We study local linear non-axisymmetric perturbations in
fully stratified 3D astrophysical disks. Radial stratification is set to be
described by power law, while vertical stratification is set to be exponential.
We analyze the linear perturbations in local shearing sheet frame and derive
WKB dispersion equation. We show that stratification laws of the disk matter
define not only the thermal stability of the disk, but also the efficiency of
the potential vorticity production by rotationg convective turbulence in
astrophysical disks. Taken developed convective turbulence we assume nonlinear
tendencies set by linear spectrum and show that vortices are unlikely to be generated
in rigid rotation flows. In contrast, differential rotation yields much higher
vortex production rate that depends on the disk thickness, distance from the
central object and the spectral characteristics of the developed thermal
turbulence. It seems that measurements of the temperature and density
distribution in accretion disks may indicate the efficiency of the turbulence
development and largely define the luminosity characteristic of accreting
flows.

Abstract:
We investigate mode coupling in a two dimensional compressible disc with radial stratification and differential rotation. We employ the global radial scaling of linear perturbations and study the linear modes in the local shearing sheet approximation. We employ a three-mode formalism and study the vorticity (W), entropy (S) and compressional (P) modes and their coupling properties. The system exhibits asymmetric three-mode coupling: these include mutual coupling of S and P-modes, S and W-modes, and asymmetric coupling between the W and P-modes. P-mode perturbations are able to generate potential vorticity through indirect three-mode coupling. This process indicates that compressional perturbations can lead to the development of vortical structures and influence the dynamics of radially stratified hydrodynamic accretion and protoplanetary discs.

Abstract:
In this paper we report on the nonresonant conversion of convectively unstable linear gravity modes into acoustic oscillation modes in shear flows. The convectively unstable linear gravity modes can excite acoustic modes with similar wave-numbers. The frequencies of the excited oscillations may be qualitatively higher than the temporal variation scales of the source flow, while the frequency spectra of the generated oscillations should be intrinsically correlated to the velocity field of the source flow. We anticipate that this nonresonant phenomenon can significantly contribute to the production of sound waves in the solar convection zone.

Abstract:
This paper deals with the problem of hydrodynamic shear turbulence in non-magnetized Keplerian disks. We wish to draw attention to a route to hydrodynamic turbulence which seems to be little known by the astrophysical community, but which has been intensively discussed among fluid dynamicists during the past decade. In this so-called `bypass' concept for the onset of turbulence, perturbations undergo a transient growth, and they may reach an amplitude that is sufficiently large to allow positive feedback through nonlinear interactions. This transient growth is linear in nature, and thus it differs in principle from the well-known nonlinear instability. We describe the type of perturbations that according to this process are the most likely to lead to turbulence, namely non-axisymmetric vortex mode perturbations in the two dimensional limit. We show that the apparently inhibiting action of the Coriolis force on the dynamics of such vortical perturbations is substantially diminished due to the pressure perturbations, contrary to current opinion. We stress the similarity of the turbulent processes in Keplerian disks and in Cartesian flows and conclude that the prevalent skepticism of the astrophysical community on the occurrence of hydrodynamic shear turbulence in such disks is not founded.

Abstract:
We present a linear stability analysis of the perturbation modes in anisotropic MHD flows with velocity shear and strong magnetic field. Collisionless or weakly collisional plasma is described within the 16-momentum MHD fluid closure model, that takes into account not only the effect of pressure anisotropy, but also the effect of anisotropic heat fluxes. In this model the low frequency acoustic wave is revealed into a standard acoustic mode and higher frequency fast thermo-acoustic and lower frequency slow thermo-acoustic waves. It is shown that thermo-acoustic waves become unstable and grow exponentially when the heat flux parameter exceeds some critical value. It seems that velocity shear makes thermo-acoustic waves overstable even at subcritical heat flux parameters. Thus, when the effect of heat fluxes is not profound acoustic waves will grow due to the velocity shear, while at supercritical heat fluxes the flow reveals compressible thermal instability. Anisotropic thermal instability should be also important in astrophysical environments, where it will limit the maximal value of magnetic field that a low density ionized anisotropic flow can sustain.

