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Ocorrência e distribui o de esporos de Clostridium botulinum tipos C e D em áreas de cria o de búfalos na Baixada Maranhense  [cached]
Silva Tania M.D.,Dutra Iveraldo S.,Castro Raimundo N.,D?bereiner Jürgen
Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira , 1998,
Abstract: Botulismo é enzoótico na cria o de búfalos da Baixada Maranhense, Estado do Maranh o. No presente trabalho foram realizados estudos para verificar a ocorrência e distribui o de esporos de Clostridium botulinum tipos C e D em amostras de solo, limo e fezes de búfalos, colhidas aleatoriamente em áreas inundáveis da cria o de búfalos nessa Baixada. A evidencia o de esporos foi realizada em 40 amostras de fezes, 65 de limo e 35 de solo, provenientes de quatro municípios, pelo cultivo em meio de cultura com carne cozida e posterior inocula o do sobrenadante filtrado em camundongo, na tentativa de verifica o da presen a de toxina botulínica. A tipifica o de amostras positivas foi realizada pela microfixa o de complemento. Os resultados revelaram que 104 (74,28%) das 140 amostras examinadas foram positivas para a presen a de esporos de C. botulinum pelo teste indireto. N o houve diferen a significativa (P>0,05) entre os valores obtidos quando das análises das amostras de solo (77,1%), limo (60,0%) e fezes (95,0%). Das 28 amostras de solo, limo e fezes positivas, que foram utilizadas para a tipifica o, quatro (14,29%) foram classificadas como tipo C, 23 (82,14%) como tipo D e uma (3,5%) como pertencente ao complexo CD. Os resultados revelaram uma alta contamina o ambiental por C. botulinum em áreas de cria o de búfalos da Baixada Maranhen-se. A identifica o de outros tipos e de subtipos de C. botulinum n o foi realizada.
Esporos de Clostridium botulinum em mel comercializado no Estado de S?o Paulo e em outros Estados brasileiros
Ragazani, Adriana Valim Ferreira;Schoken-Iturrino, Ruben Pablo;Garcia, Gisela Rojas;Delfino, Tammy Priscilla Chioda;Poiatti, Maria Luiza;Berchielli, Silvina Pelicano;
Ciência Rural , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84782008000200016
Abstract: infant botulism has been affecting children under one year of age in several regions of the world and honey has been identified as one of the most important source of this food borne disease. despite this, there are scarce data about botulism among children in brazil, specially the type commercial food most implicated in this pathology. this study aimed at investigating the presence of spores of clostridium botulinum in honey commercialized in brazil. one hundred of honey samples commercialized in six different brazilin states (sp, mg, go, ce, mt, sc) were searched for the presence of spores of clostridium botulinum, using thermal shock followed by the inoculation in cooked meat medium (difco?) and incubation in anaerobic conditions. the positives cultures were analyzed by gram stain and seeded in reinforced clostrideo agar (difco?) and sulfito polimixina sulfadiazina -sps (difco?) plates, which were incubated in anaerobic conditions in order to pick up the colonies of this bacteria. the positive colonies were submitted to toxicity test by inoculation in susceptible mice and to biochemical characterization. clostridium botulinum colonies producing actively toxins were detected in 7% of the commercial honey samples, highlighting the relevance of this microorganism for public health due to the high potential risk of honey commercialized in these brazilian regions to cause infant botulism, specially in children under one-year old.
Ocorrência e distribui??o de esporos de Clostridium botulinum tipos C e D em áreas de cria??o de búfalos na Baixada Maranhense
Silva, Tania M.D.;Dutra, Iveraldo S.;Castro, Raimundo N.;D?bereiner, Jürgen;
Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira , 1998, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-736X1998000300007
Abstract: as botulism is a common disease in buffaloes raised in the low lands of the state of maranh?o, brazil, the occurrence of clostridium botulinum spores was evaluated in buffalo breeding areas of 4 municipalities in the "baixada maranhense". twenty eight samples of faeces, mud and soil were collected and divided into 140 subsamples, being 40 of faeces, 65 of mud and 35 of soil. botulinum toxin was detected in the filtrates of 104 cultures (74.28%) from 140 subsamples through the inoculation of mice. using the microcomplement fixation technique for the identification of c. botulinum toxins, type c (14.29%), d (82.14%) and cd complex (3.57%) were found. no significant differences (p>0.05%) between faeces, mud and soil samples were observed. there was a high contamination with c. botulinum spores of the buffalo faeces, mud and soil in the areas studied. identification of other types and subtypes of c. botulinum was not attempted.
Botulinum toxin  [cached]
Nigam P,Nigam Anjana
Indian Journal of Dermatology , 2010,
Abstract: Botulinum toxin, one of the most poisonous biological substances known, is a neurotoxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. C. botulinum elaborates eight antigenically distinguishable exotoxins (A, B, C 1 , C 2 , D, E, F and G). All serotypes interfere with neural transmission by blocking the release of acetylcholine, the principal neurotransmitter at the neuromuscular junction, causing muscle paralysis. The weakness induced by injection with botulinum toxin A usually lasts about three months. Botulinum toxins now play a very significant role in the management of a wide variety of medical conditions, especially strabismus and focal dystonias, hemifacial spasm, and various spastic movement disorders, headaches, hypersalivation, hyperhidrosis, and some chronic conditions that respond only partially to medical treatment. The list of possible new indications is rapidly expanding. The cosmetological applications include correction of lines, creases and wrinkling all over the face, chin, neck, and chest to dermatological applications such as hyperhidrosis. Injections with botulinum toxin are generally well tolerated and side effects are few. A precise knowledge and understanding of the functional anatomy of the mimetic muscles is absolutely necessary to correctly use botulinum toxins in clinical practice.
