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OALib Journal期刊

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匹配条件: “ Robert W. Rand” ,找到相关结果约108853条。
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Health Canada’s Wind Turbine Noise and Health Study—A Review Exploring Research Challenges, Methods, Limitations and Uncertainties of Some of the Findings  [PDF]
Carmen M. Krogh, Anne Dumbrille, Robert Y. McMurtry, Richard James, Robert W. Rand, Michael A. Nissenbaum, Jeffery J. Aramini, Stephen E. Ambrose
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105046
Abstract: Background: Risk of harm associated with wind turbines is debated globally. Some people living or working in proximity to wind turbines report adverse health effects such as sleep disturbance, noise annoyance, and diminished quality of life. Due to public concern, Health Canada announced its wind turbine noise and health study which included subjective and objective measurements. Findings were published between 2014 and 2016. In 2018, Health Canada published clarifications regarding the design and interpretation of study conclusions. Methods: Methods and subjective/objective findings were reviewed. Peer reviewed publications, conference presentations, judicial proceedings, government documents, and other sources were evaluated and considered in context with advanced methods for investigating reports of adverse health effects. Objectives: To review and explore some of the research challenges, methods, strengths and limitations of findings and conclusions. To participate in scientific dialogue and contribute towards an understanding of reported health risks associated with wind turbine noise. Results: Wind turbine human health research is challenged by numerous variables. Knowledge gaps and individual human and wind turbine variables are identified. Strengths and advisories of limitations are considered and acknowledged. Health Canada’s advisories that its study design does not permit any conclusions about causality and results may not be generalized beyond the sample taken in Canada are supported. Enhanced methods for investigating health outcomes are proposed including establishing referral resources within medical facilities for physicians. It is proposed staffing of the resource center include multidisciplinary teams of physicians, epidemiologists, acousticians and other specialists to investigate suspected wind turbine adverse health effects. Discussion: A review and appraisal of some of the research challenges associated with wind turbine human health research are presented. Given the identified methods, research/knowledge gaps, and limitations and cautionary advisories, Health Canada’s results should be carefully considered when predicting or protecting from health risks of wind turbine noise.
Teaching Fluent Handwriting Remediates Many Reading-Related Learning Disabilities  [PDF]
Rowe A. Young, Robert V. Rose, Rand Nelson
Creative Education (CE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2015.616177
Abstract: One of the most vexing educational problems in children is the inability to learn to read. Recently it has been shown that the inability to write skillfully imposes great limits on a child’s ability to learn to read. In this paper, information from multiple sources and studies will be reviewed. All of the sources imply a physical (movement) issue is part of the learning problem and emphasize the importance of teaching handwriting skills. Many schools have eliminated all priority and time for instruction of handwriting and college methods courses for teacher training rarely touch on hand-writing. The goal herein is to review, for educators and parents, a collection of evidence which strongly indicates that instruction of physical approach skills (i.e., pencil-hold, paper and arm positioning, and body posture) are extremely important. Without identification and correction, maladaptive hand, wrist and arm positions defeat the emergence of fluency and lend to “Reversed Positioning Sensation” (RPS) an invisible condition that affects many students. It is now clear that for RPS children, these skills are critical for literacy to develop. Educators should know that teaching skills for fluent handwriting can be a powerful intervention for children struggling with literacy; and successful instruction in primary classrooms may well prevent development of attention problems and written language disabilities.
Spink2 Modulates Apoptotic Susceptibility and Is a Candidate Gene in the Rgcs1 QTL That Affects Retinal Ganglion Cell Death after Optic Nerve Damage
Joel A. Dietz, Margaret E. Maes, Shuang Huang, Brian S. Yandell, Cassandra L. Schlamp, Angela D. Montgomery, R. Rand Allingham, Michael A. Hauser, Robert W. Nickells
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093564
Abstract: The Rgcs1 quantitative trait locus, on mouse chromosome 5, influences susceptibility of retinal ganglion cells to acute damage of the optic nerve. Normally resistant mice (DBA/2J) congenic for the susceptible allele from BALB/cByJ mice exhibit susceptibility to ganglion cells, not only in acute optic nerve crush, but also to chronic inherited glaucoma that is characteristic of the DBA/2J strain as they age. SNP mapping of this QTL has narrowed the region of interest to 1 Mb. In this region, a single gene (Spink2) is the most likely candidate for this effect. Spink2 is expressed in retinal ganglion cells and is increased after optic nerve damage. This gene is also polymorphic between resistant and susceptible strains, containing a single conserved amino acid change (threonine to serine) and a 220 bp deletion in intron 1 that may quantitatively alter endogenous expression levels between strains. Overexpression of the different variants of Spink2 in D407 tissue culture cells also increases their susceptibility to the apoptosis-inducing agent staurosporine in a manner consistent with the differential susceptibility between the DBA/2J and BALB/cByJ strains.
Laser-Based Fabrication of Nanofoam inside a Hollow Capillary  [PDF]
Alexander F. Courtier, James A. Grant-Jacob, Rand Ismaeel, Daniel J. Heath, Gilberto Brambilla, William J. Stewart, Robert W. Eason, Ben Mills
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2017.812060
Abstract: Highly porous nanofoam can be fabricated via multiphoton ablation of a material by raster-scanning femtosecond laser pulses over the material surface. Here, we show the fabrication of nanofoam on the inside surface of a hollow silica capillary that has an inner and outer diameter of 640 and 700 μm respectively. A thin layer of nanofoam was fabricated over ~70% of the inner surface of the capillary. Ray-tracing simulations were used to determine the positional corrections required to account for refraction on the curved surface and also to explain the inability to fabricate nanofoam on the side walls of the capillary.
Ordered direct implicational basis of a finite closure system
Kira Adaricheva,J. B. Nation,Robert Rand
Computer Science , 2011, DOI: 10.1016/j.dam.2012.08.031
Abstract: Closure system on a finite set is a unifying concept in logic programming, relational data bases and knowledge systems. It can also be presented in the terms of finite lattices, and the tools of economic description of a finite lattice have long existed in lattice theory. We present this approach by describing the so-called D-basis and introducing the concept of ordered direct basis of an implicational system. A direct basis of a closure operator, or an implicational system, is a set of implications that allows one to compute the closure of an arbitrary set by a single iteration. This property is preserved by the D-basis at the cost of following a prescribed order in which implications will be attended. In particular, using an ordered direct basis allows to optimize the forward chaining procedure in logic programming that uses the Horn fragment of propositional logic. One can extract the D-basis from any direct unit basis S in time polynomial in the size of S, and it takes only linear time of the cardinality of the D-basis to put it into a proper order. We produce examples of closure systems on a 6-element set, for which the canonical basis of Duquenne and Guigues is not ordered direct.
Competing Opinions and Stubbornness: Connecting Models to Data
K. Burghardt,W. Rand,M. Girvan
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: We introduce a general contagion-like model for competing opinions that includes dynamic resistance to alternative opinions. We show that this model can describe candidate vote distributions, spatial vote correlations, and a slow approach to opinion consensus with sensible parameter values. These empirical properties of large groups, previously understood using distinct models, may be different aspects of human behavior that can be captured by a more unified model, such as the one introduced in this paper.
Quantum process in living cells  [PDF]
Robert W. Finkel
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2013.44071
Abstract:

Coherent quantum effects have been confirmed for several biological processes. These processes exist in the environment of a warm wet cell where decoherence can be a serious concern. Here we propose a mechanism whereby quantum coherence may extend through the water matrix of a cell. The model is based on coherent waves of established ultrafast energy transfers in water. Computations based on the model are found to agree with several experimental results and numerical and descriptive predictions are presented. We compute wave speed, ~156 km/s, and wavelength, ~9.3 nm, and determine that these waves retain local coherence. Close agreements are found for the dipole moment of water dimers, results of microwave radiation on yeast, and the Kleiber law of metabolic rates. The theory requires that a spherical cell must have a minimum diameter of ~20 nm to accommodate a standing energy wave. The quantum properties of the modelsuggest that cellular chemistry favors reactions that support perpetuation of the energy waves.

Infrared Spectroscopy of Halos of Edge-on Galaxies
Richard J. Rand,Kenneth Wood,Robert A. Benjamin,Sharon E. Meidt
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/728/2/163
Abstract: We present a study of ionized gas, PAHs, and molecular hydrogen emission in the halos of three edge-on galaxies, NGC 891, NGC 5775 and NGC 3044, based on 10-20 micron Spitzer Space Telescope spectra. The [Ne III]/[Ne II] ratio, an excellent measure of radiation hardness, rises with z in the halo of NGC 891. It is also higher in the halo of NGC 5775 than in the disk. NGC 3044 presents a more confusing situation. To explain the [Ne III]/[Ne II] as well as optical line ratio behavior in NGC 891, we carry out a simple exploration of parameter space with CLOUDY, which indicates a large increase in radiation temperature with height. Illustrative examples of physical models using a Monte Carlo radiative transfer code show that the rising neon ratio may be explained by adding a vertically extended, hot stellar source to a thin disk of massive stars. However, several other sources of hard spectra may be relevant. PAH features have scale heights of 430--530 pc in NGC 891 and 720--1080 pc in NGC 5775, suggesting they can be transported by disk-halo flows. Within NGC 891 and NGC 5775, scale heights are similar for all PAHs. For NGC 891, the scale heights exceed that of 8 micron emission, indicating a transition from more ionized to more neutral PAHs with height. Most PAH equivalent widths are higher in the halos. Molecular hydrogen 17.03 micron emission with scale heights of 550-580 pc in NGC 891 and 850 pc in NGC 5775 suggests a molecular component in a surprisingly thick layer.
Average Interpolation Under the Maximum Angle Condition
Alexander Rand
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: Interpolation error estimates needed in common finite element applications using simplicial meshes typically impose restrictions on the both the smoothness of the interpolated functions and the shape of the simplices. While the simplest theory can be generalized to admit less smooth functions (e.g., functions in H^1(\Omega) rather than H^2(\Omega)) and more general shapes (e.g., the maximum angle condition rather than the minimum angle condition), existing theory does not allow these extensions to be performed simultaneously. By localizing over a well-shaped auxiliary spatial partition, error estimates are established under minimal function smoothness and mesh regularity. This construction is especially important in two cases: L^p(\Omega) estimates for data in W^{1,p}(\Omega) hold for meshes without any restrictions on simplex shape, and W^{1,p}(\Omega) estimates for data in W^{2,p}(\Omega) hold under a generalization of the maximum angle condition which previously required p>2 for standard Lagrange interpolation.
Improved Examples of Non-Termination for Ruppert's Algorithm
Alexander Rand
Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract: Improving the best known examples, two planar straight-line graphs which cause the non-termination of Ruppert's algorithm for a minimum angle threshold as low as 29.06 degrees are given.
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