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The long-time inappropriate exploitation of river resources has led to the damages of river ecosystem and structural dysfunction, threatening the sustainable development of society as a whole. The river health issues have emerged as a result. How to carry out river health assessment and river management is vital to the development of harmonious relationship between nature and human being. This review has discussed the connotation of river heath and summarized various methods of evaluating river health at home and abroad. Meanwhile, in view of the status of river health assessment in our country, some suggestions have been put forward that river monitoring plan should be carried out and nationwide river health assessment guidelines should be established in the future.