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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2133 matches for " échanges "
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The Frequency of Nail Changes and Disorders in Iraqi People above 50 Years Old  [PDF]
Azar H. Maluki, Alaa S. Al-Hulli
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications (JCDSA) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2016.64016
Abstract: Background: Nail changes associated with ageing are common in the elderly and include characteristic modifications of color, contour, growth, surface, thickness and histology. No cutaneous examination is complete without a careful clinical evaluation of the nails. Objective: The aim of present work is to assess the frequency of senile nail changes and disorders in Iraqi people above 50 years old compared with control age group (20 - 30 years old). Patients and methods: This case-controlled, cross-sectional study was performed in the outpatient clinic of Dermatology and Venereology Department at the Kufa College of Medicine Teaching Hospital in Najaf Province in the period from September 2010 to April 2011. The study included 200 subjects, of which 100 patients were above 50 years old (study group), and the other 100 subjects were from 20 - 30 years old (control group). A detailed history from each subject was recorded to detect the onset, duration and progression of nail changes and/or disorders, their occupation and any environmental exposure. A careful examination of the nails was carried out to assess the type of nail changes, site and symmetry. Any patient with systemic disease, dermatological disease or with suspected drug intake was excluded from the study. Results: The present work has shown that many nail changes were more frequent among older age individuals than younger age group with significant statistical difference (p = 0.043 - 0.000) like dull opaque appearance, rough lusterlessness, longitudinal ridging, altered thickness, ragged cuticle, altered contour, subungual hyperkeratosis and scaling nail folds. Chromonychia was not statistically significant (14% of study group versus 16% of the control) with p = 0.692. Longitudinal melanonychia was significantly higher in the study group (6% versus 0% of the control) with p = 0.013, while punctate leukonychia was significantly higher in the control group (16% versus 4% of study group) with p = 0.005. Conclusion: Some changes of the nail are significantly correlated with advanced age like dull opaque nails, rough lusterlessness, longitudinal ridging. Therefore, these signs can be regarded as indicative of ageing of healthy Iraqi people.
Mean and Interannual Variability of Maize and Soybean in Brazil under Global Warming Conditions  [PDF]
Flávio Justino, Evandro Chaves Oliveira, Rafael de ávila Rodrigues, Paulo Henrique Lopes Gon?alves, Paulo Jorge Oliveira Ponte Souza, Frode Stordal, José Marengo, Thieres G. da Silva, Rafael Coll Delgado, Douglas da Silva Lindemann, Luiz Claudio Costa
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2013.24024
Abstract:

Brazil is responsible for 27% of the world production of soybeans and 7% of maize. Mato Grosso and Para states in Brazil are among the largest producer. The viability to the cultivation of maize (Zea mays) and soybeans (Glycine max), for future climate scenarios (2070-2100, GHG) is evaluated based on crop modeling (DSSAT) forced by observational data and regional climate simulations (HadRM3). The results demonstrated that a substantial reduction in the yield in particular for maize may be expected for the end of the 21st century. Distinct results are found for soybeans. By applying the A2 climate changes scenario, soybean yield rises by up top 60% assuming optimum soil treatment and no water stress. However, by analyzing the inter-annual variability of crop yields for both maize and soybean, could be demonstrated larger year-to-year fluctuations under greenhouse warming conditions as compared to current conditions, leading to very low productivity by the end of the 21st century. Therefore, these Brazilian states do not appear to be economically suitable for a future cultivation of maize and soybeans. Improved adaptation measures and soil management may however partially alleviate the negative climate change effect.

