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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 462108 matches for " A Bekele "
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Management of Gastrointestinal Foreign bodies using Flexible Endoscopy: An experience from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
A Bane, A Bekele
East and Central African Journal of Surgery , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Foreign body (FB) ingestion is a common surgical emergency that often requires prompt intervention before complications occur. A total of 25 patients with a history of accidental foreign body ingestion were treated in our medical center. The aim of this study is to present our experience of gastrointestinal foreign body extractions under light conscious sedation using flexible video endoscopes in children and adults at Adera Medical center in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: A total of 25 patients were admitted to Adera Medical center for removal of ingested FB using flexible video endoscopes. The patients were observed and followed up for anticipated complications and discharged after stabilization with analgesics and counseling. History of FB ingestion, dysphagia, odynophagia, drooling of saliva, vomiting, and vague sensation of FB were used as diagnostic criteria. Lateral and PA neck, chest, and abdominal plain x-rays were also taken as appropriate for diagnosis as well as follow up of passage of disimpacted FB per rectum. After informed consent was obtained, light sedation and anesthesia were provided using IV diazepam, and oral xylocaline spray, flexible Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) was performed using standard procedure. Once identified, the FB was removed by FB grasper/forceps. Results: A total of 25 patients, 10 children &15 adults) with a mean age of 14.7 years (range 2 – 34) were treated for FB ingestion upon presentation to the Adera Medical Center. The mid intra-thoracic esophagus was the commonest site of FB impaction followed by the stomach. Dysphagia, odynophagia, and drooling of saliva were the commonest presenting symptoms. Hair pins and pieces of bone were the commonest FB encountered. Nearly all (98%) presented within 24 hours of accidental FB ingestion and all of the FBs were removed successfully without any complication. Conclusion: Flexible Endoscopy is a very safe and efficient method of timely diagnosis and removal of ingested FBs in children and adults in trained hands to prevent life threatening complications. Our finding is similar to other international reports.
Enactment of student-centered approach in teaching Mathematics and Natural Sciences: The case of selected general secondary schools in Jimma zone, Ethiopia.
A Bekele, K Melesse
Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: The study was initiated to assess the implementation of student-centered teaching of Mathematics and Natural Science subjects in three selected schools in Jimma and the surrounding towns. To this end, classroom observation method was utilized. Accordingly, 40 lessons of 24 teachers were observed. The observation result depicts that teachers were effectively utilizing prior knowledge of learners in starting their lessons. They were also active in making question rich learning environment. On the contrary, they were rated as poor in making classroom environment conducive for group learning. Utilization of learning materials and activities was also rated as low. Subject, school and grade wise comparison put relatively teachers teaching in Jimma University Community school, Chemistry subject and grade nine students on the top but the rest on the other end of the spectrum although there is no statistically significant differences. Based on these findings, recommendations for action including area for further research were forwarded.
The prevalence and pattern of HPV-16 immunostaining in uterine cervical carcinomas in Ethiopian women: a pilot study
MM Rashed, A Bekele
Pan African Medical Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Introduction: Cancer of the cervix uteri is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. The association of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection with cervical carcinogenesis is well documented. This is a pilot study aiming to studying the prevalence and the pattern of Human Papilloma Virus Type 16 (HPV16) by immunostaining in the tissues of cervical carcinomas of Ethiopian women. Methods: 20 specimens of uterine cervical carcinomas were studied histopathologically and immunohistochemically for HPV16. Results: Histologically the specimens were classified as: Ten cases were Non Keratinized Squamous cell carcinoma (NKSCC), six cases were Keratinized Squamous Cell Carcinoma (KSCC) and four cases were Adenocarcinoma (ADC). Immunohistochemistry study showed positivity in eleven cases (55%); seven cases (35%) were nonkeratinized squamous cell carcinoma; three cases (15%) were keratinized squamous cell carcinoma and one case (5%) belonged to the adenocarcinomas. Conclusion: This study reveals a significant detection of HPV in Ethiopian women by the use of advanced techniques such as Immunohistochemistry (IHC). The data of this study suggested that the marked expression of the HPV 16 was in the less differentiated uterine cervix carcinomas.
Neuroendocrine differentiation in a case of cervical cancer
MM Rashed, A Bekele
Pan African Medical Journal , 2010,
Abstract: Neuroendocrine neoplasms may occur in the uterine cervix, although rarely; it accounts for 0.5-1% of all malignant tumors of the uterine cervix. A case report of an Ethiopian female presented at the Gynecology Out-Patient Clinic at Jimma University Hospital, complaining from irregular vaginal bleeding over the previous three months. Clinically there was a cauliflower cervical mass; histopathologically it was formed of sheets of small cell tumor; that further showed neuroendocrine differentiation, as demonstrated by chromogranin-A positivity. It is important to differentiate small cell carcinoma from other malignant tumors of the uterine cervix. Morphological features play an important role in making a diagnosis and the immunohistochemistry study can offer an additional useful assistance.
