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Traumatic Splenic Injuries in Khartoum, Sudan  [PDF]
Isameldin O. Ibrahim, Aamir A. Hamza, M. E. Ahmed
Surgical Science (SS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2013.412102
Abstract:

Background: Spleen injuries are most commonly associated with blunt abdominal trauma and represent a potentially life-threatening condition. Objectives: To study the pattern of splenic injuries of the patient, management instituted and its outcome at Khartoum. Patients and Methods: This is a prospective, analytic and hospital-based multicenteric study, conducted at the three main Teaching hospitals at Khartoum. The study was carried over a period from April 2012 to February 2013. It includes all patients, diagnosed as traumatic splenic injury. Excluded were patients with history of splenic disease, iatrogenic injury or spontaneous rupture. Results: The study included 47 patients: their mean age was 26.4 years (SD ± 14.5). Most of them 41 (87.2%) were in the first four decades of life. Males were predominant 41 (87.2%), with a male to female ratio of 6.8:1. The majority of our patients had blunt abdominal trauma 39 (83%), of whom, road traffic accident accounted for 51.1% and none reported cases of gunshot. Isolated splenic injury was found in 23 (48.9%), and Haemodynamic stability was seen in 27 (57.4%) on presentation. The initial haemoglobin assessment revealed <9 gram/dl in 53.2%. CT scan was performed to 24 (51.1%), of whom

Investigation on Viral Arthritis in Broiler Chickens in Khartoum, Sudan
Nagwa Osman El Shafie,Abdelmelik Ibrahim Khalafalla
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: Infectious tenosynovitis and ruptured gastrocnemious tendons were studied in broiler chickens in Sudan. Two broiler farms (A & B) located in Khartoum State were selected. Clinical signs of leg problems in grower parent broiler started to appear at 11 – 12 weeks of age. The most important clinical signs which were seen in such cases, included rupture of gastrocnemius tendons, inability to walk, unilateral extension of legs, growth retardation and swelling of the hock joints. Out of 13 specimens, reovirus and adenovirus antigens were detected in 7 and 2, respectively using Agar gel diffusion test (AGDT). Reovirus and adenovirus were isolated on the chorioallantoic membrane of chicken embryonated eggs from processed intestine samples and synovial fluids. In chicken kidney cell culture, reovirus isolates replicated and caused marked cytopathic effects whereas adenovirus isolates did not. In both farms, the seropositivity as measured by means of AGDT was higher (45.4%) for adenovirus than for reovirus (8.2%). Bacteria isolated from the synovial fluids included Staphyllococcus aueous, Corynebacterim spp and E. coli.
Determination of Aflatoxins in Animal Feed in Khartoum State, Sudan
Amin O. Elzupir,Younis M.H. Younis,M. Himmat Fadul,Abdelrahim M. Elhussein
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: Aflatoxins are natural toxins that contaminate various types of food and feedstuff leading to health risk in both humans and animals. The aim of this study, was to determine prevalence of aflatoxins contamination and their levels in animal (cattle and poultry) feed samples of groundnut cake meal, wheat bran, crushed sorghum (which are used as raw materials) and manufactured ration in Khartoum State, Sudan. The aflatoxins were extracted using Best Food (BF) method, one of the methods approved by (AOAC), then separated and determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) adopting Photo Diode Array Detection. The study showed that 64.29% of the samples of animal feed were contaminated by aflatoxins at average concentration of 130.63 μg kg-1. The highest contamination occurred in summer (78.95%) followed by autumn (66.67%) and was found least in winter (47.37%). Manufactured ration showed highest value of contamination (87.50%), with a concentration range of 54.41-579.87 μg kg-1 (average concentration of 207.96 μg kg-1), followed by groundnut cake meal with an overall 69.32% contamination rate and contamination range of 24.29-410.62 (average concentration of 131.45 μg kg-1), wheat bran with 63.64% contamination rate showed range of 4.07-79.85 (average concentration of 31.19 μg kg-1) and crushed sorghum with 36.36% contamination rate and contamination range of 5.46-375.81 μg kg-1 (average concentration of 165.65 μg kg-1). Aflatoxin B1 (AfB1) was the most common contaminant followed by Aflatoxin G1 (AfG1), Aflatoxin B2 (AfB2) and lastly Aflatoxin G2 (AfG2).
