2016. The HBc antibody has been sought in the serums of negative HBsAg donors. The measure of B DNA by Real Time PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and that of antibodies anti-HBs have been proposed to anti-HBc positive donors. Abdominal ultrasound, the transaminases, prothrombin level, alphafeto-proteins, hepatic fibrosis have been proposed to donors who were detectable for the DNA. Sociodemographic parameters have been collected. The test costs were borne by donors who were recalled by phone to adhere to the study. Results: Among 1980 negative donors HBsAg, 872 (44%) were positive for anti-HBc. 160 on 872 donors were received for consultation, among which 76 (76/160) were able to realise DNA which was detectable in 25 donors on 76, thus a prevalence of 32.8%. The mean value of DNA was 953 IU/ml. Physical examination and hepatic ultrasounds were normal except a case where hepatic steatosis was found. The biologic standard hepatic results were in normal range. None of the patient was able to realise hepatic fibrosis evaluation. A case of co-infection HIV/OBI was noted. Conclusion: This study shows that in Burkina, almost half of blood bags transfused are anti-HBc positive and around one third (32.8%) probably have HBV DNA. This poses a potential risk of contamination for non-immunized recipient.
Peptic Ulcer Disease in CHUYO  [PDF]
A. Coulibaly, A. K. Sermé, H. Godonou, K. S. Somda, K. Cissé, Sia Romond, Kafando Roch, R. A. Sombié, A. Bougouma
Open Journal of Gastroenterology (OJGas) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojgas.2016.611038
Abstract: Background: Prevalence of Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD) is decreasing in developed countries since the use of the treatments for eradication of Helicobacter pylori. Objectives: To revalue the sociodemographic, clinical and evolutionary aspects of the PUD among hospitalized patients in CHUYO. Methodology: This prospective study is related to 65 files of patients hospitalized in hepato-gastroenterology and general surgical services of the CHUYO between March 1st and August 31st, 2015. Results: Hospital utilization rate was 6.59%. The average age of patients was 40.6 years with extremes of 17 and 80 years. The sex ratio was 9.8. The location of the ulcer was 69.23% in stomach. A notion of taking aggressive gastrointestinal products was found in 62 patients (95.4%). The clinical picture was represented by diffuse abdominal pain (76.92%), peritoneal irritation syndrome (64.61%) and epigastric pain (56.92%), anemia (23.07%). Gastric perforations (64.61%) and gastrointestinal bleeding (12.30%) were the main complications. Consumption of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) was found in 81.5% of cases. The management was medical and/or surgical with an overall mortality rate of 7.7%. Conclusion: The PUD rate decreased from 10.12% to 6.59% in 5 years. The complications are dominated by stomach perforations. They are relative increase and seem related to NSAIDs. Better management of this disease requires awareness of the population to self-medication.
A greenhouse type solar dryer for small-scale dried food industries: Development and dissemination
Serm Janjai
International Journal of Energy and Environment , 2012,
Abstract: In this study, a greenhouse type solar dryer for small-scale dried food industries was developed and disseminated. The dryer consists of a parabolic roof structure covered with polycarbonate sheets on a concrete floor. The system is 8.0m in width, 20.0m in length and 3.5m in height, with a loading capacity about 1,000kg of fruits or vegetables. To ensure continuous drying operation, a 100kW-LPG gas burner was incorporated to supply hot air to the dryer during cloudy or rainy days. Nine 15-W DC fans powered by three 50-W PV modules were used to ventilate the dryer. This dryer was installed for a small-scale food industry at Nakhon Pathom in Thailand to produce osmotically dehydrated tomato. To investigate its performance, the dryer was used to dry 3 batches of osmotically dehydrated tomato. Results obtained from these experiments showed that drying air temperatures in the dryer varied from 35°C to 65°C. In addition, the drying time for these products was 2-3 days shorter than that of the natural sun drying and good quality dried products were obtained. A system of differential equations describing heat and moisture transfers during drying of osmotically dehydrated tomato was also developed. The simulated results agreed well with the experimental data. For dissemination purpose, other two units of this type of dryer were constructed and tested at two locations in Thailand and satisfactory results were obtained.
