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Environmental and Occupational Risk Factors Effect to Arterial Hypertension: Correlation between Arterial Hypertension and Lead  [PDF]
D. Оyunbileg, I. Bolormаа, U. Tsolmon, О. Chimedsuren
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2015.32010

The main risk factors for hypertension include smoking, the consumption of alcohol, poor dietary habits, lack of exercise, and stress. Scientists have also linked exposure to lead as a risk factor for hypertension. Chemicals are fundamental negative factors for occupational health as they penetrate an organism through the respiratory tract in the state of vapors, gases, dust, and others. There is high correlation between the concentration of chemicals in the environment and time spent of exposure to the chemicals. Some chemicals compounds penetrate through the respiratory tract and irritate the upper respiratory track and lung lobes. They have different influences depending on their solubility. Lead has a harmful effect on organism when it is in higher doses than normal. It exerts an especially harmful effect upon the nervous and circulatory systems. Sources of environmental lead pollution are benzene, coal, paints containing lead, and some working conditions. A population based case controlling model of an analytic study was used. For the study data analysis SPSS 20.0 program were applied single and combined risk factors were accounted by regressive investigation method and results gained were expressed by odds ratio and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) p value. The goal is to assess the correlation of lead to arterial hypertension among miners of the Gobi region provinces. In the sampling we employed a random collection method with collection ratio of 1:2. One hundred miners with hypertension took part in the study. In the control group people without hypertension were assigned and they were of the same age and sex with the experimental group. Among the participants, those of working age had a high prevalence of hypertension and the disease is beginning to affect those of a younger age as well. 82% of those in the experimental group work in hard working conditions and 86% of them work for an average of 11.3 hours in noisy and dusty conditions. The increase of blood-lead content greatly depends on service length. Miners with arterial hypertension who worked for many years had a high content of lead in their blood. Lead content in the air outside of working places has a weak correlation (r = 0.3) with hypertension among those in the experimental group and was statistically significant (p = 0.007). With an increased blood-lead content, a risk for arterial hypertension (AH) increased two times (OR = 2.11 [95% CL; 1.52 - 2.94], p = 0.0001). But lead content in drinking water has an inversely associated with

Is Air Pollution a Risk Factor for Low Birth Weight in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia?  [PDF]
Gantuya Dorj, Angarmurun Dayan, Khuderchuluun Nanjid, Undram Lkhagvaa, Chimedsuren Оchir
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1100885
Abstract: Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia) is one of the most air polluted capital cities in the world, with ambient sulfide dioxide (SO2) and particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5 levels > 23 times World Health Organization (WHO) standards in winter. Several studies have examined the effects of air pollution on pregnancy, providing that exposure to ambient air pollutants is associated with poor birth outcome, such as low birth weight. Our study goal was to study the associations between air pollution exposures during pregnancy and low birth weight among all full-term births (gestational age 37 - 42 weeks) for a 6-year period (January 2008 through December 31, 2013) in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. In the study we recruited 160,676 singletons. We used a logistic regression adjusting for gestational age, parental education level, parity and infant age. The adjusted relative risk of low birth weight was 1.06 (95% CI = 1.01 - 1.12) for each inter-quartile increase in NO2 concentrations. The risk of low birth weight was increased to 1.04 (95% CI = 0.93 - 1.15) for CO, 1.02 (95% CI 0.97 - 1.05) for SO2 and 1.03 (95% CI 1.01 - 1.08) for PM10. Each inter-quartile increase of NO2 concentration during the first trimester reduced 10.74 gm of birth weight. SO2, CO and PM10 also decreased birth weight 7.62, 7.49, and 8.72 gm, respectively. Each inter-quartile increase of pollutants decreases baby weight up to 11 grams.
Financial Situation Analysis of Entities  [PDF]
Banzdai Sainjargal, Lombodorj Naranchimeg, Batjargal Khurelbaatar, Choigunsen Chimedsuren
iBusiness (IB) , 2020, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2020.121001
Abstract: The study aims to define the financial situation of Mongolian entities. The objective of research determines the nature of its trend and evaluates the role of accounting and its reporting by reviewing the accuracy and transparency of the reporting information by making analysis including core financial indicators. The data is based on the “Financial statements of the entities” issued by the Accounting policy department, Ministry of Finance of Mongolia and related statistical information. The significance of the study will be more useful to understand a Mongolia’s entities’ financial nature and make better economic decisions.
Breast Cancer Survival in Mongolian Women  [PDF]
D. Angarmurun, B. Batzorig, L. Undram, D. Gantuya, O. Chimedsuren, D. Avirmed
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1100396

Cancer is becoming an important cause of mortality in developing country year by year. During last 10 years 5% of all cancer cases in Mongolian women were accounted for breast cancer. The aim of our study was to determine survival in women with breast cancer in Mongolia. The data of morbidity and mortality on breast cancer were collected retrospectively and were used to analyze stages of the cancer and survival from the time of diagnosis to death depending on stages. During 2003-2012 years totally 1008 cases with breast cancer were registered in National Cancer Centre. The breast cancers had been coded and classified according to International Classification of dis-eases, 10th Revision (ICD 10). The frequency distribution of cancer patients was evaluated by age, place of residence and stage of diagnosis. In Mongolia in 2003-2012, there were 1008 cases of breast cancer diagnosed and 41 (4.1%), 212 (21%), 553 (54.9%) and 200 (19.8%) of them were diagnosed in Stage I, II, II and IV of the disease respectively. Among patients who died from the cancer there were 4 (2.9%), 17 (12.3%), 71 (51.4%) and 46 (33.3%) who died in Stage I, II, III and IV of the cancer respectively. Among all participants of the study some 3% of women with the breast cancer died within the first year of detection of the cancer and the rest 97% of them survived the first year. In the second year after detection of the cancer 34% of women died and 96% survived. But all women with breast cancer had died by the ninth year after detection of the cancer. In Mongolia only one quarter of breast cancer are diagnosed in the earlier stages (25.1%) of the disease. Therefore, there is a need for improving services for detection of breast cancer in earlier stages.

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