Abstract:
Previous works indicate that the frequency ratio of second and first harmonics of kink oscillations has tendency towards 3 in the case of prominence threads. We aim to study the magnetohydrodynamic oscillations of longitudinally inhomogeneous prominence threads and to shed light on the problem of frequency ratio. Classical Sturm--Liouville problem is used for the threads with longitudinally inhomogeneous plasma density. We show that the spatial variation of total pressure perturbations along the thread is governed by the stationary Schr\"{o}dinger equation, where the longitudinal inhomogeneity of plasma density stands for the potential energy. Consequently, the equation has bounded solutions in terms of Hermite polynomials. Boundary conditions at the thread surface lead to transcendental dispersion equation with Bessel functions. Thin flux tube approximation of the dispersion equation shows that the frequency of kink waves is proportional to the expression \alpha(2n+1), where \alpha is the density inhomogeneity parameter and n is the longitudinal mode number. Consequently, the ratio of the frequencies of second and first harmonics tends to 3 in prominence threads. Numerical solution of the dispersion equation shows that the ratio only slightly decreases for thicker tubes in the case of smaller longitudinal inhomogeneity of external density, therefore the thin flux tube limit is a good approximation for prominence oscillations. However, stronger longitudinal inhomogeneity of external density may lead to the significant shift of frequency ratio for wider tubes and therefore the thin tube approximation may fail. The tendency of frequency ratio of second and first harmonics towards 3 in prominence threads is explained by the analogy of the oscillations with quantum harmonic oscillator, where the density inhomogeneity of the threads plays a role of potential energy.

Abstract:
We discuss possible applications of the 1-D direct and inverse scattering problem to design of universal quantum gates for quantum computation. The potentials generating some universal gates are described.

Abstract:
Scale invariant presentation of inclusive spectra in terms of light front variables is proposed. The variables introduced go over to the well-known scaling variables x_F = 2p_z/sqrt(s) and x_T=2p_T/sqrt{s} in the high p_z and high p_T limits respectively. So Some surface is found in the phase space of produced pi-mesons in the inclusive reaction anti p p -> pi+- X at 22.4 GeV/c, which separates two groups of particles with significantly different characteristics. In one of these regions a naive statistical model seems to be in a good agreement with data, whereas it fails in the second region. Key words: Light front, inclusive, hadron-hadron, electron-positron, relativistic heavy ions, deep inelastic.

Abstract:
We constrain a primordial magnetic field (PMF) generated during a phase transition (PT) using the big bang nucleosynthesis bound on the relativistic energy density. The amplitude of the PMF at large scales is determined by the shape of the PMF spectrum outside its maximal correlation length scale. Even if the amplitude of the PMF at 1 Mpc is small, PT-generated PMFs can leave observable signatures in the potentially detectable relic gravitational wave background if a large enough fraction ($1-10%$) of the thermal energy is converted into the PMF.

Abstract:
In the presence of magnetic helicity, inverse transfer from small to large scales is well known in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and has applications in astrophysics, cosmology, and fusion plasmas. Using high resolution direct numerical simulations of magnetically dominated self-similarly decaying MHD turbulence, we report a similar inverse transfer even in the absence of magnetic helicity. We compute for the first time spectral energy transfer rates to show that this inverse transfer is about half as strong as with helicity, but in both cases the magnetic gain at large scales results from velocity at similar scales interacting with smaller-scale magnetic fields. This suggests that both inverse transfers are a consequence of a universal mechanisms for magnetically dominated turbulence. Possible explanations include inverse cascading of the mean squared vector potential associated with local near two-dimensionality and the shallower $k^2$ subinertial range spectrum of kinetic energy forcing the magnetic field with a $k^4$ subinertial range to attain larger-scale coherence. The inertial range shows a clear $k^{-2}$ spectrum and is the first example of fully isotropic magnetically dominated MHD turbulence exhibiting weak turbulence scaling.