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The Mind Grows Circuits  [PDF]
Rina Panigrahy,Li Zhang
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: There is a vast supply of prior art that study models for mental processes. Some studies in psychology and philosophy approach it from an inner perspective in terms of experiences and percepts. Others such as neurobiology or connectionist-machines approach it externally by viewing the mind as complex circuit of neurons where each neuron is a primitive binary circuit. In this paper, we also model the mind as a place where a circuit grows, starting as a collection of primitive components at birth and then builds up incrementally in a bottom up fashion. A new node is formed by a simple composition of prior nodes when we undergo a repeated experience that can be described by that composition. Unlike neural networks, however, these circuits take "concepts" or "percepts" as inputs and outputs. Thus the growing circuits can be likened to a growing collection of lambda expressions that are built on top of one another in an attempt to compress the sensory input as a heuristic to bound its Kolmogorov Complexity.
Bioethics Science: Is it?  [PDF]
Jayapaul Azariah
Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine , 2009,
Abstract: Both western and eastern civilizations have linked moral teaching with theology followed by philosophy. New-knowledge-seekers about natural world, were called ‘natural philosophers'. There was a paradigm shift during industrial revolution in western world which culminated in modern science. The word "scientist" was coined during the 19th century. The paper examines whether natural philosophers could be called ‘scientists'? A short history of philosophical paradigm shift is given.Although written moral and "ethical principles" were in vogue from the time of Hammurabi (1750-1795 BC), the phenomenon of bioethics is very recent. Bioethics is a bridge among different sciences and a bridge to the future. The question is: Is bioethics, by itself, science? The present paper is concerned with the quality of bioethics and about the nature of science during the next 30-50 years.Science is value-free but bioethics is value-loaded. Science does not proclaim any value whereas bioethics underlines the moral life and its value to survive. The paper examines two issues: Can science be bioethics-friendly? and (ii) Can bioethics be science-friendly? It appears that both science and bioethics are incompatible. We need to develop a new system of knowledge to include/infuse the bioethical-notion of values in (into) science. Such a move may necessitate the development of an alternate but new model. Bioethics is not a science-discipline. A new term to replace science is needed. Elevating bioethics as an academic science may create job openings in India.
Bioethics and aging  [cached]
Domingo Castillo
Medwave , 2012,
Abstract: The purpose of this presentation is to discuss some concepts related to bioethics and ageing, specifically with regard to health and disease. Considerations on medical practice are made by referring to Kant and Heidelberg school of thought. Perception of time in the elderly and issues such as euthanasia and death are mentioned.
BIOETHICS AND ECOLOGY: TOWARDS "SUSTAINABLE BIOETHICS"
Gutiérrez-Prieto,Hernando;
Vniversitas , 2008,
Abstract: sustainability has emerged not only as a global concept, but also as a principle and goal which includes a set of values. in despite of the international acceptance of the concept, there is a long path to be transited in order to establish a real consensus about its meaning and applicability. the conceptual application of sustainability to bioethics is more than a proposal about the extension of the topics that traditionally have been adjudicated to this new "discipline". the text attempts to assess the rationale implied in bioethics questioning the disciplinary and inter-disciplinary approaches of its internal epistemology. this evaluation will take into consideration the actual frameworks developed from ecology and earth system analysis. the main thesis to be sustained is that, in order to gain theoretical sustainability, bioethics would need to adapt itself to a transdisciplinary approach. following this suggestion, bioethics will be able to face the actual requirements of a future society.
Bioethics Education in Africa: Still Complex Challenges  [PDF]
Cletus T. Andoh
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2013.34073
Abstract: In recent times, bioethics has emerged as a burgeoning interdisciplinary field of scholarly investigation which has in the past decades migrated from bedside consultations to public policy debates and wider cultural and social conversations that privilege all discourse about everyday life issues. Today, bioethics is increasingly seen as a field departing from a multidisciplinary perspective to an autonomous discipline. In most Western countries, the field is now more organized, complete with undergraduate minors and majors, and even high school courses in bioethics, master’s degrees and doctoral programs, and professional associations. Also, there is a shift from a field populated by bioethics pioneers to a field made up of bioethics professionals. However, in Africa the emergence and evolution of the field is still problematic as bioethics is not yet an escalating discipline in the tradition of books, journals, classroom teachings and conferences. In this paper, it is argued that the lack of an authentic discourse on the nature and contents of bioethics, interdisciplinary research approaches, institutional and infrastructural needs and a critical mass of African experts constitutes the major challenges to the teaching of bioethics in Africa. There is a need to reinvigorate standards for teaching bioethics through a radical critique of traditional values, principles, methods and a careful assessment of the new megatrends and challenges in science, technology and medicine.
Serbian bioethics from an international perspective: Genetics and bioethics  [PDF]
Marinkovi? Dragoslav,Magi? Zvonko
Filozofija i Dru?tvo , 2012, DOI: 10.2298/fid1204080m
Abstract: Global interests in bioethics have increased drastically since the end of 20th century. The reason for this should be ascribed to a broad application of molecular-genetic methods introduced in human bio-medicine. This has, in turn, produced an involvement and development of numerous inter-disciplines, which have started to apply bioethics as a part of their own subject of interest. This article presents more than a decade of experience of teaching bioethics in our country, particularly under the auspices of the National Com-mittee for Bioethics of UNESCO-commission of Serbia.
