Abstract:
In the standard model of particle physics there are three species of neutrinos whose masses were originally assumed to be zero. But the discovery of solar and atmospheric neutrino oscillations indicates that neutrinos are massive and lepton flavors are mixed. In this brief review we first give an overview of our current knowledge about the neutrino mass spectrum and lepton flavor mixing angles, and then comment on the seesaw mechanisms which allow us to understand the origin of tiny neutrino masses. We pay particular attention to the nearly tri-bi-maximal neutrino mixing pattern and the Friedberg-Lee symmetry to derive it. A relatively promising possibility of detecting hot and warm neutrino dark matter in the Universe will also be discussed.

Abstract:
To elucidate the relation between optimum solubility and temperature,the critical assessment of the experimental data of solubility of Pb in liquid Fe,or of Fe in liquid Pb,have been made.By combining these relations with the liquids curve calculated from Clausius-Clapeyron equation,the composition and temperature of the monotectic point on the Fe-Pb phase diagram have been esti- mated.Thus,an Fe-Pb phase diagram may be drawn on the basis of above men- tioned studies.

Abstract:
I argue that the observed flavor structures of leptons and quarks might imply the existence of certain flavor symmetries. The latter should be a good starting point to build realistic models towards deeper understanding of the fermion mass spectra and flavor mixing patterns. The \mu-\tau permutation symmetry serves for such an example to interpret the almost maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing angle (\theta_23 \sim 45^\circ) and the strongly suppressed CHOOZ neutrino mixing angle (\theta_13 < 10^\circ). In this talk I like to highlight a new kind of flavor symmetry, the Friedberg-Lee symmetry, for the effective Majorana neutrino mass operator. Luo and I have shown that this symmetry can be broken in an oblique way, such that the lightest neutrino remains massless but an experimentally-favored neutrino mixing pattern is achievable. We get a novel prediction for \theta_13 in the CP-conserving case: \sin\theta_13 = \tan\theta_12 |(1- \tan\theta_23)/ (1+ \tan\theta_{23})|. Our scenario can simply be generalized to accommodate CP violation and be combined with the seesaw mechanism. Finally I stress the importance of probing possible effects of \mu-\tau symmetry breaking either in terrestrial neutrino oscillation experiments or with ultrahigh-energy cosmic neutrino telescopes.

Abstract:
The observation of neutrino oscillations requires new physics beyond the standard model (SM). A SM-like gauge theory with p lepton families can be extended by introducing q heavy right-handed Majorana neutrinos but preserving its SU(2)_L x U(1)_Y gauge symmetry. The overall neutrino mass matrix M turns out to be a symmetric (p+q) x (p+q) matrix. Given p>q, the rank of M is in general equal to 2q, corresponding to 2q non-zero mass eigenvalues. The existence of (p-q) massless left-handed Majorana neutrinos is an exact consequence of the model, independent of the usual approximation made in deriving the Type-I seesaw relation between the effective p x p light Majorana neutrino mass matrix M_\nu and the q x q heavy Majorana neutrino mass matrix M_R. In other words, the numbers of massive left- and right-handed neutrinos are fairly matched. A good example to illustrate this seesaw fair play rule is the minimal seesaw model with p=3 and q=2, in which one massless neutrino sits on the unbalanced seesaw.

Abstract:
A realistic medium- or long-baseline neutrino experiment may suffer from terrestrial matter effects which are likely to contaminate the genuine T-violating asymmetry between \nu_\alpha \to \nu_\beta and \nu_\beta \to \nu_\alpha oscillations. With the help of the commutators of lepton mass matrices in matter, we show that this kind of contamination is negligible for a variety of experiments provided the neutrino beam energy E and the baseline length L satisfy the condition 10^{-7} (L/km)^2 (GeV/E) << 1.

Abstract:
If the massive neutrinos are the Majorana particles, how to pin down the Majorana CP-violating phases will eventually become an unavoidable question relevant to the future neutrino experiments. We argue that a study of neutrino-antineutrino oscillations will greatly help in this regard, although the issue remains purely academic at present. In this work we first derive the probabilities and CP-violating asymmetries of neutrino-antineutrino oscillations in the three-flavor framework, and then illustrate their properties in two special cases: the normal neutrino mass hierarchy with m_1 = 0 and the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy with m_3 = 0. We demonstrate the significant contributions of the Majorana phases to the CP-violating asymmetries, even in the absence of the Dirac phase.

