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An electronically controllable fully uncoupled explicit current-mode quadrature oscillator employing Voltage Differencing Transconductance Amplifiers (VDTAs) as active elements has been presented. The proposed configuration employs two VDTAs along with grounded capacitors and offers the following advantageous features 1) fully and electronically independent control of condition of oscillation (CO) and frequency of oscillation (FO); 2) explicit current-mode quadrature oscillations; and 3) low active and passive sensitivities. The workability of proposed configuration has been demonstrated by PSPICE simulations with TSMC CMOS 0.18 μm process parameters.
A new family of numerical integration formula is presented, which uses the function evaluation at the midpoint of the interval and odd derivatives at the endpoints. Because the weights for the odd derivatives sum to zero, the derivative calculations cancel out for the interior points in the composite form, so that these derivatives must only be calculated at the endpoints of the overall interval of integration. When using N subintervals, the basic rule which uses the midpoint function evaluation and the first derivative at the endpoints achieves fourth order accuracy for the cost of N/2 function evaluations and 2 derivative evaluations, whereas the three point open Newton-Cotes method uses 3N/4 function evaluations to achieve the same order of accuracy. These derivative-based midpoint quadrature methods are shown to be more computationally efficient than both the open and closed Newton-Cotes quadrature rules of the same order. This family of derivative-based midpoint quadrature rules are derived using the concept of precision, along with the error term. A theorem concerning the order of accuracy of quadrature rule using the concept of precision is provided to justify its use to determine the leading order error term.
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