Phytochemical and Cytotoxic Investigations of Curcuma mangga Rhizomes
Sri Nurestri A. Malek,Guan Serm Lee,Sok Lai Hong,Hashim Yaacob,Norhanom Abdul Wahab,Jean-Frédéric Faizal Weber,Syed Adnan Ali Shah
Molecules , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/molecules16064539
Abstract: Investigations on the cytotoxic effects of the crude methanol and fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate) C. mangga against six human cancer cell lines, namely the hormone-dependent breast cell line (MCF-7), nasopharyngeal epidermoid cell line (KB), lung cell line (A549), cervical cell line (Ca Ski), colon cell lines (HCT 116 and HT-29), and one non-cancer human fibroblast cell line (MRC-5) were conducted using an in-vitro neutral red cytotoxicity assay. The crude methanol and fractionated extracts (hexane and ethyl acetate) displayed good cytotoxic effects against MCF-7, KB, A549, Ca Ski and HT-29 cell lines, but exerted no damage on the MRC-5 line. Chemical investigation from the hexane and ethyl acetate fractions resulted in the isolation of seven pure compounds, namely (E)-labda-8(17),12-dien-15,16-dial (1), (E)-15,16-bisnor-labda-8(17),11-dien-13-on (2), zerumin A (3), β-sitosterol, curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bis-demethoxycurcumin. Compounds 1 and 3 exhibited high cytotoxic effects against all six selected cancer cell lines, while compounds 2 showed no anti-proliferative activity on the tested cell lines. Compound 1 also demonstrated strong cytotoxicity against the normal cell line MRC-5. This paper reports for the first time the cytotoxic activities of C. mangga extracts on KB, A549, Ca Ski, HT-29 and MRC-5, and the occurrence of compound 2 and 3 in C. mangga.
An Algorithm for the Retrieval of Aerosol Optical Depth from Geostationary Satellite Data in Thailand
Itsara Masiri,Serm Janjai,Treenuch Jantarach
Journal of the Institute of Engineering , 2011, DOI: 10.3126/jie.v8i3.5929
Abstract: An algorithm was developed to estimate aerosol optical depth (AOD) from geostationary satellite data. The 6S radiative transfer computer code was employed to generate a look-up table (LUT) which incorporates several combinations of satellite-derived variables including earthatmospheric reflectivity, atmospheric reflectivity and surface albedo. The parameterization of the satellite-derived atmospheric reflectivity accounted for the scattering of solar radiation by clouds, absorption of solar radiation by water vapour, ozone and gases and solar radiation depletion by aerosols. The digital data of the MTSAT-1R satellite were used as the main input of the algorithm. For the validation, the values of AOD derived from this algorithm were compared with those obtained from four sites of Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) in Thailand, and a reasonable agreement was found.
Evaluating quality of obstetric care in low-resource settings: Building on the literature to design tailor-made evaluation instruments - an illustration in Burkina Faso
Florence Morestin, Abel Bicaba, Jean de Dieu Sermé, Pierre Fournier
BMC Health Services Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-10-20
Abstract: Based on a literature review, we developed two tools: a conceptual framework and an analysis grid of existing evaluation instruments. Subsequently, we facilitated several sessions with evaluation stakeholders in Burkina Faso. They used the tools to develop a locally adapted evaluation instrument that was subsequently tested in six healthcare facilities.Three outputs emerged from this process:1) A comprehensive conceptual framework for the quality of obstetric care, each component of which is a potential criterion for evaluation.2) A grid analyzing 37 instruments for evaluating the quality of obstetric care in low-resource settings. We highlight their key characteristics and describe how the grid can be used to prepare a new evaluation.3) An evaluation instrument adapted to Burkina Faso. We describe the experience of the Burkinabé stakeholders in developing this instrument using the conceptual framework and the analysis grid, while taking into account local realities.This experience demonstrates how drawing upon existing instruments can inspire and rationalize the process of developing a new, tailor-made instrument. Two tools that came out of this experience can be useful to other teams: a conceptual framework for the quality of obstetric care and an analysis grid of existing evaluation instruments. These provide an easily accessible synthesis of the literature and are useful in integrating it with the context-specific knowledge of local actors, resulting in evaluation instruments that have both scientific and local legitimacy.Nearly all of the 500 000 maternal deaths worldwide every year occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Efforts to achieve the 5th Millennium Development Goal have been largely ineffective in regions with the highest maternal mortality, notably sub-Saharan Africa [1]. One strongly recommended strategy for reducing maternal deaths is to improve women's healthcare, especially during pregnancy and delivery [2]. Access to good obstetric c
An Improved Model for the Estimation of Solar Radiation from Satellite Data for Thailand
Serm Janjai,Itsara Masiri,Somjet Pattarapanitchai,Jarungsaeng Laksanaboonsong
Journal of the Institute of Engineering , 2011, DOI: 10.3126/jie.v8i3.5939
Abstract: This paper presents an improved model for estimating surface solar radiation from satellite data for Thailand. Digital data from the visible channel of the GOES9 and MTSAT-1R satellites were used as the main input data of the model. This model accounted for the scattering of solar radiation by clouds, absorption of solar radiation by water vapour, ozone and gases and solar radiation depletion by aerosols. Additionally, the multiple reflections between the atmosphere and the ground in satellite band, which were ignored in the original model, were included in the improved model. For testing its validity, the model was employed to calculate monthly average daily global solar radiation at 38 solar monitoring stations in Thailand. It was found that the solar radiation calculated from the model and that obtained from the measurements were in good agreement, with a root mean square difference (RMSD) of 6.1% and mean bias difference (MBD) of 0.3%. The performance of the improved model was better than that of the original model.
