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地下铁道盾构施工中需要对始发、接收洞门的位置和姿态进行检测，以确保盾构施工不至于偏离设计线路。洞门位置通过洞门中心坐标来表达；洞门姿态通过洞门所在平面与水平面和设计线路夹角来表达。这些都不能直接观测，需要通过洞门圈的测量，拟合洞门圈所在空间圆来计算得到。本文以天津某地铁工程为例，介绍了基于空间圆拟合的地铁盾构洞门检测方法，及其数据处理过程。It is necessary to detect the position and posture of originating and receiving portal during subway shield construction, in order to ensure that the shield construction will not deviate from the design line. Portal position is expressed by the coordinates of the center of the portal, while portal posture is expressed by the angle between portal plane and horizontal plane, and the angle between portal plane and design line. These data cannot be directly observed, but they can be indirectly observed by calculating the measuring portal circle. Taking Tianjin subway project as an example, this paper introduces the data processing of subway shield tunnel portal detection based on spatial circle fitting.