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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 461399 matches for " A Worku "
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Knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptives among female college students in Arba Minch Town, Southern Ethiopia
A Worku
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Young and unmarried women constitute a high risk group for unplanned pregnancies and unsafe abortions. It has been estimated that widespread use of emergency contraception (EC) may significantly reduce abortion-related morbidity and mortality. Objective: To assess knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptives among female college students in Arba Minch town. Method: A cross-sectional institution-based study was conducted from March 1st to 5th 2010 among 407 female students that were selected by using a stratified sampling technique. Result: One hundred seventy three (42.5%) of the respondents said that they heard about emergency contraceptive. Of those who mentioned pills as an emergency contraceptive method, 26.4% correctly identified 72 hours as the time limit for use of the method. The summary index for knowledge disclosed that 21.9% had good knowledge about EC. Though 50% of students had positive attitude towards EC, 11 (2.7%) of the total students had used emergency contraception. EC use was significantly higher among students who were married and among students who have good knowledge on EC, (P<0.027, P< 0.01 respectively). Conclusion: The study showed that knowledge of emergency contraception among female students is low and the method is still underused. Therefore, there is a need to expand IEC about RH and regular methods in general and EC in particular at college level. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2011;25(3):176-183]
Recent Developments in the Definition of Design Earthquake Ground Motions Calling for a Revision of the Current Ethiopian Seismic Code - EBCS 8: 1995
A Worku
Zede Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Recent developments in the definition of design ground motions for seismic analysis of structures are presented. A summary of results of empirical and analytical site-effect studies are provided and recent findings from empirical studies on instrumental records are compared against similar results from earlier studies. Pertinent changes introduced in recent editions of international codes as a result of these evidences are presented. Comparisons of relevant provisions of EBCS 8: 1995 with those in contemporary American, European and South African codes are made. The paper presents compelling evidences showing that the amplification potential of site-soils can in general be significantly larger at sites of lowamplitude rock-surface acceleration up to 0.1g than at sites of larger accelerations. Noting the practical significance of this fact on the seismic design of structures in low to moderate seismic regions, to which many cities and towns of Ethiopia belong, changes to selected provisions of the local code are proposed. KEY WORDS: Earthquake ground motion, return period, response spectra, seismic hazard, site amplification.
Levels and proximate determinants of fertility in Butajira District, South Central Ethiopia
W Mekonnen, A Worku
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Uncontrolled population growth is evidenced mainly because of the high fertility. Improving maternal and child health services in Ethiopia were one of the main aims of the health extension program. The impediment of early marriage was revised in the national family code which claims assessment of fertility situations. Objectives: This study aimed at measuring levels and fertility inhibition effects of proximate determinants in Butajira district. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on resident women of reproductive age group recruited from the Butajira Demographic Surveillance System database. A total of 9996 women with different characteristics were thus interviewed. Results: Total fertility rate was 5.3 children per woman with high urban-rural gradient. The non-marriage (Cm=0.66) had the highest fertility inhibition effect followed by postpartum infecundability (Ci=0.68), contraception (Cc=0.77) and abortion (Ca=0.96). Main differences were observed across residential environment and educational status. Abortion had a paramount significance among in school women (ca=0.76). Conclusion: Not being married followed by postpartum infecundability and contraception inhibited high fertility. Abortion significantly reduced fertility among students. Keen awareness about negative consequences of high fertility should be attained. Women ought to be advised to marry late and stay in-school for long years. Extended breast feeding should be maintained for birth spacing. There must be sustained effort to increase contraception use rate. In-school women should be educated on problems of abortions. Youth-friendly contraceptive services must also be made available. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev 2011;25(3):184-191]
Age at sexual initiation and factors associated with it among youths in North East Ethiopia
F Mazengia, A Worku
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2009,
Abstract: Background: For behavioral as well as physiological reasons, early sexual debut increases young peoples' risk for infection with HIV and other STIs. Youths who begin sexual activity early are more likely to have high-risk sex or multiple sexual partners and are less likely to use condoms. It is crucial to understand the factors associated with early sexual initiation in a broader context for designing and implementing effective interventions targeting youth. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the median age at first sexual intercourse and the associated factors of sexual initiation among rural and urban youths (age 15- 24 years). Methods: A comparative cross sectional study was conducted between, March 1 -15, 2008, in Dessie town and Dessie Zuria Woreda. To draw a total sample of size 1294 (647 urban and 647 rural), a multistage cluster sampling was used. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were employed. Moreover, Kaplan Meier survival analysis was used to estimate the probability of sexual initiation at various age stratified by residence and sex. Result: About half, 51.3% of the youths have ever had sex. Rural youths initiate sexual intercourse at lower age than their urban counterparts with mean (±SD) (16.49+2.11) for rural and (17.18+2.32) for urban youths. The median age at sexual debut was 16 years for rural and 17 years for urban. The hazard ratio for sexual imitation was significant (AHR [95% CI] =1.45 [1.19, 2.55]. Multivariate analysis showed that being female by gender (AOR [95% CI]=1.56 [1.11, 2.19]), chewing Khat (AOR [95% CI] = 2.05 [1.05, 3.96]), drinking alcohol (AOR [95% CI] = 2.16 [1.12, 4.18]), watching pornographic materials at age < 18 years (AOR [95% CI] = 24.13 [3.28, 177.80]) and being less connected with parents (AOR [95% CI] =2.30 [1.35, 3.91]) were associated with early sexual initiation. Conclusion and Recommendation: Early sexual initiation prevails more in rural than urban youths. Delaying sexual debut can be achieved through well designed sexual education programs at earlier life. Strengthening the norm of virginity should be advocated. Equally, ways to access condoms and other contraceptives especially to rural youths should be sought for those who already initiate sexual intercourse.
Assessment of antiretroviral treatment outcome in public hospitals, South Nations Nationalities and Peoples Region, Ethiopia
E Tsegaye, A Worku
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2011,
Abstract: Background: The outcome of antiretroviral treatment, survival patterns and associated determining factors in public hospitals are not well known. Thus a longitudinal study is vital to understand the pattern of survival and treatment outcome. Objective: To assess the outcome of antiretroviral treatment in rural public hospitals in South Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region, Ethiopia. Method: A historical retrospective cohort study design was used for patients visiting hospitals from January 1, 2005 to January 31, 2009. A total of 5,664 patient records were examined from eight randomly selected public hospitals. Kaplan-Meier models were used to estimate mortality and Cox proportional hazards models to identify predictors of mortality. Results: The median age was 30 years and 73.6% were in the age group 25-40 while the higher HIV risk age group 14-24 covered only 12.8%. The proportion of females was 56.3%. The cumulative proportions of survivals were 92%, 90%, 88% and 86% at months 6, 12, 24 and 36 respectively. The hazard of death was higher in male (AHR: 1.632, CI: 1.309-2.034) and those who had a baseline CD4 cell count < 50 cells /ml compared to these with a count of above 200 (AHR: 3.176, CI: 2.304- 4.434). Patients with WHO stage IV at baseline had a higher risk of death compared to these with a WHO stage I (AHR: 5.603, CI: 1.753-17.905). Conclusions: There is an indication of improvement of survival in the patient population. An advanced disease stage, Low CD4 cell count, gender and timing of ARV regimen combinations had significant contribution in determining a longer survival time. Priority should thus be given to identify HIV-infected individuals and start ART earlier in the course of their illness. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2011;25(2):102-109]
Estimation of the total fertility rates and proximate determinants of fertility in North and South Gondar zones, Northwest Ethiopia: An application of the Bongaarts' model
GD Alene, A Worku
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2009,
Abstract: Background: Evidence shows that nearly two million people are added to the population of Ethiopia each year. It has become clear that uncontrolled fertility has adversely influenced the socio-economic, demographic and environmental situations of the country. Objectives: To estimate the total fertility rates and look into the relative contribution of the intermediate determinant variables in bringing fertility below its biological maximum in North and South Gondar zones of Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study which included a sample size of 3512 women of reproductive age was performed. Multi-stage cluster sampling was used to select the required study subjects. The Bongaarts model was employed to estimate fertility rates and quantify the contribution of each of the proximate determinants of fertility. Results: The overall total fertility rate of the two Gondar zones was computed as 5.3. Among the three major proximate determinants in reducing fertility in the two zones, postpartum infecundability (Ci=0.55) stood first followed by contraceptive use (Cc=0.75) and non- marriage (Cm=0.83). Conclusion: The fertility-inhibiting effect of postpartum infecundability resulting from prolonged breastfeeding is by far the most important proximate determinant in the entire study areas. A substantial role (particularly in urban areas) is played by contraceptive use. The promotion of breastfeeding should continue by all concerned bodies and the region should continue exerting its maximum effort to make the majority of the rural population users of modern contraceptive methods
The cholera epidemic of 2000/2001 in Kwazulu-Natal: implications for health promotion and education
A KM Hoque,Zeleke Worku
Health SA Gesondheid , 2005, DOI: 10.4102/hsag.v10i4.208
Abstract: This study was a cross-sectional, descriptive and comparative study conducted in the province of KwaZulu-Natal in the months of November and December 2001 in order to make a comparison between health districts stricken with cholera and districts not stricken with cholera with regards to well-known risk factors for cholera. Opsomming ‘n Dwarssnit, beskrywende en vergelykende studie met verwysing na bekende risikofaktore vir cholera het in die KwaZulu-Natal Provinsie tussen November en Desember 2001 plaasgevind om ‘n vergelyking te maak tussen gesondheidsdistrikte wat deur cholera geteister word en distrikte wat nie deur cholera geteister word nie. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.
Prevalence of childhood illness and mothers’/caregivers’ care seeking behavior in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia: A descriptive community based cross sectional study  [PDF]
Worku Awoke
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2013.32020

