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The Role of Soy in Vegetarian Diets  [PDF]
Mark Messina,Virginia Messina
Nutrients , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/nu2080855
Abstract: Soyfoods have long been prized among vegetarians for both their high protein content and versatility. Soybeans differ markedly in macronutrient content from other legumes, being much higher in fat and protein, and lower in carbohydrate. In recent years however, soyfoods and specific soybean constituents, especially isoflavones, have been the subject of an impressive amount of research. Nearly 2,000 soy-related papers are published annually. This research has focused primarily on the benefits that soyfoods may provide independent of their nutrient content. There is particular interest in the role that soyfoods have in reducing risk of heart disease, osteoporosis and certain forms of cancer. However, the estrogen-like effects of isoflavones observed in animal studies have also raised concerns about potential harmful effects of soyfood consumption. This review addresses questions related to soy and chronic disease risk, provides recommendations for optimal intakes, and discusses potential contraindications. As reviewed, the evidence indicates that, with the exception of those individuals allergic to soy protein, soyfoods can play a beneficial role in the diets of vegetarians. Concerns about adverse effects are not supported by the clinical or epidemiologic literature. Based on the soy intake associated with health benefits in the epidemiologic studies and the benefits noted in clinical trials, optimal adult soy intake would appear to be between two and four servings per day.
Vegetarian Diets: A Way towards a Sustainable Society  [cached]
Arto O. Salonen,Tuula T. Helne
Journal of Sustainable Development , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/jsd.v5n6p10
Abstract: We wanted to find out how Finnish university students (n = 210) assess their ability to adopt vegetarianism and their dietary behaviour. Participants assessed 36 aspects of sustainable development with an eight-step scale. They were also invited to write free comments about their assessments. We applied Triandis’ Theory of Interpersonal Behaviour (1977). The importance of vegetarian diets was rated lower than that of any other of the 36 items assessed. However, the feasibility of vegetarian diets was considered to be relatively good. We identified two types of barriers to a vegetarian diet: social groups and habits. However, the participants were 6 percent more likely to favour a vegetarian diet than predicted by the calculated Rational Behaviour Expectancy (RBE) based on the rated importance and feasibility of vegetarian diets. The RBE of vegetarian diets was the second highest of all of the 36 items of sustainability rated. The gap between importance and behaviour was also narrowest in the case of vegetarian diets. Our study showed that Finnish university students are in the process of adopting a more sustainable way of food consumption. They need, however, supporting information about the beneficial effects of vegetarian diets on health, environment, global food security and animal welfare to overcome barriers raised by social groups and their own habits.
Effect of Frying-Cooking on Nutritional and Bioactive Compounds of Innovative Ovo-Vegetarian Diets  [PDF]
Hassan Barakat
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.516171

Vegetarian diets are becoming increasingly popular as meat prices as well as health concerns rise. Many people are cutting down or cutting out meat in favor of a full vegetarian diet. In present study, the applicability of different vegetables for producing ready-to-use and ready-to-eat chickpea-based ovo-vegetarian diets (OVDs) was investigated. Herein, six different vegetables (cauliflower, taro, green zucchini, pea, bean and spinach) were formulated with 25% chickpea and additional edible ingredients to produce ready-to-use OVDs. Subsequently, chemical composition, minerals content, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of those OVDs were investigated. However, ready-to-eat OVDs were organoleptically evaluated after frying as common cooking method. Results of composite analysis indicated 67.73% to 73.17%, 23.20% to 37.12%, 1.86% to 2.63%, 7.63% to 9.53%, 9.06% to 9.82% and 39.24% to 55.28% for moisture, crude protein, lipids, ash, fiber, and carbohydrates contents in ready-to-use OVDs, respectively. After frying, lipid content was increased in fried diets which changed the chemical composition and caloric value. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found between macro- and micro-nutrients content of ready- to-use and ready-to-eat OVDs. The ready-to-use OVDs exhibit appropriate content of ascorbic acid, chlorophylls, carotenoids, flavonoids, and flavonols which basically depends on their ingredients. Frying process dramatically affected the ascorbic acid, chlorophylls, flavonoids, flavonols, and carotenoids contents. High organoleptic acceptability of ready-to-eat OVDs was recorded to confirm theconsumer attractiveness further. In conclusion, the possibility of producing healthy ready-to-eatand ready-to-use OVDs incorporated with common consumed vegetables could provide a promising approach for improving human health and dietary pattern as well as for selecting the optimum processing conditions for innovative OVDs.