Epidemiological Pattern of Injuries Resulting from Road Traffic Accidents in Khartoum, Sudan  [PDF]
Wadha Degais, Hiba A. Awooda, Mustafa Khidir Mustafa Elnimeiri, Lamis Kaddam
Health (Health) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/health.2018.106061
Abstract: Background: Traffic accidents are increasingly becoming a threat to public health and national development in many developing countries. Sudan isn’t an exception, the number of vehicles is rapidly increasing while the road’s widths remain as same as before, so many accidents took place, and serious losses and damages to both human beings and vehicles may occur. This study was aimed at identifying the epidemiological pattern of injuries and determinants that contribute to road traffic accidents (RTA) in Khartoum Teaching Hospital Sudan. Methodology: Hospital based descriptive study was conducted in Khartoum Teaching Hospital. 150 road traffic victims who attended the emergency room or were admitted to the hospital from February-May 2012 and fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included in the study. A pre-test standardized administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Results: Males were more affected (85%); laborers were the highest among the victims (43%). Sixty three of RTA causes were related to the drivers. Conclusion: Urgent intervention is needed through the involvement of many sectors and specialties. There is an urgent need to setup a database to collect, store and analyze information related to road traffic accidents. This will help the authorities to plan strategically for appropriate interventions across the country.
Economic impact of an outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease in Khartoum State, Sudan
A M El-Hussein,A Daboura
Veterinary World , 2012,
Abstract: The economic impact of an outbreak of foot and mouth disease that took place during 2002 was assessed in dairy farms of Khartoum state, Sudan. A total of 11 farms (8 cooperative and 3 privately owned) of mostly crossbred Friesian X indigenous cattle were investigated. The total number of the animals in these farms were 1160 of which 715 were adult and 445 were calves. The statistical analysis was carried out using t student test. The costs of the outbreak were assessed in terms of losses in milk production, costs of drugs used to alleviate the symptoms, and death of affected animals. The overall cost to the dairy farmers in the state was estimated USD 1 771 924 with the loss in milk production constituting the main component in this cost. [Vet. World 2012; 5(4.000): 219-222]
Trichomoniasis in Pregnant Sudanese Pregnant Women at Tertiary Obstetric Facility, Khartoum, Sudan  [PDF]
Hanan A. O. Abd Allha, A. Fazari, Khalid Y. M. Ahmed
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2016.69069
Abstract: Background: Trichomoniasis is a common Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) and the most common curable one. Methodology: This was cross sectional, prospective, total coverage hospital based study. It aimed to determine the incidence, risk factors of the Trichomoniasis among the laboring Sudanese women at Omdurman New Hospital Khartoum-Sudan, from September 2012 to April 2013. Data were obtained, entered and analyzed using soft word package program for social science (SPSS) version 17. Results: The prevalence of Trichomoniasis is 6.8%. It was found that the awareness about the infection is very low only 35%. Diabetes and history of sexual transmitted infections are the risks seen among the study cases. Preterm labor was seen significantly. Conclusion: Syndromic management of all women with abnormal vaginal discharge is important since it causes reproductive morbidity.