Changing Characteristics on Dust Storm in Jiangsu  [PDF]
Zhaotang Shang, Lin Cheng, Qingping Yu, Lang He, Zhigang Lu
Open Journal of Air Pollution (OJAP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojap.2012.13009
Abstract: Based on observation data of dust storm for the years 1960-2006 from weather stations across Jiangsu, this essay provides a statistical analysis on the characteristics and trends, including the timeframes and regions of the incidences of four weather phenomena: sandstorm, blowing sand, floating dust and haze in an effort to better understand the trend of dust storm changes in Jiangsu Province, China. The result indicates that, on average, the incidences of sandstorm, indi- cated with the total number of days in a year in Jiangsu is low and on a declining trend. With the improvement of the environment, no sandstorm has been observed for many years. In general, those of blowing sand and floating dust have been reducing, and showing a significant improvement during the recent years. What should be noted, however, is the accelerated increase in haze incidences, particularly, in Southern Jiangsu.
Changes in Personality Caused by Neurocysticercosis  [PDF]
Cláudio Garcia Capit?o
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2016.71011
Abstract: This article aims to discuss theoretically changes in personality aspects caused by neurocysticercosis. An unsystematic narrative literature review aiming to present an open issue was used as research technique. Neurocysticercosis is a disease whose infestation usually depends on poor hygienic, health and education conditions. The infested patient has a lower self-esteem in addition to numerous psychological, medical and social consequences. It directly affects the ego, weakening the personality in its structure, which may cause a significant social and occupational deterioration or a deterioration of other important aspects of life.
Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes (TLCs) Improve the Quality of Life in the Elderly with Hypertension  [PDF]
Kuslan Sunandar, Tati Suheti, Achmad Husni
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2016.69077
Abstract: Hypertension was one of the most serious diseases that affect many people in Indonesia in the age group of 18 years old and above. Hypertension can affect the quality of life, especially for the elderly, so the quality of life for the elderly will be disrupted and the life expectancy of elderly people will also decrease. Elderly people who have a good quality of life will have inner satisfaction, which can be judged from the physical, psychological and social aspects. This study only measured the quality of life of physical dimensions, especially blood pressure (systolic and diastolic). Improved quality of life of people with hypertension can be pursued with behavioral changes that increase blood pressure. One way can be given is the Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes (TLCs). The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes (TLCs) on improving the quality of life of the elderly with hypertension in Puskesmas Pasirkaliki Bandung. This research is a quasi-experimental design with two group pre-post tests with control group. The statistical test used Wilcoxon test and Mann Whitney with a standard error of 5% or α = 0.05, because the data distribution was not normal. In the total sample, there were 52 respondents who had hypertension. Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes (TLCs) was done once a week for 4 weeks. The results prove that there is a statistically significant difference in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (quality of life) (Z = -4.415; Z = -4.208 p < 0.05). It is advisable for people with hypertension to expect to remain consistent in the Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes (TLCs) in their activity of daily life.
Research on Talent Policy Changes in Contemporary China  [PDF]
Shenglong Wang
Open Journal of Business and Management (OJBM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2017.53048
Abstract: The talent policy in contemporary China has experienced several development periods like restoration and reestablishment, market transformation and strategic propelling, featuring constant evolution with the conflicts and contradictions between its dependence on old path of planned system and its transition into the path suitable for socialist market economic system. Meanwhile, the talent policy in contemporary China is an outcome of the combination between induced system changes and mandatory system changes. The talent policy changes in contemporary China are inherently driven by talent problems, guided by the value of policy community and finally determined by interest differentiation of actors. And the main problems in the changes of talent policy lie in its fragmentation due to lack of systematization and continuity, so it is of top priority to formulate an overall basic talent law.
Changes in the Shoreline Position Caused by Natural Processes for Coastline of Marsa Alam – Hamata, Red Sea, Egypt  [PDF]
Khalid Dewidar
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2011.24055
Abstract: The probability of storms and ice-drift events and their impact on coasts is expected to increase as result of climate change. Multi-years shoreline mapping is considered a valuable task for coastal monitoring and assessment. This paper presents shoreline maps illustrating the shoreline erosion accretion pattern in the coastal area between Marsa Alam – Hamata of Red Sea coastline by using different sources of remote sensing data. In the present study, Landsat MSS (1972), Landsat TM (1990), Landsat ETM+ (1998, 2000) and Terra Aster (2007) satellite images were used. In this study, two techniques were used to estimate rate of shoreline retreat. The first technique is corresponding to the formation of automated shoreline positions and the second one is for estimating rate of shoreline change based on data of remote sensing applying Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) software. In this study, the End Point Rate (EPR) was calculated by dividing the distance of shoreline movement by the time elapsed between the earliest and latest measurements at each transect. Alongshore rate changes shows that there are changes of erosion and accretion pattern due to coastal processes and climate changes.
Investigation Flow Depth and Flow Speed Changes in the Karun River  [PDF]
Mehrab Yusefi Hagivar, Mehdi Behdarvandi Askar, Shariat Moalemi
Open Journal of Marine Science (OJMS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojms.2017.72021
Abstract: In the present study, the Karun River in Khuzestan province in Iran is that is somehow considered the river with the most water in the country was examined. To examine the depth and speed of the flow, which undoubtedly have the greatest impact on the environment and ecosystem of the river, two-dimensional simulation by CCHE2D model was used. In this study, it was observed that, firstly, the changes of depth and velocity along the river have good coordination and the highest changes were observed in the meander and arches. Moreover, due to using two-dimensional model, there is the possibility of examining changes of parameters in the longitudinal and transverse direction that shows the two-dimensional model is an efficient and powerful model in studying river flows.
Modelling Weather and Climate Related Fire Risk in Africa  [PDF]
Flávio Justino, F. Stordal, A. Clement, E. Coppola, A. Setzer, D. Brumatti
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2013.24022
Abstract:

Based on regional climate model simulations conducted with RegCM3 and NCEP Reanalyses, the impact of anomalous climate forcing on environmental vulnerability to wildfire occurrence in Africa is analyzed by applying the Potential Fire Index (PFI). Three different model-based vegetation distributions were analyzed for a present day simulation (1980-2000) and for the end of the twenty-first century (2080-2100). It was demonstrated that under current climate and vegetation conditions the PFI is able to reproduce the principal fire risk areas which are concentrated in the Sahelian region from December to March, and in subtropical Africa from July to October. Predicted future changes in vegetation lead to substantial modifications in magnitude of the PFI, particularly for the southern and subtropical region of Africa. The impact of climate changes other than through vegetation, was found to induce more moderate changes in the fire risk, and increase the area vulnerable to fire occurrence in particular in sub-Saharan. The PFI reproduces areas with high fire activity, indicating that this index is a useful tool for forecasting fire occurrence worldwide, because it is based on regionally dependent vegetation and climate factors.

Indicator of Agriculture Vulnerability to Climatic Extremes. A Conceptual Model with Case Study for the Northeast Brazil  [PDF]
Bruce Kelly N. Silva, Paulo Sergio Lucio
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2014.42034
Abstract:

The Northeast Brazil (NEB) is known for its temporal and spatial variability of precipitation. Several studies have investigated this variability in order to understand the damaging episodes such as droughts and floods. The phenomenon of drought in the NEB is a complex topic due to affecting millions of people and being the object of study in several fields of knowledge. One way to try to argue about this phenomenon is through the concept of vulnerability. The “operability” of this broad concept in natural disasters is a complex task. In order to measure an indicator of vulnerability it is necessary large amount of data from different areas of knowledge, among which include: meteorology, socio-environmental, economic, public health, among other areas. The main objective of this study is to create an index of vulnerability to climate extremes (drought and flood) for the NEB and to compare this rate with those found in the scientific literature. The data that will be used in this study are from ANA (Agência Nacional das águas), IBGE (Instituto Brasileiro de Georgrafia e Estatística), and Ministry of National integration.

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