Comparison of Vegetarian Diets and Omnivorous Diets on Plasma Level of HDL-c: A Meta-Analysis  [PDF]
Zili Zhang, Jian Wang, Sifan Chen, Zhaoyu Wei, Zhengtu Li, Siwen Zhao, Wenju Lu
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0092609
Abstract: Low plasma level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) was an independent risk factor for cardio vascular disorder, and associated with poor outcomes in pulmonary arterial hypertension. To compare the effects of vegetarian diets and omnivorous diets on HDL-c in plasma, we identified cross-sectional and cohort studies related to HDL-c listed on PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge as well as the corresponding references (until Nov, 2013). Twelve studies with a total of 4177 individuals were selected for meta-analysis. This meta-analysis indicates that vegetarian diets did not alter plasma HDL-c concentrations, as it wasn’t initially expected by the authors [Standardized Mean Difference (SMD) = 0.02 mmol/l; 95% confidence interval (CI): ?0.19 to 0.22 mmol/l]. In Asia and Latin America countries, no significant differences in HDL-c levels between vegetarians and omnivores were found (SMD = ?0.09 mmol/l; 95% CI: ?0.43 to 0.25 mmol/l). In Europe and North America countries, the plasma level of HDL-c was also not different between the two diets (SMD = 0.09 mmol/l; 95% CI: ?0.19 to 0.36 mmol/l). In light of this meta-analysis, we conclude that there is no evidence that plasma HDL-c levels differs in vegetarians and omnivores, even after adjusting for cultural circumstances.
Vegetarian diets are associated with healthy mood states: a cross-sectional study in Seventh Day Adventist adults
Bonnie L Beezhold, Carol S Johnston, Deanna R Daigle
Nutrition Journal , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-9-26
Abstract: We examined associations between mood state and polyunsaturated fatty acid intake as a result of adherence to a vegetarian or omnivorous diet in a cross-sectional study of 138 healthy Seventh Day Adventist men and women residing in the Southwest. Participants completed a quantitative food frequency questionnaire, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS), and Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaires.Vegetarians (VEG:n = 60) reported significantly less negative emotion than omnivores (OMN:n = 78) as measured by both mean total DASS and POMS scores (8.32 ± 0.88 vs 17.51 ± 1.88, p = .000 and 0.10 ± 1.99 vs 15.33 ± 3.10, p = .007, respectively). VEG reported significantly lower mean intakes of EPA (p < .001), DHA (p < .001), as well as the omega-6 fatty acid, arachidonic acid (AA; p < .001), and reported higher mean intakes of shorter-chain α-linolenic acid (p < .001) and linoleic acid (p < .001) than OMN. Mean total DASS and POMS scores were positively related to mean intakes of EPA (p < 0.05), DHA (p < 0.05), and AA (p < 0.05), and inversely related to intakes of ALA (p < 0.05), and LA (p < 0.05), indicating that participants with low intakes of EPA, DHA, and AA and high intakes of ALA and LA had better mood.The vegetarian diet profile does not appear to adversely affect mood despite low intake of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids.Although adherence to vegetarian diets has been associated with physical health benefits, most notably a low risk of mortality from ischemic heart disease [1], vegetarian mental health is not well documented. Emerging evidence suggests that fish consumption has a protective effect on mental health due to the long-chain omega-3 fatty acid content [2]. Traditional vegetarian diets omit all flesh foods, and low intakes of the long-chain omega-3 fats, eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA], have been widely reported in vegetarians [3-6]. EPA and DHA favorably impact neural function by displacing the long-chain omega-6 fatty aci
Vegetarian athletes: Special requirements
Dilek Ongan,Gülgün Ersoy
International Journal of Human Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Vegetarian diets have been mentioned on having long and short term beneficial effects while they are important parts of the Western countries. Vegetarians are not homogeneous groups and subjects are motivated to be on a vegetarian diet because of culturel and regional reasons, ethical concerns including animal rights, health parameters and environmental situations. And these reasons differ from vegetarian and omnivour athletes. Athletes, especially endurance ones (sprinters, cyclists, triathlon athletes, …), eat vegetarian diets in order to meet increasing requirements of carbohydrate and manage their weight status. A healthily well planned vegetarian diet positively affect some parameters related with performance of the athlete. However in a diet based on vegetable, herbs and high fiber, inadequate energy intake should be avoided. Although many vegetarian athletes are warned about consuming high amounts of protein, athletes take less protein than omnivour ones. Therefore, vegetarians should increase dietary protein quality by mixing different foods such as legumes and cereals. Vegetarian athletes who avoid eating animal based foods are at risk of having inadequate energy, fat (essential fatty acids), vitamins B12, B2, D and calcium, iron and zinc. In this review, contribution of vegetarian diets on purpose of healthy eating and optimal athletic performance and nutritional strategies for vegetarian athletes were discussed.
