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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 465121 matches for " A. A. Ibrahim "
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Analysis of Electrical Characteristics of Photovoltaic Single Crystal Silicon Solar Cells at Outdoor Measurements  [PDF]
A. Ibrahim
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2011.22020
Abstract: The electrical performance of a photovoltaic (PV) silicon solar cell is described by its current–voltage (I–V) character-istic curve, which is in turn determined by device and material properties. In this study, an investigation of the performance and device parameters of photovoltaic single crystalline silicon (Si.) solar cell of the construction n+pp++ PESC(Passivatted Emitter Solar Cell) at different conditions of solar irradiance, title angle and mirror boosting effects had been studied. Also the paper reports on the performance data of the Si. cell, using standard I–V characteristic curves to obtain output parameters and to show that there are possible performance degrading defects presents.
The Spread of Infectious Disease on Network Using Neutrosophic Algebraic Structure  [PDF]
A. Zubairu, A. A. Ibrahim
Open Journal of Discrete Mathematics (OJDM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojdm.2017.72009
Abstract: Network theory and its associated techniques has tremendous impact in various discipline and research, from computer, engineering, architecture, humanities, social science to system biology. However in recent years epidemiology can be said to utilizes these potentials of network theory more than any other discipline. Graph which has been considered as the processor in network theory has a close relationship with epidemiology that dated as far back as early 1900 [1]. This is because the earliest models of infectious disease transfer were in a form of compartment which defines a graph even though adequate knowledge of mathematical computation and mechanistic behavior is scarce. This paper introduces a new type of disease propagation on network utilizing the potentials of neutrosophic algebraic group structures and graph theory.
Prevalence, Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Diabetes Mellitus among Jazan Population, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA)  [PDF]
Ibrahim A. Bani
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus (JDM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2015.52014
Abstract: Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) prevalence is increasing in Arabian Gulf countries and Saudi Arabia is ranked as the 7th country world widely estimated to have the highest numbers of people with diabetes in 2000 and 2030. Objectives: This study intended to estimate the prevalence, risk factors of diabetes among adult population of Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: Observational cross sectional survey conducted among adult Saudi population aged 15 years of age and over who attended eight Primary Health Care Centers (PHCCs) in Jazan region. Standardized questionnaire as well as diabetic registry was utilized for this research. The questionnaire involved risk factors of DM and sociodemographic variables. Statistical analysis involved: chi-square test (or Fisher exact test where applicable) was used to evaluate the prevalence of DM among different sub-groups. The crude odds ratios (OR) were estimated by univariate analysis to observe the association of each variable with DM. Results: The overall prevalence of DM among study participants was found to be 12.3% (95% CI: 10.9 - 13.8). The prevalence of DM according to gender showed that women are of significantly higher prevalence 19.0% with confidence interval (95% C.I. 15.9 - 22.6), compared with only 9.8% for male (95% CI. 8.4 - 11.4). Participant’s body mass index, age, family history of diabetes and daily exercise and work involved physical activities that showed a significant association with DM. Conclusion: Increased prevalence of diabetes calls for urgent steps towards prevention and health promotion, programs designed to reduce its burden.
Current Limitations and Challenges with Lactic Acid Bacteria: A Review  [PDF]
Saeed A. Hayek, Salam A. Ibrahim
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2013.411A010

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play a critical role in food, agricultural, and clinical applications. The fast growing characteristics of LAB and their metabolic activity have been the key in most applications including food production, agricultural industry, and probiotics. However, the biochemical and biophysical environments have significant effect on the growth and metabolic activity of LAB. While the biochemical conditions are most likely established, controlling and optimizing of biochemical conditions have many limitations and challenges. In addition to selecting the right strain, desirable metabolic processes required optimizing and controlling the available nutrients including sugars, peptides, free amino acids, minerals, and vitamins in addition to buffering agents. Thus, much of research was conducted to understand the impact of available nutrients on the growth and metabolic activities of LAB. However, only a few nutritional parameters could be controlled at a time while holding other parameters constant. The nutritional parameters may also interact with each other resulting in faulty results. Characteristics of LAB such as fastidiousness in their nutritional requirements, ability to produce acid and antimicrobial compounds, and variations in the nutritional requirements among strains have added additional limitations and challenges in this regard. Thus, chemically defined media (CDM) were suggested to deal with different limitations and challenges. However, due to differences in growth conditions, results obtained in CDM may face some obstacles when it comes to industrial applications. Thus, this paper aimed to review the recent data in regard to the role of the nutritional requirements of LAB in optimizing and controlling metabolic activities and to discuss the associated limitations and challenges.

Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Methicillin Resistance Staphylococcus in a Sudanese Surgical Ward  [PDF]
Salah Ibrahim Kheder, Nagla A. Ali, Ahmed Ibrahim Fathelrahman
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2012.31015
Abstract: Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is important nosocomial pathogen. Aim: In this paper, we determined the prevalence and the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of (MRSA) in a Sudanese surgical ward. Method: A total of 200 post-operative surgical specimens were collected from patients hospitalized in gastrointestinal tract (GIT) surgical ward in Ibn Sina hospital, Khartoum, Sudan and were subjected to MRSA screening and sensitivity test. Key findings: Out of 35 strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from surgical samples, 25 (71.4%) were found to be MRSA. Almost all MRSA strains were resistance to Methicillin, 96% to Ofloxacin, 92% to Pencillin G, 24% to Amikacin and 4% to Vancomycin. Cross-resistance was obviously detected. Conclusion: The present study detected alarming levels of S. aureus (MRSA) isolates, at the same time presence of high cross-resistance to other antibiotics.
Advances in Systemic Trauma Theory: Traumatogenic Dynamics and Consequences of Backlash as a Multi-Systemic Trauma on Iraqi Refugee Muslim Adolescents  [PDF]
Ibrahim A. Kira, Linda Lewandowski, Lisa Chiodo, Arwa Ibrahim
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.55050

Development in adolescence puts youth in direct contact with social systems, thereby increasing exposure to systemic traumas. The present article aims to advance systemic trauma theory as part of a new development-based trauma framework (DBTF). It examines discrimination and backlash against Muslim Americans as an example of a multi-systemic trauma to investigate its mental health ramifications. Measures of cumulative trauma, backlash trauma, post-traumatic stress disorder, Adolescent Psychopathy Scales (APS), annihilation anxiety, and cumulative trauma disorders were administered to 224 Iraqi refugee adolescents. Partial correlation and hierarchical multiple regression results indicated that backlash was associated with the most negative mental health outcomes as compared to other trauma type seven after controlling for overall life trauma. The validity and utility of the proposed theoretical framework and the clinical implications of negative mental health effects of multi-systemic traumas on refugee adolescents were discussed.

