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Cytogenetic methods and biomonitoring of occupational exposure to genotoxic factors
Tomas Adamus,Irena Mikulenkova,Lubomir Dobias,Jaroslava Havrankova
Journal of Applied Biomedicine , 2006,
Abstract: The professional aim of this project was to map the detection of genotoxicants using cytogeneticmethods. It summarizes the results of four studies carried out at three different workplaces in differentindustries. The main aim of the study was also to monitor types of exposure to genotoxicants and theirimpact on the human population: The exposure of blast furnace workers in the steel industry to genotoxicfactors; the exposure of coke oven plant workers to genotoxic factors, and the exposure to genotoxicfactors in workplaces in the chemical industry – in particular to heavy metals (Ni, Cd). Cytogeneticanalysis and the micronucleus test are sensitive methods in the field of biomonitoring of human exposurein industry, and play an important role in the prevention of damage to human health.
In vivo cytogenetic effects of multiple doses of dietary vegetable oils
Evangelista, Cristina Márcia Wolf;Antunes, Lusania Maria Greggi;Bianchi, Maria de Lourdes Pires;
Genetics and Molecular Biology , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-47572006000400024
Abstract: polyphenols are potent antioxidants that are particularly abundant in the mediterranean diet, with olive oil being the main fat source. a number of investigations have reported that phenolic compounds found in dietary oils are antioxidants and could provide protective effects by inhibiting dna oxidative damage. however, few studies have been published on the biological activity of vegetable oils, including their possible mutagenic/antimutagenic effects. the objective of the current study was to investigate the cytogenetic effects of multiple doses of four vegetable oils in rat bone marrow cells and to examine the possible antimutagenic effects of these oils in chromosomal damage induced by the antitumor drug cisplatin. these oils are consumed by humans and commonly used as drug vehicles. the rats received treatment with multiple doses of canola oil, olive oil, virgin olive oil, and corn oil (5 ml kg-1) alone or combined with the antitumor drug cisplatin (5 mg kg-1). treatments with vegetable oils alone did not increase the percentage of cells with chromosomal aberrations (p > 0.05). olive, virgin olive and canola oils showed protective effects against cisplatin-induced chromosomal damage (p < 0.05). a rational mechanism for the protective effects of vegetable oils is that their phenolic compounds have antioxidant and antimutagenic properties in vivo.
Relationships between a Thiol-Disulfide System and Liposoluble Antioxidants with Cytogenetic Indices in Humans Exposed to Low Doses Radiation  [PDF]
G. F. Ivanenko, E. B. Burlakova
Engineering (ENG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2013.510B013
Abstract:

This work presents the results of biochemical examination of people exposed to irradiation as a result of the Chernobyl catastrophe. In remote period ( in 4, 5, 6 and 7 years) after Chernobyl accident we studied the state of the redox system of glutathione(GSH, GSSG) and the response of the system of essential lipid antioxidants (vitamin E, A) in blood plasma of people of various ages. An analysis of correlations between cytogenetic indices in lymphocytes and levels of reduced glutathione and liposoluble antioxidants in the plasma of peripheral blood in children born after the Chernobyl accident and liquidators is presented. The cumulative doses for the examined group of children received by their mothers from 0.8 to 70 cSv and liquidators received, on average, the highest irradiation doses from 0.1 to 150 cSv. A complex relationship between lipo-and water-soluble antioxidants level in plasma in human population (children living in radionuclide-contaminated regions and the Chernobyl liquidators) exposed to chronic low-level radiation after the Chernobyl accident was demonstrated. The obtained experimental data indicate different responses of the human population water-and fat-soluble antioxidants system to low (from 0.1 to 20 cSv) and high (from 20 to 150 cSv) doses of ionizing radiation.

