Introduction: The postponement of the preventive activities of the Provincial Division of Health of East Kasai 2016 revealed que le level of attendance of the preschool consultation is decreasing less and less in the Health Area Tshitenge. Thus, this study set the goal of determining the knowledge and use of maternal pre-school counseling in the Health Area Tshitenge. Methods: The survey method was used by means of a questionnary administered to mothers in this region, but more specifically, we collected data from 422 mothers responsible for randomly selected children aged 0 to 5 in the four health. Results: After analysis and analysis of the data with the computer tool, we obtained the following results: the rate of use of the preschool consultation service is 60.7%; the level of education, occupation and the number of children under 5 years of age have a strong influence on the use of preschool counseling; lack of knowledge about the most important activity of preschool counseling has a negative influence on its use. There is a link between the use of the preschool consultation and the most important activity of the preschool consultation for the respondent; there is also a link between this and an appointment on the map; and finally, the cost judgment of SPC strongly influences its use. Conclusion: In order to raise this activity, the revitalization of preschool consultation activities in the Tshitenge health area, the reinforcement of the parents’ awareness on the use of preschool counseling from 0 to 59 months, and the revival of visits to homes for children whose mothers drop out of preschool counseling sufficient are a basis.

Abstract:
Water resource planning and management require long time series of hydrological data (e.g. rainfall, river flow). However, sometimes hydrological time series have missing values or are incomplete. This paper describes feedforward artificial neural network (ANN) techniques used to infill rainfall data, specifically annual total rainfall data. The standard back-propagation (BP) technique and the generalised BP technique were both used and evaluated. The root mean square error of predictions (RMSEp) was used to evaluate the performance of these techniques. A preliminary case study in South Africa was done using the Bleskop rainfall station as the control and the Luckhoff-Pol rainfall station as the target. It was shown that the generalised BP technique generally performed slightly better than the standard BP technique when applied to annual total rainfall data. It was also observed that the RMSEp increased with the proportion of missing values in both techniques. The results were similar when other rainfall stations were used. It is recommended for further study that these techniques be applied to other rainfall data (e.g. annual maximum series, etc) and to rainfall data from other climatic regions.

Abstract:
We study linearly ordered spaces which are Valdivia compact in their order topology. We find an internal characterization of these spaces and we present a counter-example disproving a conjecture posed earlier by the first author. The conjecture asserted that a compact line is Valdivia compact if its weight does not exceed aleph one, every point of uncountable character is isolated from one side and every closed first countable subspace is metrizable. It turns out that the last condition is not sufficient. On the other hand, we show that the conjecture is valid if the closure of the set of points of uncountable character is scattered. This improves an earlier result of the first author.

Abstract:
We characterize order preserving continuous surjections between compact linearly ordered spaces which admit an averaging operator, together with estimates of the norm of such an operator. This result is used to the study of strengthenings of the separable complementation property in spaces of continuous functions on compact lines. These properties include in particular continuous separable complementation property and existence of a projectional skeleton.

Abstract:
Hydrological data (e.g. rainfall, river flow data) are used in water resource planning and management. Sometimes hydrological time series have gaps or are incomplete, or are not of good quality or are not of sufficient length. This problem seems to be more prevalent in developing countries than in developed countries. In this paper, feed-forward artificial neural networks (ANNs) techniques are used for streamflow data infilling. The standard back-propagation (BP) technique with a sigmoid activation function is used. Besides this technique, the BP technique with an approximation of the sigmoid function by pseudo Mac Laurin power series Order 1 and Order 2 derivatives, as introduced in this paper, is also used. Empirical comparisons of the predictive accuracy, in terms of root mean square error of predictions (RMSEp), are then made. A preliminary case study in South Africa (i.e. using the Diepkloof (control) gauge on the Wonderboomspruit River and the Molteno (target) gauge on Stormbergspruit River in the River summer rainfall catchment) was then done. Generally, this demonstrated that the standard BP technique performed just slightly better than the pseudo BP Mac Laurin Orders 1 and 2 techniques when using mean values of seasonal data. However, the pseudo Mac Laurin approximation power series of the sigmoid function did not show any substantial impact on the accuracy of the estimated missing values at the Molteno gauge. Thus, all three the standard BP and pseudo BP Mac Laurin orders 1 and 2 techniques could be used to fill in the missing values at the Molteno gauge. It was also observed that a linear regression could describe a strong relationship between the gap size (0 to 30 %) and the expected RMSEp (thus accuracy) for the three techniques used here. Recommendations for further work on these techniques include their application to other flow regimes (e.g. 4-month seasons, mean annual extreme, etc) and to streamflow series of a winter rainfall region. Water SA Vol. 31 (2) 2005: pp.171-176