Weight reduction is not a major reason for improvement in rheumatoid arthritis from lacto-vegetarian, vegan or Mediterranean diets
Lars Sk?ldstam, Lars Brudin, Linda Hagfors, Gunnar Johansson
Nutrition Journal , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-4-15
Abstract: Statistically significant correlations were found between Diet and three disease outcome variables i.e. ΔAcute-Phase Response, ΔPain Score, and ΔPhysical Function. Δ Body Weight was univariately only correlated to ΔAcute-Phase Response but not significant when diet was taken into account.Body weight reduction did not significantly contribute to the improvement in rheumatoid arthritis when eating lacto-vegetarian, vegan or Mediterranean diets.We have recently found that patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) improved significantly in disease activity from eating a modified Cretan Mediterranean diet (MD) [1]. Improvement was seen in 9 of 14 efficacy variables. The RA disease activity as measured by the "Disease Activity Score" DAS28 [2] was reduced by 13 %. In comparison the control group showed no change. The favourable outcome of the diet intervention group indicated that the MD had been suppressive to RA inflammation. We believe that the anti inflammatory effect of the MD was mediated by its different lipid profile [1] in conjunction with its high content of fresh fruits and green vegetables. However, at the end of the experiment the patients of the MD group, but not the control group, had lost 3 kg in weight (p < 0.001 between groups), although our ambition had been to prescribe a diet that was isocaloric compared to the patients' previous food intake. This unexpected weight loss raised the question whether a reduced energy intake, could have been yet another anti-inflammatory factor? That diet intervention studies may induce unexpected weight reduction to patients with RA is a finding shared by others [3-9]. Some researchers [7,8] have even reported a statistically significant correlation between change in body weight with change in arthritis measurements.The aim of the present study was to investigate whether weight reduction could have anti inflammatory effect on RA. Data from three previously performed diet intervention studies were pooled for the analysis.Da
Conceptions of Brazilian Elementary and High School Students about Food Nutrients  [PDF]
Andréia de Freitas Zompero, Helenara Regina Sampaio Figueiredo, Tiago Henrique dos Santos Garbim, Karen Mayara Vieira
Creative Education (CE) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2019.105064
Abstract: The study was undertaken to investigate the conceptions of Brazilian Basic Education (Elementary and High School) Students about food nutrients, food pyramids, processed food labels and nutrition facts tables. The research involved groups from sixth to ninth grades of Elementary School and first to third grades of High School in a public school from Paraná State, Brazil. In this study, 257 students, aged 11 - 17 years old, took part. For the identification of conceptions, group activities were performed using food pyramids, processed food labels and nutrition facts tables, aiming the analysis of their nutritional composition by students. Analysis showed students do not show satisfactory and coherent conceptions about food nutrients, and many students were not able to distinguish nutrients from food. In this sense, we highlight the need of Food Nutrition programs to endorse and include initiatives for students, regarding the positive comprehension of nutrients and their benefits to the body, besides healthy eating habits.
Effects of Vegetarian Nutrition–A Nutrition Ecological Perspective  [PDF]
Martina Metz,Ingrid Hoffmann
Nutrients , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/nu2050496
Abstract: Although vegetarian nutrition is a complex issue, the multidimensionality and interrelatedness of its effects are rarely explored. This article aims to demonstrate the complexity of vegetarian nutrition by means of the nutrition ecological modeling technique NutriMod. The integrative qualitative cause-effect model, which is based on scientific literature, provides a comprehensive picture of vegetarian nutrition. The nutrition ecological perspective offers a basis for the assessment of the effects of worldwide developments concerning shifts in diets and the effects of vegetarian nutrition on global problems like climate change. Furthermore, new research areas on the complexity of vegetarian nutrition can be identified.
Vegetarian diets in children  [cached]
Catalina Le Roy Olivos
Medwave , 2010,
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