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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 461338 matches for " A Zergaw "
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Child labor and childhood behavioral and mental health problems in Ethiopia
AA Alem, A Zergaw, D Kebede, M Araya, M Desta, T Muche, D Chali, G Medhin
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2006,
Abstract: Background: According to ILO estimates, at least 180 million children aged 5 to 14 years are currently engaged in fulltime work in the developing countries. However, very little information exists about childhood behavioral and mental disorders in Ethiopia. Objective: The objectives of this study are to estimate the prevalence and describe the nature of behavioral and mental health problems, as well as child abuse, nutritional problems, gross physical illness and injury among child laborers aged 8 to 15 years in Ethiopia. However, only the behavioral and mental health problems of the study population are examined here. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8 to 15 years, and who were engaged in fulltime work in different formal and informal sectors non-laborers, was conducted in four major towns of Ethiopia. The screening instrument known as Reported Questionnaire on Children (RQC) and a diagnostic instrument known as the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents ( DICA) were used to detect symptoms and signs of behavioral and mental problems in the children. br> Results: A total of 2000 child laborers and 400 non-laborers were interviewed using RQC to screen for probable cases of behavioral and mental problems. Of these, 50% of the laborers and 42% of the non-laborers were males. The mean age of the laborers was 13.8 ±1.8 years while that of the non-laborers was 12.2 ±2.1 years. More females (76.8%) were found to have been engaged in domestic labor than males. The RQC interview screened 9.4% (n=226) of the children as probable cases of mental/ behavioral disorders, (14.0% non-laborers and 8.5% laborers). The second stage DICA interview gave an overall prevalence of 5.5% (4.9% in laborers and 8.8% in non-laborers). Conclusion: The prevalence of childhood behavioral and mental disorders in this study is within the range reported in previews studies conducted on children of the same age group. However, the lower prevalence of childhood disorders in the child laborers compared to that of the non-laborers found in the current study is probably due to selection bias or healthy workers effect. Thus, further study is recommended to explain this unexpected finding. The Ethiopian Journal of Health Development Vol. 20 (2) 2006: 119-126
Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Health Care Interventions in Meskanena Mareko Wereda, Ethiopia
Ababi Zergaw, Damen Haile Mariam, Ahmed Ali
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2002,
Abstract: Background: Decisions concerning the implementation of health programs are usually made on the basis of descriptive assessment. There are only few attempts to review whether returns from investment on these programs worth the effort. Objectives: To analyze and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of health care interventions in terms of lessening disease burden and improving health status in a rural community. Methods: The evaluation was conducted in health institutions in Meskana Mareko Wereda and in Shashemene Hospital that were purposively selected. Study subjects were people utilizing these facilities. Data on inputs of interventions were analyzed using the Disease Burden Modeling System and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) gained was used as a measure of effectiveness of interventions. Results: Interventions at health stations level were most cost-effective compared to those at health center and the hospital. Generally, community and preventive interventions were found to be more cost-effective in lessening existing burden of disease (BOD) in the local community and in improving the general health status of the populations with cost of less than 5 Birr per DALY gained. Conclusions: Implementing 22 health care interventions with cost of less than 100 Birr per DALY gained at the health stations level will avert 52% of the BOD in the area. On the other hand implementing 17 interventions at the hospital and 18 interventions at the health center level will avert only about 22 to 34% of the BOD. Given the availability of information pertaining to the local BOD and cost-effective intervention options, there appears to be a dire need to review local health priorities and intervention strategies. [Ethiop.J.Health Dev. 2002;16(3):267-276]
The Spread of Infectious Disease on Network Using Neutrosophic Algebraic Structure  [PDF]
A. Zubairu, A. A. Ibrahim
Open Journal of Discrete Mathematics (OJDM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojdm.2017.72009
Abstract: Network theory and its associated techniques has tremendous impact in various discipline and research, from computer, engineering, architecture, humanities, social science to system biology. However in recent years epidemiology can be said to utilizes these potentials of network theory more than any other discipline. Graph which has been considered as the processor in network theory has a close relationship with epidemiology that dated as far back as early 1900 [1]. This is because the earliest models of infectious disease transfer were in a form of compartment which defines a graph even though adequate knowledge of mathematical computation and mechanistic behavior is scarce. This paper introduces a new type of disease propagation on network utilizing the potentials of neutrosophic algebraic group structures and graph theory.
A Comparative Investigation of Lead Sulfate and Lead Oxide Sulfate Study of Morphology and Thermal Decomposition  [PDF]
S. A. A. Sajadi
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2011.22024
Abstract: The compound lead oxide sulfate PbSO4.PbO was prepared in our laboratory. The Thermal behavior of PbSO4 was studied using techniques of Thermogravimetry under air atmosphere from 25 to 1200°C. The identity of both compounds was confirmed by XRD technique. Results obtained using both techniques support same decomposition stages for this compound. The electron microscopic investigations are made by SEM and TEM. The compound is characterized by XRD and the purity was determined by analytical Methods. Also a series of thermogravimetric analysis is made and the ideal condition is determined to convert this compound to pure lead oxide.
Metal ion-binding properties of L-glutamic acid and L-aspartic acid, a comparative investigation  [PDF]
S. A. A. Sajadi
Natural Science (NS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2010.22013
Abstract: A comparative research has been developed for acidity and stability constants of M(Glu)1, M(Asp)2 and M(Ttr)3 complexes, which have been determined by potentiometric pH titration. Depending on metal ion-binding properties, vital differences in building complex were observed. The present study indicates that in M(Ttr) com-plexes, metal ions are arranged to the carboxyl groups, but in M(Glu) and M(Asp), some metal ions are able to build chelate over amine groups. The results mentioned-above demonstrate that for some M(Glu) and M(Asp) complexes, the stability constants are also largely determined by the affinity of metal ions for amine group. This leads to a kind of selectivity of metal ions, and transfers them through building complexes accompanied with glutamate and aspartate. For heavy metal ions, this building complex helps the absorption and filtration of the blood plasma, and consequently, the excursion of heavy metal ions takes place. This is an important method in micro-dialysis. In this study the different as-pects of stabilization of metal ion complexes regarding to Irving-Williams sequence have been investigated.
Determining the Basaltic Sequence Using Seismic Reflection and Resistivity Methods  [PDF]
A. Alanezi, A. Qadrouh
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2013.32B004
Abstract:

This study was carried out in Harat Rahat (south of Almadinah Almonwarah) using seismic reflection and resistivity methods. The main objectives of this study are to determine the extent of the basaltic layer and to define the subsurface faults and fractures that could affect and control the groundwater movement in the study area. A 2D seismic profile was acquired and the result shows that the subsurface in the study area has a major fault. We obtained a well match when the seismic result was compared with drilled wells. As a complementary tool, the resistivity method was applied in order to detect the groundwater level. The results of the resistivity method showed that six distinct layers have been identified. The interpretation of these six layers show that the first three layers, the fourth layer, the fifth layer and the bottom of the section indicated various subsurface structures and lithologies; various basaltic layers, fractured basalt, weathered basement and fresh basaltic layers, respectively. It is obvious that the eventual success of geophysical surveys depend on the combination with other subsurface data sources in order to produce accurate maps.

Equilibria and Stability in Glycine, Tartrate and Tryptophan Complexes, Investigation on Interactions in Cu(II) Binary and Ternary Systems in Aqueous Solution  [PDF]
S. A. A. Sajadi
Open Journal of Inorganic Non-metallic Materials (OJINM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojinm.2014.41001
Abstract:

The acidity and stability constants of M(Gly)1, M(Ttr)1, and M(Trp)1 M: Cu2+, Cu(Bpy2)2+, and Cu(Phen3)2+ complexes, were determined by potentiometric pH titration. It is shown that the stability of the binary Cu(L), (L: Gly, Ttr, and Trp) complex is determined by the basicity of the carboxylate group on one side and amino group on the other side. It is demonstrated that the equilibrium, Cu(Ha4)2+ + Cu(L) \"\"Cu(Har)(L) + Cu2+, is displacement due to the well known experience that mixed ligand complexes formed by a divalent 3d ion, a heteroaromatic N base and an O donor ligand possess increased stability. The stability constants of the 1:1 complexes formed between Cu2+, Cu(Bpy)2+ or Cu(Phen)2+

Adaptive Fuzzy Sliding Mode Controller for Grid Interface Ocean Wave Energy Conversion  [PDF]
Adel A. A. Elgammal
Journal of Intelligent Learning Systems and Applications (JILSA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jilsa.2014.62006
Abstract:

This paper presents a closed-loop vector control structure based on adaptive Fuzzy Logic Sliding Mode Controller (FL-SMC) for a grid-connected Wave Energy Conversion System (WECS) driven Self-Excited Induction Generator (SEIG). The aim of the developed control method is to automatically tune and optimize the scaling factors and the membership functions of the Fuzzy Logic Controllers (FLC) using Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithms (MOGA) and Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO). Two Pulse Width Modulated voltage source PWM converters with a carrier-based Sinusoidal PWM modulation for both Generator- and Grid-side converters have been connected back to back between the generator terminals and utility grid via common DC link. The indirect vector control scheme is implemented to maintain balance between generated power and power supplied to the grid and maintain the terminal voltage of the generator and the DC bus voltage constant for variable rotor speed and load. Simulation study has been carried out using the MATLAB/Simulink environment to verify the robustness of the power electronics converters and the effectiveness of proposed control method under steady state and transient conditions and also machine parameters mismatches. The proposed control scheme has improved the voltage regulation and the transient performance of the wave energy scheme over a wide range of operating conditions.

Geochemical Characteristics and Chemical Electron Microprobe U-Pb-Th Dating of Pitchblende Mineralization from Gabal Gattar Younger Granite, North Eastern Desert, Egypt  [PDF]
Hassan A. A. Shahin
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2014.41003
Abstract:

Pitchblende mineralization was studied in the younger granite samples collected from Gabal Gattar, north Eastern Desert, Egypt using electron scanning microscope (ESM) and electron probe microanalyses (EPMA). This study revealed that this pitchblende contains significant Zr content reaching up to (66.80% ZrO2), which suggests that volcanic rocks were probably the source of such a deposit. High level emplaced high-K Calc-alkaline plutons as Qattar granite may have been associated with their volcanic equivalent emplaced in the surrounding area or now eroded. Lead content of the pitchblende mineralization is high and with moderate volcanics (up to 7.71% PbO). In contrast, it is low in ThO2, Y2O3 and REE2O3. High Zr and Pb content associated with pitchblende mineralization from Gattar granite indicates

A Comparative Study of Adomain Decompostion Method and He-Laplace Method  [PDF]
Badradeen A. A. Adam
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.521312
Abstract: In this paper, we present a comparative study between the He-Laplace and Adomain decomposition method. The study outlines the significant features of two methods. We use the two methods to solve the nonlinear Ordinary and Partial differential equations. Laplace transformation with the homotopy method is called He-Laplace method. A comparison is made among Adomain decomposition method and He-Laplace. It is shown that, in He-Laplace method, the nonlinear terms of differential equation can be easy handled by the use He’s polynomials and provides better results.
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