Soil Organic Carbon Storage, N Stock and Base Cations of Shade Coffee, Khat and Sugarcane for Andisols in South Ethiopia  [PDF]
Bekele Lemma
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2018.81004
Abstract: In the Wondo Genet, Ethiopia, the common agricultural land uses include maize, shade coffee, khat and sugarcane. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of perennial land uses on soil organic carbon (SOC), soil N and base cations. Four sites having maize and one or two of perennial land uses and with similar site characteristics were identified for this study. Soils (0 - 30 cm) were sampled at corners of a plot (20 × 20 m2) placed in each land use at each site. Results indicated that the SOC storage of the shade coffee plantations were 86% and 125% higher compared with adjacent maize land uses with the absolute differences being 50.7 and 54.4 Mg·ha-1, respectively. The soil N stock was 109% and 126% higher for the shade coffee than the maize land use while the absolute differences were 5.7 and 4.7 Mg·ha-1 for the same sites. Among perennials, the higher SOC storage in the shade coffee is attributable to the increased litter input and reduced soil disturbance in the system. While the higher soil N in the shade coffee was attributed to reduction of leaching, N uplift, and the increased litter quality and input. The high relative increase in shade coffee in SOC and soil N at Finance site was ascribed to the finer soil texture and low SOC and soil N at the compared adjacent maize farm. Although not significant, the relative increase in SOC (34%) and soil N (43%) in the sugarcane at the Finance as well as the relative increase in SOC (7%) and soil N (9%) in khat at Gotu as compared to Chaffee site was attributed to mainly the management differences. The shade coffee has the greatest potential for SOC storage and for increasing N stock, while khat and sugarcane have the least potential.
Assessment and Modeling of Geo-Spatial Technology and Geo-Spatial Intelligence Support for Joint Military Operations  [PDF]
Nigatu Bekele
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2019.111008
Abstract: World military force structure is dramatically changing as collectively; our armed forces undergo a major transition from unprofessional to the Objective Force (designed to capitalize on information-age based technologies and Human Interaction to Non-Human Interaction). Traditional “stovepipes” among services are being eliminated and replaced with integrated systems that allow joint forces (combined Army, Air Force and navy) to seamlessly execute required tasks. This study was undertaken in conjunction with Geospatial Technology (Shows Space and Time) and Geospatial Intelligence Analysis (Use Algorithm, Use AI Concepts, IMINT and GEOINT). In order to successfully support current and future Ethiopian military operations in war zones, geospatial technologies and geospatial intelligence must be integrated to accommodate force structure evolution and mission requirement directives. The intent of joint intelligence operations is to integrate Ground, Air and Navy Forces at war zone and also give COP (“common operational picture”) for Operational and Tactical Commander Service and national intelligence capabilities into a unified effort that surpasses any single organizational effort and provides the most accurate and timely intelligence to commanders.
First Experience with OSCE as an Exit Clinical Examination for General Surgery Residency Program at the Addis Ababa University, School of Medicine
A Bekele, S Shiferaw, B Kotisso
East and Central African Journal of Surgery , 2012,
Abstract: Background: The evaluation of clinical skills of surgical residents has long been viewed by surgical educators as problematic and the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is said to address the deficiencies of the traditional clinical examinations. Here, we report findings from evaluation of our first experience with this examination at the Addis Ababa University, Department of Surgery. Methods: This was a cross sectional survey among surgical students in University, School of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Addis Ababa University. The study population consisted of 10 final year residents in General surgery sitting for final exit exam in the year 2011 and 20 academic staff at the Department of surgery. Results : The study showed that both students and instructors found OSCE to be useful and believed that OSCE evaluated very well the history taking and physical examination ability of residents. Students’ OSCE results showed that they had borderline consistency (Cronbach’s á =0.67) and correlation with viva (Pearson r = 0.65; p-value=0.04) and written test results (Pearson r = 0.58; P-value=0.08). Conclusion: Overall, the findings indicate that OSCE can be implemented with some level of success provided the students and staffs are adequately oriented and convinced of the justifications for an objective assessment in clinical training. Further plans and activities need to address how OSCE can be made a more reliable measure of students’ performance.