Comparison between E. coli O157:H7 and Bifidobacterium spp. Activity in Almond Pudding Infant Supplemental Food  [PDF]
Rashin Sedighi, Mehrdad Tajkarimi, Salam A. Ibrahim
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.29124
Abstract: Almond pudding is a common traditional Iranian complementary food for infants after starting solid foods. Escherichia coli O157:H7 is one of the leading pathogenic microorganisms that cause serious foodborne disease in different populations including infants. The large intestine of breast-fed infants is colonized predominantly by bifidobacteria, which have a protective effect against acute diarrhea. The study objective of this research was to screen the survival characteristics of E. coli O157:H7 as well as four strains of Bifidobacterium subspecies (spp.) in almond pudding. The bacterial strains were studied after three and six hours of incubation at 37℃ in-vitro. Luria-Bertani (LB) broth was used as a basic medium for both Bifidobacterium spp. and E. coli experiments in anaerobic and aerobic conditions, respectively. The viability of Bifidobacterium spp. increased from 2.46 ± 0.2 to 6.57 ±1.3 log10 CFU/ml in low inoculum and from 4.53 ± 0.7 to 7.2 ± 0.4 in high inoculum experiments in 6 hours. However, the growth of E. coli O157:H7 from 3.12 ± 0.2 to 4.99 ± 0.1 log10 CFU/ml was significantly (P < 0.05) lower compared to Bifidobacterium spp. The results illus- trate impaired growth of E. coli O157:H7 and enhanced growth of Bifidobacterium spp. in almond pudding. The finding demonstrated that almond pudding in infant’s diet may indirectly enhance the protection against survival and growth of E. coli O157:H7 by increasing the Bifidobacterium spp. populations in infant’s gastrointestinal system.
Assessment of the Nutritional Status of the Egyptian Patient with End Stage Liver Disease Prior to Liver Transplantation  [PDF]
Waheed A. Monsef, Ibrahim Mostafa, Doaa Zaky
Open Journal of Gastroenterology (OJGas) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojgas.2014.44024
Abstract: Background and Aim: Patients with advanced liver disease have several risk factors to develop nutritional deficiencies. Accurate nutritional assessment is a real challenge because many of the traditionally measured parameters of nutritional status vary with severity of liver disease independently of nutritional status. The objective of this study was to assess the Egyptian patients with end stage liver disease and to compare different tools used to assess their nutritional status. Patients and Methods: 60 patients were nutritionally assessed by SGA, RFH-SGA anthropometry, handgrip dynamometry and biochemical tests. Clinical variables were cross analyzed with the nutritional assessment methods. Results: Malnutrition ranged from 7% by BMI and 100% by SGA. Agreement among all the methods was low compared with the SGA. Correlation between Malnutrition prevalence and the severity of liver disease was verified using Child-Pugh score more than MELD score. Conclusion: Malnutrition is highly prevalent among the Egyptian patients with end stage liver disease prior to liver transplantation. Although the diagnosis of nutritional status is not easy among this category of patients, it varied according to the method used. Nutritional support should be an important part of the preoperative care of liver transplantation patients.
Dynamic State Forecasting in Electric Power Networks  [PDF]
Sideig A. Dowi, Amar Ibrahim Hamza
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2014.23001

The real time monitoring and control have become very important in electric power system in order to achieve a high reliability in the system. So, improvement in Energy Management System (EMS) leads to improvement in the monitoring and control functions in the control center. In this paper, DSE is proposed based on Weighted Least Squares (WLS) estimator and Holt’s exponential smoothing to state predicting and Extended Kalman Filter to state filtering. The results viewing the dynamic state the estimator performance under normal and abnormal operating conditions.

Reperfusion of Delayed Acute Occlusive Limb Ischemia: Is It Worthwhile?  [PDF]
Mohamed A. Elsharawy, Aymen Elsaid, Ibrahim Elsharawi
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2014.412070
Abstract: Delayed reperfusion of acute occlusive limb ischemia causes local and systemic serious consequences and is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. The aim of this study was to examine the outcome and risk factors of reperfusion injury in such cases. Patients and Methods: Retrospective review of all cases presented, to King Fahd Hospital of University, with acute occlusive limb ischemia more than 12 hours was performed between June 2004 and November 2012. Grades of ischemia, extremities, comorbidities, morbidities and mortality were recorded. Results: During the study period, 92 patients were included, 47 (51%) were embolic and the rest was thrombotic. On admission, 15 patients had grade III ischemia, 68 had grade IIb, 8 had grade IIa and 1 had grade I. Four patients died (4.3%) and 15 (16%) patients had amputation. The risk factors of amputation were age (p = 0.031), extremity (lower limb 21% vs. Upper limb 0%, p = 0.019), cause of ischemia (thrombotic 24% vs. embolic 8.5%, p = 0.049) and grade of ischemia (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Delayed reperfusion of acute occlusive ischemia carries acceptable morbidity and mortality and could be performed even in irreversible ischemia. The risk factors of amputation are age, lower limb ischemia, thrombosis and grade III ischemia.
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