Transplants: bioethics and justice
Cohen, Claudio;Meirelles, José Ricardo;
Revista do Hospital das Clínicas , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0041-87812003000600001
Abstract: bioethics, as a branch of philosophy that focuses on questions relative to health and human life, is closely tied to the idea of justice and equality. as such, in understanding the concept of equality in its original sense, that is, in associating it to the idea to treat "unequals" (those who are unequal or different, in terms of conditions or circumstances) unequally (differentially), in proportion to their inequalities (differences), we see that the so-called "one-and-only waiting list" for transplants established in law no. 9.434/97, ends up not addressing the concept of equality and justice, bearing upon bioethics, even when considering the objective criteria of precedence established in regulation no. 9.4347/98, thus, the organizing of transplants on a one-and-only waiting list, with a few exceptions that are weakly applicable, without a case by case technical and grounded analysis, according to each particular necessity, ends up institutionalizing inequalities, condemning patients to happenstance and, consequently, departs from the ratio legis, which aims at seeking the greatest application of justice in regards to organ transplants. we conclude, therefore, that from an analysis of the legislation and of the principles of bioethics and justice, there is a need for the creation of a collegiate of medical experts, that, based on medical criteria and done in a well established manner, can analyze each case to be included on the waiting list, deferentially and according to the necessity; thus, precluding that people in special circumstances be treated equal to people in normal circumstances.
Transplants: bioethics and justice  [cached]
Cohen Claudio,Meirelles José Ricardo
Revista do Hospital das Clínicas , 2003,
Abstract: Bioethics, as a branch of philosophy that focuses on questions relative to health and human life, is closely tied to the idea of justice and equality. As such, in understanding the concept of equality in its original sense, that is, in associating it to the idea to treat "unequals" (those who are unequal or different, in terms of conditions or circumstances) unequally (differentially), in proportion to their inequalities (differences), we see that the so-called "one-and-only waiting list" for transplants established in law no. 9.434/97, ends up not addressing the concept of equality and justice, bearing upon bioethics, even when considering the objective criteria of precedence established in regulation no. 9.4347/98, Thus, the organizing of transplants on a one-and-only waiting list, with a few exceptions that are weakly applicable, without a case by case technical and grounded analysis, according to each particular necessity, ends up institutionalizing inequalities, condemning patients to happenstance and, consequently, departs from the ratio legis, which aims at seeking the greatest application of justice in regards to organ transplants. We conclude, therefore, that from an analysis of the legislation and of the principles of bioethics and justice, there is a need for the creation of a collegiate of medical experts, that, based on medical criteria and done in a well established manner, can analyze each case to be included on the waiting list, deferentially and according to the necessity; thus, precluding that people in special circumstances be treated equal to people in normal circumstances.
Global bioethics – myth or reality?
S?ren Holm, Bryn Williams-Jones
BMC Medical Ethics , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6939-7-10
Abstract: To address this question, we study the web-linking patterns of bioethics institutions, the citation patterns of bioethics papers and the buying patterns of bioethics books.All three analyses indicate that there are geographical and institutional differences in the academic behavior of bioethicists and bioethics institutions.These exploratory studies support the position that there is no unified global field of bioethics. This is a problem if the only reason is parochialism. But these regional differences are probably of less concern if one notices that bioethics comes in many not always mutually understandable dialects.The term 'global bioethics' has been bandied about in recent years, although its precise meaning has often been unclear. For some, it has been a call to globalize the concerns of bioethics by focusing more attention on, for example, issues for resource poor countries, public health, or global justice and equity. For others, global bioethics has been a statement about the right way to pursue bioethics, that there is one global set of principles. For a third group, which will be the focus of our analysis, it has been a statement of final achievement, that bioethics has become a global field of inquiry. In this paper, we use a sociological approach to highlight the connections or lack thereof between bioethics researchers and research centers as a proxy for examining the ways in which bioethics scholarship is 'performed' around the world.We are clearly not the first to question whether there really is such a thing as a global or unified field of bioethics. In a clash of the titans, Al Jonsen and Alistair Campbell have been in dispute over the history of bioethics, with Campbell [1] claiming that Jonsen's [2] unified history is only possible by neglecting developments outside of the US; for another example of this neglect see Baker's review [3] of Walter and Klein [4]. More generally, and particularly following the publication of David Rothman's seminal b
Bioethics in the clinic: a review of The Cambridge Textbook of Bioethics
Leslie M Whetstine
Critical Care , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/cc6992
Abstract: This text is broken into well considered sections (End of Life Care, Religious and Cultural Perspectives in Bioethics, Pregnant Women and Children, and so on) that act as quick reference pointers to areas of interest associated with each theme. This allows the reader to use it without being overwhelmed by its volume, which exceeds 500 pages.Each chapter begins with a case study, which is helpful in identifying the types of ethical conflicts that can arise in regard to the topic at hand. The case studies are revisited at the end of each chapter. While they do not always offer a clear or definitive resolution, the cases are instructive and allow the reader to integrate the material presented and reflect upon its practical application. In addition, the chapters are short and manageable (usually five to eight pages) as well as meticulously researched and offer extensive bibliographies for anyone wishing to learn more or shore up their knowledge base.This book is not a theoretically driven work but focuses on clinical topics and concrete application. What separates this anthology from other compendia is its international and multicultural perspective. Bioethics as a discipline is not the province of any one distinct country or ethos. While this will be frustrating for the reader who is looking for the 'right' answer according to his or her geographic locale, this text does not attempt to offer a cookbook or formulaic type of ethical decision making but offers instead considered viewpoints from the perspective of its authors across the globe.This is a comprehensive text that, in addition to addressing broad topics (informed consent, advanced care planning) and specialty clinical issues (neuroethics, infectious disease ethics), also focuses on organizational ethics and the implications brought to bear throughout the community. The chapter on Clinical Ethics and Systems Thinking deserves special mention. Here the authors describe the value of a collaborative model that inte
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