Introduction: In Ethiopia, even though there are great achievements in decreasing infant and child mortality from year 2000 to 2011, still children are suffering from diarrheal diseases, respiratory problems and malnutrition. This study was done to determine the prevalence of illnesses among under-five children and mothers’/caregivers’ care seeking behavior for childhood illnesses in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was done on a sample of 415 mothers/caregivers from April 15 to May 15, 2011. Three kebeles (the smallest administrative unit) from Bahir Dar were selected randomly. The sample was proportionally distributed to the selected kebeles according to their population size. To be eligible to participate in the study, mothers had to live in households that had children under five years of age. These households were selected by systematic sampling method. Mothers/caregivers were interviewed in their homes using a structured questionnaire that had been pre-tested. The collected data were analyzed using a computer program of SPSS version 20.0. Result and Conclusions: The overall two weeks prevalence of childhood illness that had one or more symptoms of disease was 110 (26.5%). The prevalence of the most commonly reported symptoms were diarrhea, fever, acute respiratory infection (ARI) and others 11.3%, 10%, 6.3% and 4.6% among children of under five years respectively. Eighty (72.7%) of mothers sought treatment from health care facilities for sick children. The main reasons for not seeking treatment from health care facilities as reported by mothers/caregivers were, 53.3% Illness was not serious, 26.7% lack of money and 13.3% did not see any benefit for such childhood illness. Hence there is a need for designing a tailored health message for mother/ caregivers about preventable childhood illness and treatment seeking by the local health extension workers and program planners.

