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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 10952 matches for " <i>Opuntia dillenii</i> "
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Evaluation of the Opuntia dillenii as Natural Coagulant in Water Clarification: Case of Treatment of Highly Turbid Surface Water  [PDF]
Yéwêgnon Alima Esther Irma Nougbodé, Cokou Pascal Agbangnan, Alain Yaya Koudoro, Comlan Achille Dèdjiho, Martin Pépin A?na, Daouda Mama, Dominique Codjo Koko Sohounhloué
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.512133
Abstract:

This study was performed in laboratory scale and consisted of the using of aqueous Opuntia dillenii solution for the clarification of very turbid surface water (Turbidities varying between 186 NTU and 418 NTU). This plant from Cactaceae family was used as a natural coagulant for the different clarification tests. The preliminary phytochemical Screening of the powder of this plant showed that it contains tanins, saponins and mucilages. Flocculation and coagulation tests showed that Opuntia dillenii can be used in highly turbid water treatment. The removal efficiency varied from 89% to 93% for the turbidity and suspended solids, and from 4% to 15% for the obvious color in water when we used the optimum values of this natural coagulant (1 mL to 10 mL). The successive addition of this natural coagulant and the lime, gave a better elimination of turbidity and suspended solids, and a good reduction for the color. The removal efficiency of the turbidity and suspended solids became more than 95% and the one of the color between 67% and 94%.

Antibacterial Effects of Extracts of Two Types of Red Sea Algae  [PDF]
Awatif Al-Judaibi
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2014.22012
Abstract: Introduction: Intestinal bacteria are exposed many external influences, including drugs, causing the emergence of strains resistant to the effects of antibiotics. Consequently, the discovery of new antibiotics that affect resistant strains is required. Marine algae offer a source of renewable natural compounds with antimicrobial effects. Therefore, the aim of this study was to detect some of these compounds and examine their impact on enteric bacteria. Methodology: Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter aerogenes were tested with extracts of Turbinaria triquetra and Halimeda opuntia extracted with methanol, ethanol, petroleum ether, or dimethyl formamide solvents. We measured bacterial growth inhibition, the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs), and potassium leakage, and analyzed the bacterial cells with scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Results: The T. triquetra extract produced with methanol strongly affected the bacteria tested. When the results for T. triquetra and H. opuntia were compared with those of omacillin, the T. triquetra and H. opuntia extracts in most solvents were more effective than the antibiotic. Differences in the bacterial growth inhibition and MICs depended on the type of alga and the solvent used. At the end of the incubation period, potassium leakage had increased by 62.98% for E. coli, 61.24% for S. typhi, 61.32% for S. dysenteriae, 64.02% for K. pneumoniae, and 63.10% for E. aerogenes when treated T. triquetra. Conclusion: Turbinaria triquetra extracted with methanol strongly affected the growth of the bacteria tested. Therefore, it is a potential source of natural antibacterial compounds.
Protective Effect of Phenolic-Rich Extracts from Different Parts of Opuntia joconostle Fruit against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Oxidative Stress in Mice  [PDF]
Obed Osorio-Esquivel, Alicia Ortiz-Moreno, Julieta Herrera-Martínez, María Dolores Hernández-Navarro
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2013.43A005
Abstract:

Opuntia joconostle fruit is a rich source of biocompounds such as polyphenols including gallic, vanilic, 4-hidroxybenzoic, cafeic, and syringic acids, catechin, epicatechin, rutin, and vanillin, besides betalains. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of supplementation polyphenols-rich extracts from different parts of Opuntia joconostle against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress in a mouse model. The animals were treated orally with polyphenols-rich extracts at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg BW for 30 consecutive days. On day 30th the mice received carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) as hepatoxic agent. Biochemical evaluations were carried out 24 h after induction of the oxidative stress. Data showed that methanolic extracts from different parts of Opuntia joconostle exerting protective effect against the CCl4-induced oxidative stress in mice. Histology examination revealed that the damage decreased in groups treated with polyphenols-rich extracts compared to the group that did not receive any treatment. Opuntia joconostle fruit contains many phenolic compounds, flavonoids and betalains. The protective effect of extracts may be related to the phenolic composition and also by a counteraction with other compounds, such as betalains and flavonoids that increase their antioxidant effect.