Insecticide resistance in the sand fly, Phlebotomus papatasi from Khartoum State, Sudan
Mo'awia Hassan, Sally Widaa, Osman Osman, Mona Numiary, Mihad Ibrahim, Hind Abushama
Parasites & Vectors , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-5-46
Abstract: Sand flies were collected from Surogia village, (Khartoum State), Rahad Game Reserve (eastern Sudan) and White Nile area (Central Sudan) using light traps. Sand flies were reared in the Tropical Medicine Research Institute laboratory. The insecticide susceptibility status of first progeny (F1) of P. papatasi of each population was tested using WHO insecticide kits. Also, P. papatasi specimens from Surogia village and Rahad Game Reserve were assayed for activities of enzyme systems involved in insecticide resistance (acetylcholinesterase (AChE), non-specific carboxylesterases (EST), glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) and cytochrome p450 monooxygenases (Cyt p450).Populations of P. papatasi from White Nile and Rahad Game Reserve were sensitive to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), permethrin, malathion, and propoxur. However, the P. papatasi population from Surogia village was sensitive to DDT and permethrin but highly resistant to malathion and propoxur. Furthermore, P. papatasi of Surogia village had significantly higher insecticide detoxification enzyme activity than of those of Rahad Game Reserve. The sand fly population in Surogia displayed high AChE activity and only three specimens had elevated levels for EST and GST.The study provided evidence for malathion and propoxur resistance in the sand fly population of Surogia village, which probably resulted from anti-malarial control activities carried out in the area during the past 50 years.Leishmaniasis is a vector borne disease caused by a parasite of genus Leishmania. It is considered as a major public health problem, 88th in the world causing morbidity and mortality [1]. The disease also causes serious economic loss and impedes socioeconomic development in many countries [1].Leishmaniasis is an endemic disease spread over a wide geographical area in Sudan [2,3]. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) occurs in a fluctuating pattern in the country mainly in the west, central and northern parts of Sudan [2]. Whereas, vis
Identifying Residual Foci of Plasmodium falciparum Infections for Malaria Elimination: The Urban Context of Khartoum, Sudan  [PDF]
Amal B. Nourein,Mohammed A. Abass,Abdel Hameed D. Nugud,Ibrahim El Hassan,Robert W. Snow,Abdisalan M. Noor
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0016948
Abstract: Identifying the location and size of residual foci of infections is critical where malaria elimination is the primary goal. Here the spatial heterogeneity of Plasmodium falciparum infections within the urban extent of Khartoum state in Sudan is investigated using data from cross-sectional surveys undertaken from 1999 to 2008 to inform the Khartoum Malaria Free Initiative (KMFI).
An overview of the management practices and constrains at the dairy camps in Khartoum State, Sudan
Ibtisam E. M El Zubeir,Ahmed, G. Mahala
Research Opinions in Animal & Veterinary Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Management, husbandry and constrains facing dairy farms camps at Khartoum State, Sudan were compared from information that were collected by surveying hundred farms via questionnaire, visits and direct interview with farm owners. Higher illiteracy level (36%) was observed among dairy farms owners in the studied camps, moreover, 22% had informal education. Cows were found as the main milk producing animals and the predominant herds (60%) were cross dairy cows (Friesian and local herd). The data illustrated that herd health, trained labours and availability of feeds are the major problems facing dairy herd owners. Also lack of records and the channels of milk marketing were among the constraints facing those farms. The data revealed that the disease control was not satisfactory as most of the labours give the treatment without consultation of veterinarians. Hence the present study recommended the training of animal keepers and labours (formal and vocational) to increase awareness on house designing, rearing, management, feeding., milk collection points supported by cooling facilities, veterinary services and initiation of collaborative bodies (processing and marketing) are urgently needed.
Microbiological Safety of Raw Milk in Khartoum State, Sudan: 2- Khartoum-North City  [PDF]
Asmahan Azhari Ali
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2010,
Abstract: Sixteen random samples of raw cow's milk were collected from Khartoum North in Sudan. Samples were analyzed for microbiological properties included total plate count (TPC), total coliforms (TC), fecal coliforms (FC), Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), spore forming bacteria (SFB) and yeast. The results showed higher counts for all the microorganisms studied. Average of TPC, TC, FC, S. aureus, SFB, LAB and Yeast were 9.88 x 106, 5.43 x 104, 1.56 x 104, 1.2 x 106, 1.23 x 102, 7 x 104 and 9.63 x 105 cfu/mL, respectively. The microbial profiles found had non-conformance to the standards. Based on the exceedingly high microbial counts found in this study, it could be concluded that this milk type poses a serious health risk in the study areas.
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