Analysis of Factors That Affect the Long-Term Survival of Small Businesses in Pretoria, South Africa  [PDF]
Zeleke Worku
Journal of Data Analysis and Information Processing (JDAIP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jdaip.2013.14008

The paper is based on a 5-year follow-up study (2007 to 2012) of a random sample of 349 small business enterprises that operate in and around the city of Pretoria in South Africa. Data weregathered from each of the businesses on socio economic factors that were known to affect the long-term survival of small businesses. The objective of the study was to identify and quantify key predictors of viability and long-term survival. Pearson’s chi-square tests of associations, binary logistic regression analysis and the Cox Proportional Hazards Model were used for screening of variables, and for estimating odds ratios and hazard ratios of key predictors of viability and long-term survival. The study found that 188 of the 349 businesses that took part in the study (54%) were not viable, and that the long-term survival and viability of small businesses were adversely affected by lack of entrepreneurial skills, lack of supervisory support to newly established businesses, and inability to operators running newly established businesses to acquire relevant vocational skills.

Differential Factors of Contraceptive Use and Adverse Outcomes of Pregnancy in Women with Ages 15 to 49 in Pretoria, South Africa  [PDF]
Zeleke Worku
Journal of Data Analysis and Information Processing (JDAIP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jdaip.2014.21004

Challenges of teenage pregnancy and adverse outcomes of pregnancy constitute a major public health problem in South African women of the childbearing age of 15 to 49 years. This is a 6-year long study that was conducted in Pretoria, South Africa in order to identify factors that affect utilization of modern contraceptives and adverse pregnancy outcomes in women of the childbearing age of 15 to 49 years. Data analysis was conducted by using two-by-two Pearson’s chisquare tests of associations, binary logistic regression analysis, survival analysis, and multilevel analysis. The study showed that the percentage of women who regularly used modern family planning methods such as condoms, pills, injections, intra-uterine devices and sterilization was 41.74%. The average ages of women at first sex and pregnancy were 18.72 and 19.36 years respectively. Adverse outcomes of pregnancy occurred in 12.19% of women. Based on Odds Ratios (OR) estimated from binary logistic regression analysis, utilization of contraceptives was significantly influenced by easy access to family planning services, level of support from sexual partner, and young age at first pregnancy. Based on Hazard Ratios (HR) estimated from the Cox Proportional Hazards Model, the occurrence of adverse outcomes of pregnancy was significantly influenced by easy access to family planning services, unwanted pregnancy, and young age at first pregnancy. Women who experienced adverse outcomes of pregnancy were characterized by poor utilization of reproductive health and modern family planning services. There was a significant difference among the 20 health service delivery wards and 11 health service facilities in which reproductive health services were delivered to women with regards to the quality of service delivery.

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