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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 462037 matches for " A Bukar "
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Anti-plasmodia activity of leaf extracts of Calotropis procera Linn
SY Mudi, A Bukar
Biokemistri , 2011,
Abstract: The leaves of Calotropis procera were air dried, grounded and soaked with ethanol. The extracts obtained (29.79g, CP1) was fractionated sequentially using aqueous methanol with petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate respectively. The residue of ethanol extract (marc) was extracted with 5M HCl, basified and extracted with chloroform. These were labeled as CP1-01 to CP1-05 for the plant. Each of these fractions was phytochemically screened to detect the class of secondary metabolite present. The fractions obtained from the plant were found to be selectively active against brine shrimp larvae. These fractions were also subjected to antimalaria parasites bioassay. Fractions CP1, CP1-04 and CP1-05 were found to be active against tested organisms, withCP1-04 being the most active. CP1-04 was further subjected to activity guided column chromatography that led to the isolation of two pure compounds CP1-04-1 and CP1-04-61. Compound CP1-04-61 was found to be active against the malaria parasite. This was further purified and subjected to qualitative and quantitative analysis.
Antibacterial and antifungal effect of high pH and paraffin wax application on tomatoes, oranges and peppers
AM Magashi, A Bukar
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2007,
Abstract: The antibacterial and antifungal effects of high pH (9, 10) and paraffin wax were determined. Determination of antibacterial and antifungal activity of the combined treatments was achieved by aerobic mesophilic count of bacteria and fungi on the surface of the tomatoes, peppers and oranges using serial dilution and pour plate techniques and compared prior to and after 4 days of treatment with buffer (pH 9, 10) and wax for 3 min using dipping method. Reduction in bacterial and fungal count indicates antifungal and antibacterial activity. A bacterial count reduction of 84.3 (control), 63.4 (pH 9) and 78.2% (pH 10) and fungal count reduction of 53.6 (control), 43.4 (pH 9) and 73.5 (pH 10) were achieved after 4 days of treatment respectively. The study shows that the control (unwaxed) had similar antibacterial and antifungal effect as waxed fruits at pH 9 and 10, except for pH 10 that had higher reduction of fungal counts than the control, showing prospect of higher activity with wax at higher pH than 10.
Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of leaf extracts of Senna siamea (LAM) on Pseudomonas aeruginosa
A Bukar, M Mukhtar, A Hassan
Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: The anti-pseudomonal activities of aqueous, chloroform and ethanolic extracts of leaf of Senna siamea (LAM) were evaluated by agar disc diffusion method. This was with the aim of substantiating the ethnomedicinal use of the plant as anti-bacterial. All the extracts were not active to Ps. aeruginosa at the concentration levels of 100μg/disc and 200μg/disc, however the extracts were active at high concentration levels of 500μg/disc and 1000μ/disc revealing a dose – dependent antibacterial activity. Aqueous extract was the most active with zone diameter of inhibitions of 16mm and 30mm followed by ethanolic extract which had zones of inhibition of 10mm and 16mm and the least was chloroform extract which has zone diameter of inhibitions of 08mm and 14mm, all at 500μg/disc and 1000μg/disc concentrations respectively. Ciprofloxacin (oxoid) as positive control had zone diameter of inhibition of 35mm in all the test plates. The antipsedomonal potential of the leaves of Senna siamea Lam leaf may be due to the phytochemical compounds present in the leaf extracts, which were found to be tannins, saponnins and steroids. However aqueous extract proved to be a more suitable candidate for use in the treatment of diseases cause by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Hence, antimicrobial evaluation and biotechnological study of the whole plant are thus recommended.
Antimicrobial profile of moringa oleifera lam. Extracts against some food – borne microorganisms
A Bukar, A Uba, T Oyeyi
Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: The chloroform and ethanol extracts of seeds and leaf of Moringa oleifera were investigated for antimicrobial activity against some selected food – borne microorganisms as a first step in the screening of the extracts for preliminary sanitizing/preservative properties on foods. The preliminary phytochemical screening and antimicrobial assay were carried out using standard procedures. The results of the phytochemical analysis revealed differences in the presence of the phytochemicals among the extracts. Saponins were detected in all the extracts while tannins were only detected in Moringa oleifera leaf chloroform extract. The antibacterial assay results show that M. oleifera leaf ethanol extract exhibited broad spectrum activity against the test organisms with Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter aerogenes susceptible. The MIC values ranged between 2.0 and >4.0mg/ml for all the organisms. M. oleifera seed chloroform extract was only active against E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium. The MIC values ranged between 1.0 and >4.0mg/ml for the tested organisms respectively. Antifungal activity result revealed 100% inhibition in growth of Mucor and Rhizopus species by M. oleifera seed chloroform extract at concentration of 1mg/ml. Standard Ketoconazole (control) inhibited the test organisms by 100% at 0.5mg/ml concertration. The result of this study have shown the potentials of M. oleifera extracts as sanitizers/preservatives by inhibiting the growth of the test organisms, which range from food – borne pathogens to spoilage causing organisms in foods.