Endomycorrhizal Fungi and Opuntia ficus-indica Seed Germination on a Lunar Regolith Simulant  [PDF]
Gertrud Konings-Dudin, Michelle J. Butcher, Jesus A. Castor-Macías, Benjamin Kohanloo, Michelle Garcia
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2014.410068
Abstract:

Endomycorrhizal fungi play an important role in the survival of plants on poor soils. Planting seeds into lunar soil at a lunar colony will be a challenge for seeds of any plant. The seeds will need a special microbial “tool kit” that will help them germinate and the young seedlings establish themselves. In this study, seeds of the prickly pear cactus, Opuntia ficus-indica, were chosen to examine the presence of fungus spores in the soil, inside the seeds and after germination in the rhizosphere, roots and other tissues of the young seedlings. The nutrient poor lunar regolith simulant JSC-1A was used as autoclaved or untreated growth medium. The mycorrhizal fungus Trichoderma viride was predominantly identified on the roots of new seedlings. This fungus also demonstrated the strongest effect on the germination rate of the seeds in comparison with other fungi isolated from the rhizosphere of Opuntia plants. T. viride was not detected within seeds and also not within seedlings, besides the root tips, whereas an arbuscular mycorrhizal Glomus species was seed-borne and present throughout most of the seedling. A close association between T. viride and a Glomus species associated with O. ficus-indica