Demography and dynamics of mountain nyala Tragelaphus buxtoni in the Bale Mountains National Park, Ethiopia
Yosef MAMO, Michelle A. PINARD, Afework BEKELE
Current Zoology , 2010,
Abstract: We studied the population dynamics of endangered mountain nyala Tragelaphus buxtoni between 2003–2005 in the Bale Mountains National Park. Line-transect sampling and total count methods were used to gather data on demographics and movement patterns. The population’s age-group composition was 58% adults, 25% sub-adults, 9% juveniles, 5% calves and 3% unidentified with a female-male sex ratio of 2:1. Population density was found to be significantly different between the two sub-populations (Dinsho Sanctuary and Gaysay/Adelay). A significant difference was found for age-group composition across the two sub-populations except adult females, sub-adult males and calves. The Dinsho sub-population was an isolated group. Separation and containment of the mountain nyala population could have negatively affected their ability to search for habitat requirements and mates from distant areas. The population varied between 830–908 individuals (95% CI), a reduction of 45% from earlier reports. However, the mean population density increased due to contraction of the species’ habitat range. We observed a population decrease of 2%–5% per year over the course of our study. Many of the assessed demographic parameters did not significantly change over the three years. This suggests that the decrease in nyala population was not due to random variations in reproduction. Anthropogenic factors such as competition with livestock for forage, habitat encroachment and poaching by the local people might have been partly responsible for the depleted population in our study areas [Current Zoology 56 (6): 660–669, 2010].
Analyzing and Modeling of Geo Spatial Effect on Radio Wave Propagation System Using Geospatial Technologies  [PDF]
Nigatu Bekele, Biadgilgn Demissie
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2017.96048
Abstract: The research presented in this thesis reveals the level of rightness of the recurrence Prediction systems by correlated with geospatial effect. The Geospatial technology elements split up: Geographic Information System (GIS), Remote Sensing (RS) and Global Positioning System (GPS) consolidated into this technique in light of the fact that the vast majority of the components in radio wave propagation are geographic highlights. In this exploration, ICEPAC remote arranging programming is tried in a field test completed in Tigray and Afar district. The consequence show that, the Prediction programming doesn’t put, day by day, regular and month to month topographical marvels into thought. Moreover, it doesn’t demonstrate the correct area of the radio stations. Furthermore, the new proposed ICEPAC Calibration algorithm anticipates a good Signal quality for frequencies in the vicinity of 1.5 MHz up to 30 MHz. The total result showed that Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are getting to be noticeably valuable apparatuses in accumulation, stockpiling, control and portrayal of Geo spatial information and also the RS and GIS situated Signal quality forecast can essentially enhance forecast quality contrasted with the hypothetical free space demonstration which does not consider any Geo spatial and neighborhood landscape highlights impacts.
Inactivated Vaccine Trial of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in Ethiopia  [PDF]
Legesse Bekele, Temesgen Assefa
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2018.86009
Abstract: The study and entire laboratory works were conducted from December 2014 to April 2015 in National Veterinary Institute, Bishoftu, Ethiopia. Formaldehyde inactivated Montanide ISA70 based Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) trial vaccine strain was confirmed the identity with known primer using PCR from locally isolates of National Veterinary Institute of Ethiopia. This study was aimed to develop formaldehyde inactivated Montanide ISA70 based MG vaccine in Ethiopia. It can help to device strategies in controlling the disease mainly through developing more effective vaccine which will replace the currently being imported vaccines by some farms. After culturing procedure, oil based inactivated MG trial vaccine was produced in suitable clean and secure accommodation. In this study, among different isolates, local isolate of Samuel farm in NVI was prepared and evaluated in chickens. The amount of immune antigen per 0.5 ml of the dose was 107 Colony forming units (CFU) of the bacteria. The trail vaccine was prepared and evaluated at the age of 16 weeks of chickens; the chickens were randomly divided into three groups (A, B and C), each having twenty birds (10 male and 10 female). Each of group B was vaccinated group of imported-live vaccine with 30 μl intraocularly for comparing with inactivated trial vaccine, each bird of group C was inoculated with 0.5 ml indigenous or trial vaccine subcutaneously at mid neck region and group A was used as a control then challenge tests were performed. After challenge test, among non-vaccinated chickens (control or group A) 2 chickens were died (10%), thicken and cloudy appearance of the air sac showed 18 (90%), 2 chickens were not showed thickened and cloudy air sack (10%). Although among vaccinated group (inactivated vaccine or group C), all chickens did not show clinical signs or post mortem changes (100%). From attenuated imported live vaccine (group B), no clinical signs or post mortem changes were observed (100%). It was concluded that oil based MG vaccine induces protective level of anti MG antibodies in chickens.
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