Treatment of HBeAg-Negative Chronic Hepatitis B Patients with Nucleos(t)ide Analogues in Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Kounpiélimé Sosthène Somda, Abdel Karim Sermé, Aboubacar Coulibaly, Steve Léonce Zoungrana, Inès Compaoré, Serges Kouamou, Damien Ouattara, Roger Sombié, Alain Bougouma
Open Journal of Gastroenterology (OJGas) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojgas.2016.612041
Abstract: The treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) has increased significantly in recent years. In patients affected by HBeAg-negative CHB, it is necessary to distinguish the inactive carriers (low viral DNA < 2000 IU/mL, normal ALT, histological lesions absent or minimal) who does not need treatment, and patients suffering from active CHB (DNA > 2000 IU/ml, high transaminases or fluctuating, significant fibrosis and/or necro-inflammatory activity > 1) who must be treated. The main purpose of treatment is to obtain a long-lasting viral suppression to improve the histological lesions and reduce the risk of evolution towards cirrhosis, liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It about an indefinite treatment (unless HBsAg seroclearance) expensive and often inaccessible for the majority of our patients. Our study aimed to report the results of four years follow-up of HBeAg-negative patients treated by Nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). It was a clinical observational study with 133 patients including 95 men; the average age was 41.2 years, completing the criteria of treatment. One hundred and twelve patients were treated by tenofovir (TDF), fourteen by lamivudine and seven co-infected HIV/HBV patients by Atripla® (combination TDF, Emtricitabine and Efavirenz). Virological and biochemical responses were respectively 100% and 94% after 4 years. The rate of HBsAg seroclearance was 1.5%. Twelve of fourteen patients (85.7%) had lamivudine resistance and no cases of resistance in the TDF and Atripla® groups. One co-infected patient developed HCC during treatment. Among patients treated by TDF, two cases of hypophosphatemia were noticed and no case of kidney failure. The treatment of CHB is certainly progressing; updated guidelines (EASL, AASLD) exist but should be adapted to the African context.
Uterine Perforation after Pose of IUD, the Place of Abdomen Radiography without Preparation  [PDF]
Abdel Karim Sermé, Aboubacar Coulibaly, Koumpielimé Sosthène Somda, Dimitri Darankoum, Delphine Napon/Zongo, Soré Moussa Zanga, Hector Godonou, Kadidiatou Cissé, Issiaka Ouedraogo, Ali Ouedraogo
Open Journal of Gastroenterology (OJGas) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojgas.2017.71001
Abstract: Uterine perforation is a serious complication after insertion of an intrauterine device (IUD). We report the case of a 34-year-old woman receiving in consultation for abdominal pain. In the interrogation there was a notion of IUD insertion for about a week. The gynecological examination did not find the thread of IUD and the ultrasound performed did not visualize an IUD. Radiography of the abdomen without preparation highlighted a compatible intrapelvic foreign thing like an IUD. The diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease by uterine perforation by an IUD was thus retained. We suggest in case of suspicion of uterine radio paque IUD perforation achieving radiography when the abdominal pelvic ultrasound is normal.
Using MATLAB to Design and Analyse Composite Lami-nates  [PDF]
A. Ramsaroop, K. Kanny
Engineering (ENG) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2010.211114
Abstract: This work deals with the generation of MATLAB script files that assists the user in the design of a composite laminate to operate within safe conditions. The inputs of the program are the material properties, material limits and loading conditions. Equations based on Hooke’s Law for two-dimensional composites were used to determine the global and local stresses and strains on each layer. Failure analysis of the structure was performed via the Tsai-Wu failure theory. The output of the program is the optimal number of fibre layers required for the composite laminate, as well as the orientation of each layer.
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