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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 80649 matches for " 夏军 "
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变化环境下水循环与水系统科学的研究与展望
Development and Perspective on Water Cycle & Water System Sciences
 [PDF]


Journal of Water Resources Research (JWRR) , 2012, DOI: 10.12677/JWRR.2012.13004
Abstract: 本文论述了在气候变化和人类活动影响下以水循环为纽带,将水文物理过程、地球生物及生物化学过程耦合以及社会经济发展联系的耗用水、水工程及管理的作用与反馈耦合的水系统科学的理念与方法论。通过国内外文献综述,分析了国际水系统科学的发展趋势,其中包括水系统观测、模拟、耦合与调控以及国内相关研究面临的学术问题,阐述了若干观点。展望了对该领域研究新的发展机遇与挑战。
This paper addresses the issue of land water cycling and water system approach that is a coupling system of basic hydrological process with geo-chemical & bio-chemical processes and human action compo- nent under the climate change and human activity. By reviewing international and national research, some of analysis and comments are presented on water system observations, modeling, regulation & control. It is also to give perspective on new challenges and opportunities in coming years of developing basin water system in China.
淮河流域非一致性序列的水文频率计算
Hydrological Frequency Calculation of Non-Stationary Series in the Huaihe River Basin
 [PDF]

林洁,
Journal of Water Resources Research (JWRR) , 2014, DOI: 10.12677/JWRR.2014.33026
Abstract:

气候变化和人类活动对水文循环过程造成了影响,一定程度改变了水文序列的一致性。因此在变化环境下采用非一致性水文序列频率计算方法来描述水文序列更具合理性。本文选取淮河干流大坡岭站和鲁台子站1956~2010年的最大洪峰序列为研究对象,采用多种变异诊断方法对序列进行趋势性诊断和跳跃性诊断。然后,根据变异诊断结果并基于还原途径对序列进行频率计算。结果表明:大坡岭站和鲁台子站的年最大洪峰序列分别于1981和2001年发生跳跃变异,同时大坡岭站的洪峰流量序列在未来条件下存在一定程度的减少,在丰水年、平水年、枯水年的流量减少幅度为2.22%~18.51%、18.51%~19.48%、19.48%~97.27%。中游鲁台子站的洪峰流量序列在未来条件下存在一定程度的增加,在丰水年、平水年、枯水年的流量增加幅度为4.43%~27.76%、27.76%~45.90%、45.90%~473.51%。考虑水文变异的情况,用未来条件下的频率计算结果推算设计值能够为淮河流域的规划设计和水资源管理提供更为科学的基础。
The climate changes and human activities have caused great influences on the process of the hydrological cycle and destroyed the consistency of hydrological series. In this condition, doing hydrological frequency calculation based on the analysis method of non-stationary series will be more reasonable. This paper selects the annual maximum flood peak series from 1956-2010 of Da Po Ling and Lu Tai Zi station in Huaihe main stream to analyze. Several methods are used to do trend diagnosis and jumping diagnosis. The result shows that the variation of Da Po Ling and Lu Tai Zi series which belongs to jumping type occurs in 1981 and 2001. In addition, the annual maximum flood peak in Da Po Ling station has decreased under the future condition and the flow reductions in flood season, normal season, dry season are respectively 2.22% - 18.51%, 18.51% - 19.48%, 19.48% - 97.27%; the annual maximum flood peak in Lu Tai Zi station has increased and the flow increases in flood season, normal season, dry season are respectively 4.43% - 27.76%, 27.76% - 45.90%, 45.90% - 473.51%. Considering the hydrological variation and using the results under the future condition to calculate the design value can provide a scientific basis for planning and management of water resources in the Huaihe River basin.