Isolation and Identification of Postharvest Spoilage Fungi Associated with Sweet Oranges (Citrus sinensis) Traded in Kano Metropolis
A Bukar, MD Mukhtar, S Adamu
Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: Mycological studies on fungi in apparently diseased sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis) sampled from retailers at Na'ibawa Yan Lemu market in Kano Metropolis was carried out between August and September 2006. The samples were surface sterilized using 85% ethanol and homogenates were cultured on potato Dextrose Agar and incubated aerobically at room temperature for 7 days at 30°C. Pure cultures of the resulting fungal colonies were obtained from the subcultures of the primary plates. These were identified morphologically and microscopically. The investigation revealed that up to 90% of the samples were infected with one or more fungal species. The most predominant pathogenic fungus isolated from the samples was, Aspergillus sp (32.5%); others include Mucor sp. (25%), Penicillium sp (15%), Rhizopus sp (15%), Fusarium sp, (7.5%), and Alternaria sp. (5%). Proper handling from the farm as well as during storage and the avoidance of mixing of diseased ones with the healthy ones were identified as important factors in preventing loss. The use of suitable chemical treatment of the orange is also recommended as means of reducing economic loss due to fungal pathogens.
Current trend in antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Clostridium tetani isolated from soil samples in Kano
A Bukar, MD Mukhtar, SA Adam
Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: The need for a regular assessment of the antimicrobial sensitivity patterns among tetanus causing as well as infectious members of Clostridia found in soil-human settlement provides a justification for the present study. Accordingly, soil from various locations of Bayero University Campus, Kano was screened for the isolation of C. tetani by anaerobic culturing procedures. The organism was detected in 60% of the soil samples. The isolates were tested against commonly prescribed drugs including sparfloxacin, ciprofloxin, chloramphenicol, cloxacillin and metronidazole by disc diffusion technique. Flouroquinolones; sparfloxacin (30μg), ciprofloxacin (30μg), metronidazole (5μg), gentamycin (10μg) and tetracycline (10μg) showed greater in vitro inhibitory effect. The activity of erythromycin (5μg) and chloramphenicol (30μg) was moderate. However, all penicillin derivatives (augmentin (30μg), amoxicillin (25μg), cloxacillin (5μg) and penicillin V (30μg) as well as cotrimoxazole (25μg) were all inactive against the organism. The flouroquinolones, genta,mycin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline remain the drugs of choice against infections due to the organism, while co-trimoxazole and members of the penicillin group of antimicrobials appeared to loose their in vitro potency and effectiveness.
Bacteriological quality of water used for ice making in some parts of Kano metropolis, Nigeria
U Shamsuddeen, A Bukar, A Usman, M Kabir, S Abdulmalik
Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: A study was carried out on the bacterial counts of water used for commercial production of ice. Total of twenty samples (ten raw water samples and ten ice samples) were collected at random from ten different locations, and subjected to aerobic mesophilic bacterial and coliform counts according to FAO/WHO standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. The results showed that the raw water had mean aerobic plate count of 2.05 x 103 cfu/ml, coliform MPN ranged from <2 to 110coliforms/ml and two samples yielded E. coli. The ice had mean aerobic plate count of 7.90 x 103cfu/ml and coliform MPN ranged from <2 to 130 coliforms/ml and four samples yielded E. coli. It is recommended based on the findings that the commercial ice makers should observe hygienic practices in all their operations, so as to reduce the chances of contamination and possible infection by the microbial contaminants.