HIV/AIDS infection,
although of particular gravity in developing countries, today affects all
countries of the world. Among the means used to combat this pathology is
voluntary testing, which is both an effective and economical strategy for
facilitating behavior change. This study allowed us to contribute to the
improvement of the knowledge, attitude and practice of the population on
voluntary HIV/AIDS testing. This is a cross-sectional study of the knowledge,
attitude and practice of the Kamina population on voluntary testing for HIV infection.
A total of 384 people from 82 Ward in Kamina was interviewed using a
pre-established questionnaire. Ninety-six respondents (25%) said they knew
about voluntary testing; Of these, 79% or 82.3% thought knowing
their HIV status was the only benefit of voluntary testing. The level of
knowledge about voluntary testing appears to be low among the population
studied; there are still misunderstandings about the benefits of voluntary
testing and the means of prevention. This result could be used as reference
data in the revitalization of a voluntary testing center and the protection of
mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) in our environment.

Abstract:
We investigate Baire-one functions whose graph is contained in a graph of usco mapping. We prove in particular that such a function defined on a metric space with values in $\mathbb{R}^d$ is the pointwise limit of a sequence of continuous functions with graphs contained in the graph of a common usco map.

Abstract:
We investigate convergence of martingales adapted to a given filtration of finite $\sigma$-algebras. To any such filtration we associate a canonical metrizable compact space $K$ such that martingales adapted to the filtration can be canonically represented on $K$. We further show that (except for trivial cases) typical martingale diverges at a comeager subset of $K$. `Typical martingale' means a martingale from a comeager set in any of the standard spaces of martingales. In particular we show that a typical $L^1$-bounded martingale of norm at most one converges almost surely to zero and has maximal possible oscillation on a comeager set.

Abstract:
A nonempty closed convex bounded subset $C$ of a Banach space is said to have the weak approximate fixed point property if for every continuous map $f:C\to C$ there is a sequence $\{x_n\}$ in $C$ such that $x_n-f(x_n)$ converge weakly to 0. We prove in particular that $C$ has this property whenever it contains no sequence equivalent to the standard basis of $\ell_1$. As a byproduct we obtain a characterization of Banach spaces not containing $\ell_1$ in terms of the weak topology.

Abstract:
Background Heavy-metals exert considerable stress on the environment worldwide. This study assessed the resistance to and bioremediation of heavy-metals by selected protozoan and bacterial species in highly polluted industrial-wastewater. Specific variables (i.e. chemical oxygen demand, pH, dissolved oxygen) and the growth/die-off-rates of test organisms were measured using standard methods. Heavy-metal removals were determined in biomass and supernatant by the Inductively Couple Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer. A parallel experiment was performed with dead microbial cells to assess the biosorption ability of test isolates. Results The results revealed that the industrial-wastewater samples were highly polluted with heavy-metal concentrations exceeding by far the maximum limits (in mg/l) of 0.05-Co, 0.2-Ni, 0.1-Mn, 0.1-V, 0.01-Pb, 0.01-Cu, 0.1-Zn and 0.005-Cd, prescribed by the UN-FAO. Industrial-wastewater had no major effects on Pseudomonas putida, Bacillus licheniformis and Peranema sp. (growth rates up to 1.81, 1.45 and 1.43 d-1, respectively) compared to other test isolates. This was also revealed with significant COD increases (p < 0.05) in culture media inoculated with living bacterial isolates (over 100%) compared to protozoan isolates (up to 24% increase). Living Pseudomonas putida demonstrated the highest removal rates of heavy metals (Co-71%, Ni-51%, Mn-45%, V-83%, Pb-96%, Ti-100% and Cu-49%) followed by Bacillus licheniformis (Al-23% and Zn-53%) and Peranema sp. (Cd-42%). None of the dead cells were able to remove more than 25% of the heavy metals. Bacterial isolates contained the genes copC, chrB, cnrA3 and nccA encoding the resistance to Cu, Cr, Co-Ni and Cd-Ni-Co, respectively. Protozoan isolates contained only the genes encoding Cu and Cr resistance (copC and chrB genes). Peranema sp. was the only protozoan isolate which had an additional resistant gene cnrA3 encoding Co-Ni resistance. Conclusion Significant differences (p < 0.05) observed between dead and living microbial cells for metal-removal and the presence of certain metal-resistant genes indicated that the selected microbial isolates used both passive (biosorptive) and active (bioaccumulation) mechanisms to remove heavy metals from industrial wastewater. This study advocates the use of Peranema sp. as a potential candidate for the bioremediation of heavy-metals in wastewater treatment, in addition to Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus licheniformis.