A Perspective on Hydrological Base of Water Security Problem and Its Application Study in North China
华北地区水循环与水资源安全:问题与挑战


地理科学进展 , 2002,
Abstract: The issue of water shortage and related eco environmental degradation in the North China is one of the major emergency problems in China. As runoff generated from mountain area is significantly decreased and water resources are over developed, serious water and eco environmental problems have arisen, such as drying up of river system, ground water decline, lake &; wetland degradation, and water pollution in plain area, etc. It has been shown, that in the case of Haihe River Basin, among the total rivers of 10000 km, the rivers of 4000 km have been turned to be seasonal rivers. Comparing with the situation in the beginning of 1950s, the wetland area within the Basin has decreased from 10000 km 2 to 1000 km 2 at present. The area with over extraction of groundwater covers nearly 90000 km 2, or 70% of the plain areas. Comparing with that of the end of 1950s, the accumulated over extracted groundwater is 90 billion m 3. Water and soil loss area in mountainous region is 110000 km 2, or two thirds of the mountainous region. The sandstorms induced by desertification are endangering Beijing and other cities. Thus, the problems of water shortage and related eco environmental issues in North China have become the most significant issues to impact sustainable development in this very important region that is political, cultural and economic center of China. This paper addresses these emergent issues by the case study of Haihe River Basin in North China. The new advantage in international study on water and background causing these problems from natural change and particular human activity are analyzed. Key points are addressed in four aspects: (a) the study of the water cycle process impacted by high intensity human activity, a process which is quite different from that in natural water cycle, (b) water utilization related to new economic partner change, such as saving water model, (c) study on eco hydrology, and interaction of water and ecology impacted by climate change and human activity, and (d) reasonable water allocation that includes Water Diversion from South to North and saving water issue in local areas. Several suggestions of both study on the water cycle, which is a very important base of water security in North China, and study on application of water resources and eco environmental rehabilitation are proposed. These key issues will benefit to both advantage of water science and sustainable developing in China.
计算电磁开腔品质因数Q的频率增量法

科学通报 , 1992,
Abstract: 一、引言 品质因数Q是研究谐振腔特性的主要指标之一,其基本公式是
华北地区水循环与水资源安全:问题与挑战

地理科学进展 , 2002, DOI: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2002.06.001
Abstract: 华北缺水及其日趋严重的生态环境变化是中国首要解决的问题之一。目前,由于山区与平原径流明显减少和过量开发水资源,造成了地下水漏斗加深、平原区河道干涸、湖泊湿地萎缩、地表和地下水污染等生态环境恶化问题,严重影响到华北地区水资源安全,已引起党和国家的高度重视。本文以海河流域为重点对象,通过国内外学科前沿进展综述,指出华北地区缺水及其导致的生态环境恶化问题背后的自然和人文因素作用与发展演化的背景,强调高强度人类活动作用下的水循环基础研究的重要性,提出华北地区水资源安全的水循环基础与应用问题研究的若干建议与思考。研究自然和人类活动双重作用下的华北地区水循环过程,水体运动与污染物质输移及其与生态环境演变耦合机制,阐明华北地区"河道断流,水体污染,湿地消失,地下水枯竭"的成因规律,特别是人类活动的驱动分量,提出生态环境修复的理论基础,不仅对变化环境下流域水环境演变的地学基础科学前沿研究有重大的学术价值,而且对中国可持续发展和社会进步具有重要的战略意义。
计算电磁开腔品质因数Q的频率增量法

科学通报 , 1992,
Abstract: 一、引言品质因数Q是研究谐振腔特性的主要指标之一,其基本公式是
湖北省的水问题与可持续发展研究

科技进步与对策 , 2000,
Abstract: 从国际水资源研究的前沿问题,论述可持续水资源管理新的概念准则和量化方法,探讨了湖北省水利建设、规划与管理的新思路,和既有科学性又有可操作性的可持续水资源量化理论与方法。湖北省水资源管理量化方法
气候变化背景下水资源脆弱性评价方法及其应用分析
The Method and Application of Water Vulnerability Assessment in China
 [PDF]