Abstract:
I give an overview of some basic properties of massive neutrinos. The first part of this talk is devoted to three fundamental questions about three known neutrinos and to their flavor issues -- the mass spectrum, mixing pattern and CP violation. The second part of this talk is to highlight a few hot topics at the frontiers of neutrino physics and neutrino astrophysics, including the naturalness and testability of TeV seesaw mechanisms at the LHC, effects of non-standard interactions on neutrino oscillations, flavor distributions of ultrahigh-energy cosmic neutrinos at neutrino telescopes, collective flavor oscillations of supernova neutrinos, flavor effects in thermal leptogenesis, the GSI anomaly and Moessbauer neutrino oscillations, and so on. I finally make some concluding remarks for the road ahead.

Abstract:
The evidence for neutrino oscillations implies that three neutrino flavors (\nu_e, \nu_\mu, \nu_\tau) must have different mass states (\nu_1, \nu_2, \nu_3). The most popular idea of generating tiny masses of \nu_i is to introduce three heavy Majorana neutrinos N_i (for i = 1, 2, 3) into the standard model and implement the seesaw mechanism. In this approach the neutrino mixing matrix V appearing in the charged current interactions of \nu_i is not unitary, and the strength of unitarity violation of V is associated with the matrix R which describes the strength of charged current interactions of N_i. We present an explicit parametrization of the correlation between V and R in terms of nine rotation angles and nine phase angles, which can be measured or constrained in the precision neutrino oscillation experiments and by exploring possible signatures of N_i at the LHC and ILC. Two special but viable scenarios, the Type-I seesaw model with two heavy Majorana neutrinos and the Type-II seesaw model with one heavy Majorana neutrino and one Higgs triplet, are taken into account to illustrate the simplified V-R correlation. The implications of R \neq 0 on the low-energy neutrino phenomenology are also discussed. In particular, we demonstrate that the non-unitarity of V is possible to give rise to an appreciable CP-violating asymmetry between \nu_\mu -> \nu_\tau and \bar{\nu}_\mu -> \bar{\nu}_\tau oscillations with short or medium baselines.

Abstract:
Radiotherapy plays a pivotal role in the treatment for lung cancer. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) which predicts tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment response may also has effect on radiation response. NSCLC harboring kinase-domain mutations in EGFR exhibits enhanced radio-sensitivity due to dramatically diminished capacity to resolve radiation-induced DSBs (DNA double-strand breaks) associating with the inefficiency of EGFR nuclear translocation. Recently, several preliminary clinical studies show certain efficacy of concurrent EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors and radiotherapy. However its further response in EGFR-mutated NSCLC is unclear. The correlation between EGFR mutation genotype and the radiotherapy response and clinical outcome is worthy of further study.

Abstract:
We propose a novel neutrino mixing pattern in terms of only two small integers 1 and 2 together with their square roots and the imaginary number $i$. This ansatz is referred to as the "tetra-maximal" mixing because it can be expressed as a product of four rotation matrices, whose mixing angles are all \pi/4 in the complex plane. It predicts \theta_{12} = \arctan(2-\sqrt{2}) \approx 30.4^\circ, \theta_{13} = \arcsin[(\sqrt{2}-1)/(2\sqrt{2})] \approx 8.4^\circ, \theta_{23} = 45^\circ and \delta =90^\circ in the standard parametrization, and the Jarlskog invariant of leptonic CP violation is found to be {\cal J} = 1/32. These results are compatible with current data and can soon be tested in a variety of neutrino oscillation experiments. Implications of the tetra-maximal neutrino mixing on the decays of doubly-charged Higgs bosons H^{\pm\pm} -> l^\pm_\alpha l^\pm_\beta (for \alpha, \beta = e, \mu, \tau) are also discussed in the triplet seesaw mechanism at the TeV scale, which will be explored at the upcoming LHC.