Cytogenetic and cytomolecular delayed damage induced in human fibroblasts by low X-ray doses
Ponzinibbio,MV; Crudeli,C; Peral García,P; Seoane,A;
BAG. Journal of basic and applied genetics , 2008,
Abstract: during the last decade several reports have provided evidence on the non-targeted effects of ionizing radiation. in this study, we have analyzed the delayed dna damage induced by ionizing radiation in mrc-5 human fibroblasts cultured in vitro. mrc-5 cells were irradiated with 10 and 50 milligrays (mgy) and analyzed immediately after exposure, and at passages 6 and 12 post-radiation by means of comet assay, micronucleus analysis and γ-h2ax foci formation. cytogenetic and cytomolecular damage was analysed at every sample point comparing irradiated and control cells. no significant damage differences were found among samples from all passages of treatments. our results suggest that even at low doses, ionizing radiation could induce delayed damage. comet assay, micronucleus analysis and γ-h2ax focus analysis showed to be useful techniques to detect dna damage and might be also sensitive for the study of delayed events as genomic instability.
Italian network for human biomonitoring of metals: preliminary results from two regions
Bocca,Beatrice; Mattei,Daniela; Pino,Anna; Alimonti,Alessandro;
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0021-25712010000300006
Abstract: the italian program for human biomonitoring (hbm) of chemical elements, program for biomonitoring of the exposure (probe), started in 2008 with the aim to provide the knowledge about risk assessment of the italian population following the environmental exposure to metals. the project is implemented through a hbm campaign for the production of data on 19 metals in the blood and serum of subjects living in different italian regions. the metals studied are: antimony, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, iridium, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, palladium, platinum, rhodium, thallium, tin, tungsten, uranium and vanadium. the first phase of the project has included the development and validation of laboratory protocols for the collection of fluids and quantification of metals. the second phase provides the hbm data expressed as the reference values (rvs) for the italian population, i.e., as the level of metals in the general population not occupationally exposed. in this paper, the experimental protocols used for the maintenance of high standards of analysis and the rvs for metals in serum of inhabitants of two italian regions (calabria and umbria) are described.
Development of Screening Tools for the Interpretation of Chemical Biomonitoring Data  [PDF]
Richard A. Becker,Sean M. Hays,Steven Robison,Lesa L. Aylward
Journal of Toxicology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/941082
Abstract: Evaluation of a larger number of chemicals in commerce from the perspective of potential human health risk has become a focus of attention in North America and Europe. Screening-level chemical risk assessment evaluations consider both exposure and hazard. Exposures are increasingly being evaluated through biomonitoring studies in humans. Interpreting human biomonitoring results requires comparison to toxicity guidance values. However, conventional chemical-specific risk assessments result in identification of toxicity-based exposure guidance values such as tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) as applied doses that cannot directly be used to evaluate exposure information provided by biomonitoring data in a health risk context. This paper describes a variety of approaches for development of screening-level exposure guidance values with translation from an external dose to a biomarker concentration framework for interpreting biomonitoring data in a risk context. Applications of tools and concepts including biomonitoring equivalents (BEs), the threshold of toxicologic concern (TTC), and generic toxicokinetic and physiologically based toxicokinetic models are described. These approaches employ varying levels of existing chemical-specific data, chemical class-specific assessments, and generic modeling tools in response to varying levels of available data in order to allow assessment and prioritization of chemical exposures for refined assessment in a risk management context. 1. Introduction Recognition of the large numbers of chemicals in commerce and increased focus on evaluation of these chemicals from the perspective of potential human health risk has become a focus of attention in North America and Europe. These efforts are devoted not only to evaluation of “new” chemicals but also to an examination of existing chemical substances. These efforts include those under the Health Canada Chemicals Management Plan, the European Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACh), the High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge Program, and the US Environmental Protection Agency’s (US EPA) Chemical Assessment and Management Program (ChAMP) initiatives. Chemical evaluation is also being discussed as part of potential improvements to the US Toxic Substances Control Act. Because of the large number of chemicals involved and the need for efficient processes that assure focus on substances which could pose the greatest health concerns, tiered approaches that begin with conservative risk-based screening-level assumptions and proceed to more refined
Alcohol Dependency in Indian Dentists  [cached]
Gaurav Solanki
International Journal of Pharmacological Research , 2012, DOI: 10.7439/ijpr.v2i1.478
Abstract: Alcohol consumption has widely increased through out the world. This all is due to a stressful life style and emotional load on a person. Dentistry is not excluded from the stress phenomenon. Dentists experience stressful situations every day, and have to deal with these in a very professional manner. The dentists participated were told about the hazard and ill-effect of alcohol consumption. There need to be a reduction in consumption of alcohol in dentistry for the upliftment of general masses as well as the dentist.