翁建武, , 陈俊旭
Journal of Water Resources Research (JWRR) , 2012, DOI: 10.12677/JWRR.2012.14027
Abstract: 气候变化背景下水资源脆弱性与适应性是当前国内外水资源研究的热点问题之一。本文以中国省级行政区为评价单元,针对水资源供需矛盾问题,开展了气候变化背景下水资源脆弱性评价的指标系统与方法研究。与传统的水资源脆弱性评价不同,本文提出的脆弱性不仅考虑了自然干旱地理分布的脆弱性要素,同时考虑了社会经济和环境等方面的联系,选取了相关的8个指标,并利用层次分析法确定指标权重。初步研究表明,水资源脆弱性在南方地区较低,在北方地区较高;相同或相近的水资源脆弱性评价结果,可能是不同原因造成的;随着水资源脆弱性的增加,社会经济因素逐渐起主导作用。根据评价结果,本研究从提升应对气候变化适应能力、提高用水效率、实施用水总量控制、开发新水源和治理水污染等方面提出了相应的适应性对策。
Water vulnerability research is the focus of water resources research recent days, and is an impor- tant method to assess the impact of natural and social-economic factors to the water resources systems, and also could be the basis of adaptation. In this paper, 8 indicators for water vulnerability were identified and categorized including the natural and social-economic factors. The weights of each indicator were calculated by the Analytic Hierarchy Process. The assessment was applied on China, and each province was one assess- ment unit. The result shows that southChinahas the lower water vulnerability, and the northChinahas the higher water vulnerability. The similar assessment results could be caused by various reasons. As the increase of water vulnerability, the social-economic indicators become overwhelming. According to the results, this paper has advanced some adaptations on improving the adaptive ability to climate change and water efficiency, applying the gross water utilization control, using new water resources and control the water pollution.
河流健康评价研究与进展
Research and Progress on River Health Assessment
 [PDF]

王超, , 李凌程
Journal of Water Resources Research (JWRR) , 2014, DOI: 10.12677/JWRR.2014.33025
Abstract:

人类对河流不合理的开发利用,能够导致河流生态环境及其结构功能的破坏,进一步威胁到人类社会的可持续发展。河流健康问题成为人类生存与可持续发展面临的重要问题。如何有效对河流健康开展评价与管理,成为水资源可持续利用和环境保护与管理的重要课题,对人与自然的和谐发展具有重要的意义。本文初步探讨了河流健康的概念、定义和内涵,概括了国内外河流健康的评价方法及国内外研究发展的状况。针对我国河流健康的发展现状,提出了一些评述和建议,认为河流健康涉及的要素比较多,也十分重要,尤其是生态环境监测与质量评价及其联系的生态水文学和水系统理论研究,今后应该开展长期的河流监控计划并建立全国性的河流健康评价的指南。
The long-time inappropriate exploitation of river resources has led to the damages of river ecosystem and structural dysfunction, threatening the sustainable development of society as a whole. The river health issues have emerged as a result. How to carry out river health assessment and river management is vital to the development of harmonious relationship between nature and human being. This review has discussed the connotation of river heath and summarized various methods of evaluating river health at home and abroad. Meanwhile, in view of the status of river health assessment in our country, some suggestions have been put forward that river monitoring plan should be carried out and nationwide river health assessment guidelines should be established in the future.

Management by Objectives (MBO) for Sci-tech Journals
论科技期刊工作的目标管理

,杨成
中国科技期刊研究 , 2002,
Abstract: 结合我国科技期刊工作的特点及当前的形势,以及目标管理模式的优势,阐明了 科技期刊工作中目标管理方法的适用性;并简要介绍了科技期刊目标管理过程及管理中应注意的问题:如目标制定的原则,建立目标管理的岗位目标责任制,科技期刊日常带来性工作与目标任务之间的关系,目标管理与弹性工作制相结合,防止随意性、片面性和简单化倾向;还阐明了在科技期刊目标管理实践中的重点;如在目标管理中要重视人才培养、绩效评估及支付等。指出对科技期刊工作的目标管理,要根据各期刊性质、内容、人员、组织结构的不同,采用不同方法,以便能更好地搞好
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