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Detection of Subclinical Ketosis in Dairy Cows
Zhigang Zhang, Guowen Liu1, Hongbin Wang, Xiaobing Li1 and Zhe Wang1*
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Ketosis is a common metabolic disorder frequently observed in dairy cows during the early lactation period. It is characterized by increased levels of ketone bodies in the blood, urine, and milk. Subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cattle is an excess level of circulating ketone bodies in the absence of clinical signs of ketosis. Usually, detection of SCK is carried out by testing the ketone concentrations in blood, urine, and milk. Here, This review overview the detection methods for SCK in dairy cows, including cowside and laboratory tests.
Comparative Proteomic Studies on Serum of Brucellosis Dairy Cows and Health Dairy Cows
Jinzhong Tao,Yansheng Guo,Lihong Feng,Guoshun Zhao,Qianming Wu,Xuewen Yang,Shuxia Kuai,Shunde Liu,Jianfeng Wang
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2012.1864.1867
Abstract: In order to provide an evidence of brucellosis for diagnosis and prevention, 2D-electrophoresis and SDS-PAGE were applied to detect protein expression difference in plasma between healthy dairy cows and dairy cows suffered from Brucellosis. The results showed that 11 differentially protein spots were found by PDQUest 8.0 Software and 5 of them were detected by ion trap mass spectrum. Apoprotein C-III and Serum Amyloid protein A (SAA) were acute phase protein and lipometabolism-related proteins which can serves as the plasma biomarkers of brucellosis-associated proteins for diagnosis and prevention.
Profitability measures of dairy cows
Ribeiro, Anamaria Candido;McAllister, Alan Jackson;Queiroz, Sandra Aidar de;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982008000900012
Abstract: this study was aimed at defining profitability measures designed for prediction of breeding values (ebv) in dairy cows. performance and economic data recorded in herds enrolled in the dhia (dairy herd improvement association) program in kentucky, usa, were used to evaluate economic functions which included the following profitability measures: lifetime net income (lni), efficiency (ef), milk income over feed costs (iofc), net income per day of productive life (nipl), net income at the end of the first lactation (ni1), and milk income over feed costs at the end of the first lactation (iofc1). the estimated averages for lni, ef, iofc, nipl, ni1 and iofc1 were respectively us$ 532.13, 1.04, us$ 3038.19, us$ -0.16, us$ -69.34 and us$ 1293.77. the heritability estimates for these traits ranged from 0.06 to 0.09. the ebv and spearman correlation estimates were positive, ranging from moderate to high values, suggesting a direct linear relationship among the profitability measures. lni was the best profitability measure and genetic correlation estimates between lni and economic measures recorded in first lactation (ni1 and iofc1) were moderate (<0.56). ni1 was the most efficient profitability measure, but it would be easier to record data to calculate iofc1. overall, results do not suggest any economic function measured in the first lactation as a selection criteria for lni. the profitability measures were affected by the short productive life of the animals in the herds. selection based on different profitability measures would not result in similar ranking of sires.
Clinical and gross pathologic findings of complicated vertical fissures with digital dermatitis in a dairy herd
Mohsen Nouri,Javad Ashrafi Helan
Veterinary Research Forum , 2012,
Abstract: Careful antemortem examination and interpretation of findings, assisted by goodclinical records, do much to throw light on the nature of vertical fissure in cattle. During aneight month period of investigation, 13 (3.2%) lame cows with vertical fissure out of 52Holstein cows with different claw fissures were selected for clinical and gross pathologicalpurposes in a commercial dairy farm with 400 milking cows in Nazarabad, Iran. The cowswere 2.5 to10.5 years old. The prevalence rate of vertical fissure was 3.2 per cent. Theprevalence rate of claw lesion in the hind limb (69.2%) was higher than that of fore limb(30.7%). The type of vertical fissures were 4 (38.4%), 5 (23.0%), 2 (23.0%) and 3 (15.3%),respectively. Locomotion scoring assessment of 13 culled lame cows showed score rangedfrom grade 3 (30.7%) to 4 (61.5%). The herd had endemic digital dermatitis infection withprevalence in the adult herd of over 34.2%. The affected claws were more boxy thannormal and the abaxial wall was convex in all directions. The lame cows had typical stancesuch as hobbyhorse or cross legged stance. This study shows that more research is neededboth on the economic impact of vertical fissures in dairy cows and on the microbiologicalstudy of spirochaetes of the genus Treponema. This study recommends that owners of dairyfarm should try to control digital dermatitis with preventative herd strategies.
Clinical aspects of an outbreak of papillomatous digital dermatitis in a dairy cattle herd : case report  [cached]
I. Yeruham,S. Perl
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v69i3.830
Abstract: Digital skin lesions and lameness of several weeks duration, with a morbidity rate of 28.3 %, was reported in a group of 60 Holstein-Israeli dairy cows in various stages of lactation. A clinical survey was performed to monitor recovery and to confirm eradication of bovine papillomatous digital dermatitis in the herd. The combined effects of intensive individual treatment of the 4 lame cattle with procaine penicillin and metronidazole, and subjecting all animals in the herd to a foot bath with a solution composed of formaldehyde and sodium hydroxide twice a week for 12 weeks, were found to achieve a dramatic positive response in all affected cows in the herd. During a 1-year follow-up period no recurrence and/or new cases have been diagnosed.