Dacterial agents of otitis media and their sensitivity to some antibiotics in Aminu kano teaching hospital, Kano state
U Shamsuddeen, A.D Usman, A Bukar, I Safiya
Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: Fifty ear swab samples were examined from pediatric patients attending Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano. The samples were collected from ENT department, pediatric out patients department (PODP) and General out Patients Department (GOPD). The swabs were tested by culturing for bacterial pathogens, where 47 (94.0%) of the samples yielded growth. The most predominant isolate was Staphylococcus aureus, with a total occurrence of 26 (55.32%) followed by Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Streptococcus pneumoniae, with total occurrences of 12 (25.53%), 7 (14.89%), 1(2/13%) and 1 (2.13%) respectively. Based on age group, 0-2yrs age group were more infected (16 infected). Of the two sexes, males were 28 (56%) while females were 22 (44%) and all were within the age range of 0- 12 years. Antimicrobial sensitivity test showed that the bacterial isolates were susceptible to Augmentin, Gentamycin, Tetracycline, Amoxicillin and ofloxacin but resistant to Ampicillin, Streptomycin, Cotrimoxazole, cefixime and Cloxacillin.
HIV seroprevalence rates among prospective service personnel in a Nigerian security facility
EE Nwokedi, A Aminu Taura, AI Dutse, A Bukar
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology , 2006,
Abstract: Background: There is no doubt that the greatest health problem threatening the human race in these times is the HIVIAIDS pandemic. The greatest burden of this scourge is in sub-Saharan Africa. According to the joint United Nations Committee on HIVIAIDS (UNAIDS), over 40 million people have been infected with the disease as of the end of 2001 and of which over 28 million are in sub-Saharan Africa. These are the group presenting themselves for paramilitary recruitment in Nigeria. Objectives: The aim of this retrospective study is firstly to analyse the results of the HIV antibodies screening and confirmatory tests in order to determine the seroprevalence rate of HIV infection among this prospective service personnel. Secondly, to compare the prevalence rates between the males and females. Finally, to compare the seroprevalence rate in 2003 with that of 2002 among similar group. Methodology: A total of 900 consecutive prospective recruits were screened for HIV antibodies using double technique. Confirmatory tats were then performed on positive sera using Immunoconfirmatory kits. Chi square was used to analyze the results. Of the 900 tested 8l7 are males while 83 are females. Results: The prevalence is 1.4%. Overall in 2002, out of 431 officers screened in both groups, 8 (1.86%) were positive for HIV antibodies comprising 5 men (1.16%) and 3 women (0.69%). In 2003, out of a total of 900 recruits tested for HIV seropositivity, 13 (1.4%) were found to be seropositive with a 95% confidence interval of 1.0% to 1.8%. Discussion and Conclussion: Our results show a seroprevalenee of 1.44% among members of this security outfit and it is quite low compared to the national average of 5%. Our findings are low compared to seroprevalenee rata among ANC clients, Tb patients, STD clients and blood donors. However, it is comparable to 1.7% among another group of paramilitary in 2002, 1.4% among people with leprosy and 1.8% in Jigawa State sentinel survey. Health education is advised. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 7(2) 2006: 101-105
A Survey Of Cutaneous Neoplasms Among Horses Used For Cultural Festivals In Borno State, Nigeria
M M Bukar, M A Sadiq, Y A Geidam
Nigerian Veterinary Journal , 2007,
Abstract: A total of 314 Arab horses of ages ranging from 4 to 15 years were examined of which 35(11.2%) were Albino and 279(88.85%) were non albino horses. Nine horses (2.86%) were observed to have cutaneous neoplasm. Gross characteristics of the cutaneous neoplasm found were studied and some biopsy samples collected and processed for histopathology. Four (11.4%) of the Albino horses and 5(1.79%) of the non Albino horses had cutaneous neoplasm. Six (1.9%) of the tumours were papillomas while 3 (0.95%) were squamous cell carcinomas. All the cases of squamous cell carcinoma were observed in albino horses, 2 affected the eye, 1 affected the genitalia, and one case of papilloma of the prepuce. All the non-albino horses were observed to have papilloma only. The papillomas were small projections, generally less than 5mm in diameter observed around the eyelids and external genitalia. The prepucial and penile mass was multilobulated, with a cauliflower appearance and bleeds easily on manipulation. Histologically, the papillomas were deeply subdivided into epithelial lobules with the outer and inner aspects of the epithelium running approximately parallel to each other. Irregular sub-dermal masses or cords of proliferating and atypical epidermal cells separated by connective tissue, and epithelial ‘pearls\' of mature keratin were also observed in the squamous cell carcinoma.
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