Toxinas  [cached]
Revista de Toxicología , 2001,
Abstract:
Toxina botulínica y su empleo en la patología oral y maxilofacial Botulinum toxin and its use in oral and maxillofacial pathology  [cached]
D. Martínez-Pérez
Revista Espa?ola de Cirugía Oral y Maxilofacial , 2004,
Abstract: Resumen: Las toxinas botulínicas son exotoxinas de la bacteria formadora de esporas Clostridim botulinum y los agentes causantes del botulismo. Cuando se inyecta en el músculo produce una parálisis flácida. El efecto clínico está directamente relacionado con la dosis y debe ajustarse para cada caso concreto. La Toxina botulínica ha demostrado en los más de veinte a os en que se está utilizando que es un fármaco seguro. Las indicaciones de la toxina botulínica en la actualidad incluyen todas aquellas patologías que resultan de la hiperfunción muscular y la disfunción autonómica. Abstract: Botilinum toxins are exotoxins of the bacteria that form the Clostridium botulinum spores and the causative agents of botulism. When injected into the muscle flaccid paralysis is produced. The clinical effect is directly related with the dose and is should be adjusted for each particular case. over the last twenty years that it has been in use, the botulinum toxin has shown itself to be a reliable drug. Current indications for the use of botulinum toxin include all those pathologies which are the results of muscle hyperfunction and autonomic dysfunction.
Botulinum Toxin Applications in the Larynx
Kadir Serkan ORHAN,Bora BA?ARAN,Murat ULUSAN,Günter HAFIZ
N?ropsikiyatri Ar?ivi , 2010,
Abstract: The primary function of the larynx is protection of the lower respiratory system and, in addition, it facilitates respiration and phonation. Hypertonicity and/or spasm of the laryngeal muscles due to several reasons can cause abnormalities in respiration, digestion and voice. Botulinum toxin has been used successfully in the treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia (laryngeal dystonia) for several years. Cricopharyngeal dysphagia, laryngeal tics, laryngeal granulomas and paradoxical vocal cord motions are the other areas, where botulinum toxin can be used. Because of its reversible effects, botulinum toxin is superior to the destructive surgical techniques. In this article, the anatomy and physiology of the larynx is described briefly and botulinum toxin applications in the larynx are discussed. (Archives of Neuropsychiatry 2010; 47 Supplement: 30-4)
Controversy: Botulinum toxin in pregnancy  [cached]
Paul Munish
Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery , 2009,
Abstract: Botulinum toxin A (BTX-A), a purified protein derived from the bacteria Clostridium botulinum , has been widely used in aesthetic dermatology. Though BTX-A was initially used by neurologists extensively for neurological conditions such as blepharospasm, strabismus headaches, dystonia and spasticity, it has become popular among dermatologists and plastic surgeons for its cosmetic indications. Its use in pregnancy has been controversial and this article deals with the issues of use of BTX-A in pregnancy.
Hypersecretory Disorders and Botulinum Toxin
Ha?met A. HANA?ASI
N?ropsikiyatri Ar?ivi , 2010,
Abstract: An increase in the popularity of botulinum toxin for treatment of salivary gland disorders has been observed in recent years. Hyperhidrosis is characterized by excessive sweat production, beyond the required quantity to return increased body temperature to normal. Sialorrhoea is a common symptom in many neurodegenerative disorders. Hyperhidrosis and sialorrhea can cause both physical and psychosocial disability. Many reports on the use of botulinum toxin in hypersecretory disorders have shown favourable results with minimal side effects. (Archives of Neuropsychiatry 2010; 47 Supplement: 48-51)
Detección de cianobacterias y sus toxinas. Una revisión  [cached]
J. Roset,S. Aguayo,M. J. Mu?oz
Revista de Toxicología , 2001,
Abstract: La creciente eutrofización de los ambientes acuáticos favorece el crecimiento masivo (blooms) de algas, y poblaciones de cianobacterias, capaces de producir potentes toxinas con graves repercusiones en la salud pública y en la sanidad animal. Más del 50% de las proliferaciones masivas de cianobacterias son tóxicas. Dentro de una misma especie de cianobacteria, existen cepas que producen toxinas y otras que no las producen. Se hace necesario disponer de métodos que permitan detectar y cuantificar cianobacterias y sus toxinas. Los tradicionales bioensayos en ratón para conocer la toxicidad de una muestra sospechosa, se van sustituyendo por otros bioensayos y diversos métodos in vitro que están demostrando ser eficaces. El avance experimentado en las técnicas inmunológicas y enzimáticas ha facilitado la detección rápida de toxinas mediante el empleo de kits comerciales y no comerciales. Uno de los campos más prometedores de investigación, consiste en la determinación de las secuencias genéticas que diferencian géneros incluso cepas tóxicas, así como otras que codifican para la síntesis de toxinas; métodos que permitirán prever el desarrollo de cianobacterias o sus toxinas. El control y seguimiento de los desarrollos masivos de cianobacterias, es muy importante para garantizar la calidad del agua. El reconocimiento de los factores ambientales que influyen o desencadenan la aparición de blooms, es otro factor fundamental para la prevención y el control.
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