Postpartum Reproductive Problems and Therapy in Dairy Cows
Mehmet Can Gunduz,Ahmet Sabuncu,Melih Ucmak,Guven Kasikci,Cagatay Tek
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2010.1952.1954
Abstract: This study aims to establish the distribution of reproductive problems encountered during the postpartum period in dairy cows and to explore the effects of treatment procedures on reproductive performance. In the study, the ratios of assisted birth, RFM and metritis are found to be 24, 31 and 29%, respectively. Antibiogram tests performed on cows with metritis revealed that 6 cows were hypersensitive to oxytetracycline, 4 cows to enrofloxacine, 2 cows to gentamicine and 1 cow to amoxicillin. From among 45 postpartum cows used in the study, 28 (62.2%) tested positive for pregnancy. About 6 out of 11 cows giving assisted birth (54.5%), 7 out of 14 cows treated for RFM (50%) and 6 out of 13 cows (46%) treated for metritis were found to be pregnant.
Welfare assessment for dairy cows in loose stalls  [PDF]
Hristov Slav?a,Zlatanovi? Zvonko,Stankovi? Branislav,Ostoji?-Andri? Du?ica
Veterinarski Glasnik , 2011, DOI: 10.2298/vetgl1106399h
Abstract: In this paper, welfare assessment using the methodology of the Welfare quality assessment protocol for cattle (2009) was performed for dairy cows maintained in the loose system of rearing on three dairy farms. This methodology includes quantitative measurements and qualitative evaluation of certain welfare parameters, criteria and principles of welfare, as well as assessment of the overall welfare of dairy cows. The results showed that the overall level of dairy cow welfare was acceptable on two farms, and was good on one. On two farms, the state of the cows’ social behavior expression was unacceptable. Furthermore, on all three farms, the expression of other types of cow behavior was not acceptable. At one farm, it was determined that the result for the absence of prolonged thirst was unacceptable. Based on these results, it can be concluded that it is necessary to improve the quality of cow welfare on these farms. The applied methodology provides a multidimensional insight into the quality of cow welfare in the loose system.
Contemporary aspects in assessment of protein needs in dairy cows
Grubi? Goran,Adamovi? Ognjen,Stojanovi? Bojan,?or?evi? Nenad 1
Veterinarski Glasnik , 2003, DOI: 10.2298/vetgl0304101g
Abstract: The aim of meeting protein needs in dairy cows is to provide sufficient degradable proteins, which are optimally used in the rumen, to provide the required level of productivity with a minimal amount of crude protein in the diet. The new concept, shown in this paper, which expresses protein value as metabolic, enables better protein balancing in dairy cows than before. The nutritive value of metabolic protein in dairy cows depends on essential amino acid composition of protein and their contribution to total essential amino acids. The improvement of protein utilization efficiency has practical implications. The reason for this is to decrease feeding costs per kilogram of milk or milk protein, the need for more efficient production, higher milk protein yield and to allow other nutrients in the diet to prove their influence on the increase of production.
Sunflower Based Rations for Small-Medium Milk Producing Dairy Cows  [PDF]
N.T. Ngongoni,C. Mapiye,M. Mwale,B. Mupeta
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2009,
Abstract: Two dairy concentrates (ram press sunflower and sunflower heads) were formulated locally and their effects on the performance of crossbred dairy cows were compared with that of a commercial dairy concentrate. There were no significant differences in body condition and milk production responses by crossbred dairy cows to sunflower based diets compared to commercial dairy concentrates (p > 0.05). It was suggested that the sunflower based rations can be used as cheaper alternatives to conventional dairy concentrates. The ram press sunflower cake, in particular is an option that may be used by smallholder dairy farmers to formulate local dairy concentrate, which influence dairying to a similar extent as the commercial dairy concentrate but cheaply. More research is required to determine fermentation patterns, rumen microbial protein synthesis, true intestinal digestibility and absorption of nutrients from sunflower-based diets at the small intestines in crossbred dairy cows.
Behaviour of dairy cows subjected to an aversive veterinary procedure.
Maria José H?tzel,Carla Christina de Miranda Gomes,Luiz Carlos Pinheiro Machado Filho
Biotemas , 2009,
Abstract: On small dairy farms that lack appropriate handling facilities, cows can be restrained and subjected to veterinary inspection or treatment in their milking environment, which in turn might influence the behaviour of the animals, disrupting routine management. A group of seven dairy cows kept on an intensive rotational pasture system and machine milked twice a day by two familiar handlers were exposed to a thorough clinical examination for three consecutive days. Behavioural data before and after the procedure were analyzed by ANOVA. The behaviour of all the cows during the procedure indicated strong aversiveness. Treatment did not influence the flight distance (metres) kept from the veterinarian or from a person unknown by the cows, assessed before and after the procedure (veterinarian: before = 1.2 ± 0.1; after 0.8 ± 0.2; unknown: 1.0 ± 0.2 after 1.2 ± 0.2; p=0.3), nor did it affect the number of agonistic interactions within the group observed before (7.1 ± 2) and after (11.5 ± 3) the procedure (p=0.3), or reactivity score (p=0.2). These results do not support the conclusion that the repeated application of unavoidable aversive veterinary procedures in the milking environment will influence the behaviour of cows during milking or their reactivity to humans.
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