Musculoskeletal Disorders in Dentists  [cached]
Maryam Rabiei,Maryam Shakiba,Habibolah Dehgan Shahreza,Mohamad Talebzadeh
International Journal of Occupational Hygiene , 2012,
Abstract: Musculoskeletal disorders commonly experienced by dental professionals can affect their health and well-being. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among dentists in Iran. A cross sectional study was carried out in Rasht, northern Iran. Participants were dental workers who completed structured questionnaire on the topic of musculoskeletal disorders related to their job. The first part of the questionnaire was self-administered regarding their demographic information and job satisfaction. The second part was the Nordic Musculoskeletal questionnaire for determining the site of pain, if any. The severity of pain was assessed by using Visual Analog Scale (VAS). The third section was RULA questionnaire (Rapid Upper Limb disorder Assessment) to determine the awkward posture during their work and eventually the need to improve the condition. A total of 92 dentists responded to the questionnaire. Seventy three percent of participant dentists had musculoskeletal pain. The common painful sites of the body were as follows: neck (43.4%), back (35.8%), and shoulder and wrist (each 25%). Direct inspection was a risk factor for neck pain (OR: 35.34, p<0.001). This study revealed a relatively high prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among dentists. The severity of pain was related to higher action level of the RULA score; indicating that dentists with higher RULA scores needed to adopt better working posture.
A dose estimation for persons occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation in Montenegro  [PDF]
Milatovi? Aleksandra,Ivanovi? Sonja,Spasi?-Joki? Vesna,Jovanovi? Slobodan
Archive of Oncology , 2008, DOI: 10.2298/aoo0802005m
Abstract: Background: Persons occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation are subject to radiation protection due to potential harmful effects of radiation. Dose monitoring of professionally exposed workers is an essential regulatory measure in radiation protec-tion. In Montenegro, which is a small "non-nuclear" country with population of 670.000, the use of radiation sources is limited to common medical applications and a few industrial ones, with estimated 500-600 occupationally exposed individuals. Methods: Centre for Eco-toxicological Research in Podgorica, acting as a technical support organization to regulatory authorities, is the first and only institution in the country performing personal dosimetry service (since 2007). Initial results, obtained using a Harshaw 4500 TLD reader, and as the results of personal electronic dosimeters DOSICARD readings were summarized in present paper. Results: Average equivalent doses per month are found to be 70.3 μSv for physicians and 82.7 μSv for technicians. The highest dose recorded in one month was 1100 μSv for a RTG technician in Nik i Hospital. Conclusion: Results for all subjects monitored up to now (medical staff) are below internationally recommended dose limits.
Cytogenetic Diseases
H Khavari Khorassani
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics , 1985,
Abstract: The study of human chromosomes in readily accessible material such as lymphocytes has been possible for over 27 years. The development of banding techniques was the next break-through. Following these discoveries, chromosomes identification techniques were quickly applied to clinical practice. Researchers identified an extra chromosome 21 in patients with down syndrome. Identification of other classic cytogenetic disorders soon followed. Cytogenetic abnormalities are an important etiologic factor in spontaneous abortion and may be relatively common in what was previously considered nonspecific mental retardation. Some cytogenetic disorders are fairly frequent and cytogenetic analysis makes it possible to define the precise nature of the abnormality and allows appropriate counseling of the family. In this paper the most important cytogenetic disorders are discussed.
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