Evaluation of Hypoglycemic Activity of Opuntia dillenii Haw Fruit Juice in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
Inas Z.A. Abdallah
Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine , 2008,
Abstract: Background: Opuntia dillenii Haw fruit is used in folk medicine as an antidiabetic agent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible curative role of O. dillenii fruit juice using the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The nutritive value of the edible portion of the fruit was also assessed. Results: The results showed that O. dillenii fruit is a rich source of fiber, carbohydrates, vitamins B1, B2 and C, in addition to the minerals, Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ca, and Mg. Biological results showed that intraperitoneal injection with STZ caused highly significant reduction in body weight gain% , highly significant elevation in blood glucose concentration accompanied by significant reduction in liver glycogen cotent as compared with control group. Diabetic rats also revealed significant elevation in lipid peroxide (MDA) level, highly significant elevation in total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerols (TAG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) concurrent with highly significant reduction in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as compared with control group. Oral administration of O. dillenii juice had no effect on normal rats. Meanwhile, oral administration of O. dillenii juice to diabetic rats induced siginficant improvement in body weight gain % and lipid profile, it reduced significantly blood glucose and MDA levels as compared with non treated diabetic group. Histopathological investigation of the pancreatic tissue of STZ-diabetic rats represented the presence of necrosis, edema and congested blood vessels in the islets of Langerhans cells. O. dillenii fruit juice treatment overcome the previous changes, the majority of the cells tend to be normal.The improvement in the cells of Langerhans islets may explain the antidiabetic effect of the fruit juice under study. It also may improve the insulin receptors of -cells. Conclusion: It could be concluded that O. dillenii fruit juice had a potent hypoglycemic activity, this effect may be attributed to its antioxidant activity and its high content of chromium which was proved in this study. Therefore, it could be recommended that O. dillenii should be ingested as fresh fruit to diabetic and hypercholesterolemic patients beside the usual therapy
Detection of Escherichia coli and Harmful Enteric Bacterial Pathogens in Domestic Hand-Dug Wells in the Cuvelai Etosha Basin of Namibia  [PDF]
B. McBenedict, H. Wanke, B. M. Hang’ombe, P. M. Chimwamurombe
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2018.84020
Abstract: The Cuvelai Etosha Basin of Namibia is characterised by complex aquifer systems with multi-layered aquifers and various water qualities. Some parts of the basin have been covered with a pipeline system that supplies purified surface water from the Kunene River. Locations that lack a pipeline system utilise hand-dug wells as a source of drinking water. These wells draw water from shallow perched aquifers and are not protected from surface contamination nor is the water quality monitored. Sanitised water supply is relevant for the growth and development of societies and is a priority of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. A bacteriological water quality study aimed at investigating the presence and seasonal variation of; Citrobacter, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Proteus, Salmonella, Shigella, and Pseudomonas species was conducted on 44 hand-dug wells in the Ohangwena and Omusati regions of the Cuvelai Etosha Basin. Samples were collected from both the wet and dry seasons. Results disclosed the presence of Salmonella, Shigella, Citrobacter, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Proteus, and Pseudomonas species. Chi-square confirmed a significant seasonal variation in Salmonella (P < 0.05) and Shigella (P < 0.05) species, and no significant seasonal variation in Citrobacter (P > 0.05), Escherichia (P > 0.05), Klebsiella (P > 0.05), Entero-bacter (P > 0.05), Proteus (P > 0.05) and Pseudomonas (P > 0.05) species. Water from these hand-dug wells is not safe for drinking unless it is subjected to appropriate treatment. It is recommended that hand-dug wells should be properly constructed at safe distances from contaminating structures such as pit latrines and routinely assessed for pathogens, and the water should be sanitized prior to consumption.
Prevalence of Hydatid Cysts in Slaughtered Animals from Different Areas of Libya  [PDF]
Layla O. Elmajdoub, Wahab A. Rahman
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2015.51001
Abstract: The present study reports on the infection rates of hydatid cysts in both sexes and different age groups of sheep, camels and cattle from government abattoirs in different parts of Libya. An infection rate of 10.06% was recovered among 32,971 all ruminants (sheep, camels and cattle). Out 25314 of sheep, 2659 (10.52%) were infected. Out 7496 of camels, 940 (12.54%) were infected. Out 161 of cattle, 17 (10.56%) were infected. As regards to the infected organs, liver was seen to be the most commonly infected organ in sheep and cattle (46.03%; 52.94%, respectively), but in camels, it was the lung (55.21%). The fertility rates of hydatid cysts were 80% in sheep, 84% in camels and 0% in cattle. In sheep, the fertility rate of liver hydatid cysts was higher than that in other organs (53.85%), but in camels, the fertility rate in the lung was higher than that of other infected organs (66.7%). Thus, the incidence of echinococcosis in slaughtered livestock is noticeably high and denotes some hazards in control measures in Libyan abattoirs.
Purinergic P2Y Receptors Are Involved in Xenopus Head Formation  [PDF]
Ayano Harata, Haruka Nishida, Akiha Nishihara, Chikara Hashimoto
CellBio (CellBio) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cellbio.2016.54004
Abstract: P2Y receptors belong to the family of G protein-coupled receptors and are activated by nucleotides in the extracellular space. We showed that Xenopus P2Y1 and P2Y11 were expressed in the dorsal marginal zone from early gastrula stage and enriched in the central nervous system from neurula stages. They were expressed in the prospective head region during early development. Knockdown of P2Y1 and P2Y11 caused head malformation, such as small eyes, brain atrophy, and defect in cartilage tissues, as well as reduced expression of neural, placode, and neural crest markers. Furthermore, the expression of neural plate and epidermal markers was affected by P2Y1 or P2Y11 depletion at early neurula stage, suggesting that P2Y1 or P2Y11 might be required for the neural induction. Our findings suggested that P2Y receptors might be involved in distinguishing between neural and non-neural fates. The results also suggested that P2Y1 or P2Y11 could play a role in neural induction and/or maintenance of neural tissues in the head formation processes.
Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori vacA, cagA, dupA and oipA Genotypes in Patients with Gastric Disease  [PDF]
Mayara Luciana Sallas, Jessica Lima Melchiades, Luanna Munhoz Zabaglia, Juliana Ribeiro do Prado Moreno, Wilson Aparecido Orcini, Elizabeth Suchi Chen, Marilia de Arruda Cardoso Smith, Spencer Luiz Marques Pay?o, Lucas Trevizani Rasmussen
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2017.71001
Abstract: Gastric diseases such as chronic gastritis and gastric cancer are most commonly caused by virulence factors of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), such as the vacA, cagA, dupA and oipA genes. Therefore, this study investigated the prevalence and the combination of these virulence factors from patients with gastric diseases. The endoscopic biopsies were obtained from 516 patients with gastric symptoms, 101 of which were from patients with normal gastric tissue, 365 of which were from patients with chronic gastritis, and 50 of which were from patients with gastric cancer. H. pylori and the virulence factors were detected by PCR. The oipA gene exhibited an increased risk for chronic gastritis (p = 0.0296), and the vacA gene demonstrated a risk for gastric cancer from chronic gastritis (p = 0.0002). Based on the combination of the virulence factors, cagA, vacA, dupA and oipA genes exhibited a high prevalence in patients with chronic gastritis and gastric cancer. The cagA+/dupA+ genotype demonstrated a significant correlation in patients with normal gastric mucosa (p = 0.0278). In the chronic gastritis group, a significant association was observed between the cagA+ and the vacA s1m1 genotypes (p < 0.0001), the cagA+/dupA+ genotypes (p = 0.0183), the dupA+/oipA+ genotypes (p < 0.0001), and the dupA+/vacA s1m1 genotypes (p = 0.0008) genotypes. This study revealed a high prevalence of the combination of cagA, vacA, dupA, and oipA genes, which contributed to the risk of developing gastroduodenal diseases. Furthermore, this is the first study to reveal a high prevalence of the oipA gene in H. pylori isolates in Brazil.
FEATURES AND INNOVATION POLICY CHALLENGES OF CIS ОСОБЕННОСТИ И ПРОБЛЕМЫ ИННОВАЦИОННОЙ ПОЛИТИКИ СТРАН СНГ ОСОБЛИВОСТ ТА ПРОБЛЕМИ ННОВАЦ ЙНО ПОЛ ТИКИ КРА Н СНД
В.С. БУДК?Н
Strategy of Ukraine : Economics, Sociology, Law , 2011,
Abstract: The article analyzes the main trends of the innovation policy of the CIS countries, the peculiarities of its implementation for, during and after the economic crisis of 2008 – 2009. Defined reasons for the lack of largescale innovation activities in most countries of the region. В статье проанализированы основные направления инновационной политики стран СНГ, особенности ее проведения до, во время и после экономического кризиса 2008-2009 годов. Определены причины отсутствия масштабных инновационных мероприятий в большинстве государств этого региона. В статт проанал зован основн напрямки нновац йно пол тики кра н СНД, особливост проведення до, п д час та п сля економ чно кризи 2008-2009 рок в. Визначен причини в дсутност масштабних нновац йних заход в у б льшост держав цього рег ону.
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